The U.S. Government has identified certain emerging technologies as critical to national security, and has begun to direct research funding to maintain and increase U.S. leadership in those areas.

To complement this effort, the government is updating export controls to address the risks presented by those technologies, and to protect against the foreign threats to the investment in research and development. Certain emerging technologies will have a multiplier effect across a wide range of existing technologies, making them even more likely to be targeted for illicit tech transfer. The following list provides a quick reference for those technologies that appear to be of greatest interest for developing and protecting.