Faculty

Dominic Bailey

Dominic Bailey

Associate Professor
PhD, Cambridge, 2004. Ancient Philosophy, History of Philosophy.
David Boonin

David Boonin

Professor • Chair
PhD, Pittsburgh, 1992. Applied Ethics, Ethics, History of Ethics (especially Hobbes).
Garrett Bredeson

Garrett Bredeson

Instructor • Director of Undergraduate Studies
PhD, Vanderbilt, 2014. AOS: Kant, Early Modern Philosophy, 20th Century Continental Philosophy (esp. Heidegger) AOC: 19th Century Continental Philosophy, History of Analytic Philosophy, Logic, Asian Philosophy, Ethics
Carol Cleland

Carol Cleland

Professor • Director, Center for the Study of Origins
PhD, Brown, 1981. Philosophy of Geoscience, Philosophy of Biology, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics, Philosophy of Logic.
Heather Demarest

Heather Demarest

Assistant Professor • Chair, Committee on the History and Philosophy of Science
PhD, Rutgers, 2013. Philosophy of physics, philosophy of science, metaphysics
Iskra Fileva

Iskra Fileva

Assistant Professor
PhD, Boston University, 2009. Ethics, Moral Psychology.
Chris Heathwood

Chris Heathwood

Associate Professor
PhD, UMass, 2005. Ethics, especially well-being and metaethics, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics.
Mike Huemer

Michael Huemer

Professor
PhD, Rutgers, 1998. Epistemology, Ethics, Metaethics, Political Philosophy.
Daniel Jacobson

Daniel Jacobson

Professor • Benson Center Director
BA Yale, PhD Michigan. Ethics, moral psychology, aesthetics, Mill
Dan Kaufman

Dan Kaufman

Associate Professor
PhD, UMass, 2000. Early Modern, Metaphysics, Medieval.
Mitzi Lee

Mitzi Lee

Associate Professor • Director of Graduate Studies • MA Advisor
PhD, Harvard, 1996. Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy.
Alastair Norcross

Alastair Norcross

Professor
PhD, Syracuse, 1991. Ethics, Applied Ethics, Political Philosophy.
Graham Oddie

Graham Oddie

Professor • Director, Center for Values and Social Policy
PhD, London, 1979. Metaphysics, Value Theory, Metaethics, Applied Ethics, Philosophy of Science, Philosophical Logic.
Robert Pasnau

Robert Pasnau

Professor • College Professor of Distinction
PhD, Cornell, 1994. Mind and Knowledge, especially in the medieval and early modern periods.
Jason Potter

Jason Potter

Instructor
PhD, Colorado 2000. History of early modern philosophy, Kant, Aesthetics, History of Ancient Philosophy, Early Analytic Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, American Pragmatism.
Rob Rupert

Robert Rupert

Professor
PhD, Illinois-Chicago, 1996. Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Cognitive Science, Metaphysics, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Science.
Raul Saucedo

Raul Saucedo

Assistant Professor
PhD, Cornell, 2009. Metaphysics, Philosophical Logic, Philosophy of Science.
Julia Staffel

Julia Staffel

Assistant Professor
PhD University of Southern California, 2013. Epistemology
Matthias Steup

Matthias Steup

Professor
Ph.D. Brown, 1985. Epistemology, skepticism, perceptual justification
Brian Talbot

Brian Talbot

Assistant Professor
PhD, University of Southern California 2009. AOS: Epistemology, ethics, political/legal philosophy
Ajume Wingo

Ajume Wingo

Associate Professor • Associate Director, Center for Values and Social Policy
PhD, Wisconsin, 1997. Social and Political Philosophy, African Philosophy, Aesthetics.
David Youkey

David Youkey

Instructor
PhD, University of Colorado Boulder. Applied ethics

Job Market Candidates

Mark Boespflug

Mark Boespflug

MA program, later PhD program; MA in Philosophy 2013, Biola University; PhD, 2020
Philip Choi

Philip Choi

PhD program; BA, Yonsei University, 2009; MA, Yonsei University, 2012
Daniel Coren

Daniel Coren

PhD, University of Colorado Boulder, 2019; BA, McMaster University, 2011; MA, McMaster University, 2013

Martin Eyestone

PhD University of Colorado, Boulder 2019
Jay Geyer

Jay Geyer

PhD, University of Colorado Boulder, 2018; MA University of Colorado Boulder, 2012; BA University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2010
Tyler Huismann

Tyler Huismann

PhD program; BS Engineering 2006, MA Philosophy 2010, University of Michigan Ann Arbor; Areas of interest: Ancient and medieval philosophy, metaphysics, explanation, philosophy of mind, and logic
Hye-Ryoung Kang

Hye-Ryoung Kang

PhD Colorado, 2007. AOS: Social and Political Philosophy (with special emphasis on Global Justice and Human Rights), Feminist Philosophy, Ethics
Benjamin Kultgen

Benjamin Kultgen

PhD program; BA, Harvard University, 2008; Areas of interest: Ethics, Metaphysics
Dan Lowe

Dan Lowe

PhD Fall 2017; BA, Evergreen State University; MA, Philosophy, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2011; Areas of interest: political philosophy, feminist philosophy, and their intersection with moral epistemology
Caleb Pickard

Caleb Pickard

PhD program; BS, Philosophy and Economics, University of Nebraska - Lincoln 2011; Areas of interest: Applied Ethics (particularly Consumer Ethics), Value Theory, History of Philosophy - Ancient, Logic

Matthew Pike

PhD program; BA, University of Colorado, Denver, 2001; MA, University of Colorado at Boulder (enrolled 2007-8); Research interests: Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics, Logic, Philosophy of Science and Mathematics
Jonathan Spelman

Jonathan Spelman

PhD program; BA, Philosophy and Political Science, Ashland University 2008; MA, Philosophy, University of Missouri--Saint Louis, 2010; Areas of interest: Normative and Applied Ethics, Epistemology, Philosophy of Law, and Philosophy of Religion
Alexander Wolf-Root

Alexander Wolf-Root

MA program, later PhD program; BA, University of California Davis, 2009. Areas of interest: Sport and Games, Applied Ethics, Metaphysics, Law, Tech

Librarian

Frederick Carey

Frederick Carey

Assistant Professor - History & Philosophy Librarian
Freddy is the History & Philosophy Librarian at the University of Colorado Boulder. He earned his MLIS from the University of Denver, and received a BA in Philosophy with minors in Medieval & Byzantine Studies and Theology & Religious Studies from the Catholic University of America in Washington, DC. Freddy is currently curating a collection that highlights the contributions of female philosophers throughout the history of philosophy, and aims to...

Tenured and Tenure-Track Philosophers in other departments

Allan Franklin

Allan Franklin

Professor
Physics
Research Interests : The history and philosophy of science, with particular emphasis on the role of experiment in physics.
Benjamin Hale

Benjamin Hale

Associate Professor
Environmental Studies
PhD, Stony Brook, 2004; MPA, Arizona, 1997. Environmental Ethics, Bioethics, Public Policy and Philosophy, Social and Political Philosophy, Ethical Theory.

Lecturers

Martin Chamorro

Teaching in Fall 19: PHIL 1200 sec 005; PHIL 3140/ENVS 3140 sec 003
Andrew Chapman

Andrew D. Chapman

Lecturer
Teaching in Fall 19: PHIL 4070 sec 001; RAP PHIL 1160 sec 430R; RAP PHIL 1200 sec 430R, 431R
Mariella Colvin

Mariella Colvin

Teaching Spring 20: PHIL 2140 Environmental Justice

Martin Eyestone

PhD University of Colorado Boulder, 2019

Andrew Greetis

Read Dr. Greetis' CV here .
Hye-Ryoung Kang

Hye-Ryoung Kang

PhD Colorado, 2007. AOS: Social and Political Philosophy (with special emphasis on Global Justice and Human Rights), Feminist Philosophy, Ethics
Zak Kopeikin

Zak Kopeikin

MA program, later PhD program; BA University of California Santa Barbara, 2013, PhD University of Colorado Boulder, 2020
Benjamin Kultgen

Benjamin Kultgen

PhD program; BA, Harvard University, 2008; Areas of interest: Ethics, Metaphysics

Patrick Leland

Spring 2020 Courses: CLAS 1030 / PHIL 1010 - "Intro to Western Philosophy: Ancient," and PHIL 1020 - "Intro to Western Philosophy: Modern" Patrick Leland (PhD, Johns Hopkins) specializes in early and late modern European philosophy. His primary research focuses on 18th century German philosophy from Leibniz to Kant and, in particular, Kant's theoretical philosophy. Recent publications include: “Rational Responsibility and the Assertoric Character of Bald-Faced Lies,” Analysis 75:4 (2015)...

Ben Mahlberg

TeachingFall 19: Continuing Ed Evening PHIL 1000 sec 300E; Continuing Ed Evening PHIL 1100 sec 400E
Ted Shear

Ted Shear

Before starting my current position at CU in January 2020, I completed a Postdoc in the School of Economics at the University of Queensland from 2017-2019 under the supervision of John Quiggin and L. A. Paul as part of their the ARC grant investigating transformative experience and rational choice . I hold a BA (Philosophy and Linguistics, 2008), and an MA (Philosophy, 2015) and PhD (Philosophy, 2017) from the University...

Matt Shields

Matthew received his PhD from Georgetown in 2019. His primary research is in philosophy of language and epistemology. His work centers around trying to make sense of what we are doing as speakers when we articulate or defend a certain understanding of a concept or term. His research also addresses questions of how best to understand and theorize about the phenomena of linguistic meaning, concepts, and conceptual change. He also...
Colin Smith

Colin Smith

Fall 2020 teaching: PHIL 2270 004 Philosophy of Race MWF 9:10-10:00am PHIL 2270 002 Philosophy of Race MWF 10:20-11:10am (remote) PHIL 3000 001 History of Ancient Philosophy MW 5:50-7:05pm (remote) PHIL 3000 002 History of Ancient Philosophy TTH 11:10am-12:12pm (remote) I received my Ph.D. in philosophy at the University of Kentucky. My research is in ancient philosophy, and particularly metaphysical and epistemological issues in Plato, the Presocratics, and Aristotle. I...
Joseph Wilson

Joseph Wilson

PhD program; BA, University of California Berkeley 2010
Alex Wolf-Root

Alexander Wolf-Root

MA program, later PhD program; BA, University of California Davis, 2009, PhD, 2020. Areas of interest: Sport and Games, Applied Ethics, Metaphysics, Law, Tech

Graduate Students

Javier Acevedo de la Torre

Javier Acevedo de la Torre

MA program, Spring 2020; BA Universidad Autonóma de Zacatecas
Amir Ajalloeian

Amir Ajalloeian

PhD program; B.Sc. Isfahan Univerisity of Technology, M.Sc. Isfahan University of Technology, M.Sc. University of Colorado Boulder. Areas of interest: Internalism/Externalism debate; epistemology of memory; philosophy of science; metaphysics
Nathaniel Anderson

Nathaniel Anderson

PhD program; BA College of William and Mary, 2019
Jeremy Averyt

Jeremy Averyt

MA program; BA, University of Texas at Arlington

Alexander Beard

PhD program; BA University of California Santa Cruz, 2013; MA California State University Long Beach, 2017. Areas of Interest: Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind
Thomas Bonn

Thomas Bonn

PhD program; BA in Liberal Arts, St. John's College Annapolis
Cherie Braden

Cherie Braden

Ph.D. program; B.A. (Philosophy, English) University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2010. AOS: Epistemology, Logic. AOC: Formal Epistemology, Mathematical Logic, Metaphysics in Philosophy of Science.

Kieran Britt

Bachelor's - Accelerated Master's program; areas of interest epistemology (both formal and informal), philosophical logic, and philosophy of language.

Jason Cagan

MA program; BA Philosophy w/Psychology minor, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (2020). Primary areas of interest: political philosophy, normative ethics.

Daniel Carr

PhD program; BS Arizona State University 2011, MA Denver Seminary 2017, MA Oklahoma State University Stillwater

Jonathon Cavitt

MA program; BS Environmental Policy and Planning, Virginia Tech, 2000; Areas of interest: Philosophy of Science, Environmental Philosophy

James Cohen

Bachelor's - Accelerated Master's program
Christopher Dengler

Christopher Dengler

PhD program; BA, Pepperdine University, 2015
Samuel Director

Samuel Director

PhD program; BA, Whitworth University, 2015

Bret Donnelly

PhD program; BA, University of California Davis, 2009; MA, Western Michigan University, 2018; Areas of Interest: Language, Logic, Metaphysics, Metaethics.

Owen Forbes

PhD program; BA Saint John's College Maryland 2017; MA University of Wisconsin Milwaukee 2019
Evan Frook

Evan Frook

PhD program; BS Philosophy (specializing in philosophy of science) 2020, University of Missouri-Columbia. Areas of interest: Theory of values, aesthetics
Richard Fyfe

Richard Fyfe

MA program, later PhD program; BA, History and BA, Philosophy, Montana State Univ. 1986, MA University of Colorado Boulder 2020. Areas of interest: Metaethics (especially, "What is "better"?) and Moral Psychology
Jennifer Gallagher

Jennifer Gallagher

PhD program; BA philosophy and history, University of New Hampshire, 2019. Areas of interest: Applied ethics, environmental ethics, animal ethics, feminist theory, race theory, eastern philosophy
Jacob Hartman

Jacob Hartman

M.A. program; BA from Clark University in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology with a concentration in Public Health, 2016

Quinn Hermon

M.A. program; BA Humboldt State University, 2019

William Hodge

MA program; BA in Philosophy, Southern Methodist University 2014, JD University of Denver 2017. Areas of interest: free will problem, ethics, political philosophy
Derick Hughes

Derick Hughes

PhD program; BA, Cal Poly Pomona
Dawn Jacob

Dawn Jacob

PhD program; BA in philosophy, University of Akron, 2000; MA in philosophy, Yale, 2004. Primary areas of interest include ancient philosophy, ethics, and moral psychology.
Anthony Kelley

Anthony Kelley

PhD program; BA, Columbia University, 2009; MA, Northern Illinois University, 2011; Areas of interest: Well-Being and Bioethics

Megan Kitts

Ph.D. program; BA College of William and Mary 2018, MA New York University 2019
Colton Kunzeman

Colton Kunzeman

MA program; BA Philosophy (cum laude) New College of Florida, 2019. Areas of interest: metaphilosophy, philosophy of religion, epistemology (especially through the lens of philosophy of language), Wittgenstein
Alexandra Lloyd

Alexandra Lloyd

PhD program; BA, University of Toronto; MSc, Philosophy and Public Policy, London School of Economics, 2014
Amanda Loeffelholz

Amanda Loeffelholz

PhD program; BA Philosophy DePaul University 2020. Areas of interest: metaphysics, philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, history of philosophy (ancient Greek, German idealism, Nietzsche)
Paige Massey

Paige Massey

Ph.D. program; BA Pepperdine University, 2015
Wyatt McDaniel

Wyatt McDaniel

PhD program; BA in Psychology and Philosophy from The Ohio State University, 2017; Areas of interest: Metanormativity, Metaethics, Ethics, and Moral Psychology.
Shane Melnitzer

Shane Melnitzer

PhD program; BA, University of California Berkeley, 2006; MA, Brandeis University, 2013

Lorenzo Nericcio

MA program, later PhD program

Erica Nieblas

MA program, later PhD program; BA, California State University Fullerton, 2010

Abigail Perrott

MA program; BA Mathematics, Pittsburgh 2015. Areas of interest: History and philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology
Jason Pranaitis

Jason Pranaitis

MA program; BA Metropolitan State University Mathematics and Philosophy, 2020
Brandon Price

Brandon Price

MA program; BA Philosophy, Iowa State University 2020. Areas of interest: Feminist philosophy, metaphysics, metaethics, philosophy of language.
Erich Riesen

Erich Riesen

PhD program; MA Philosophy 2015, Northern Illinois University
Ajene Robinson-Burris

Ajene Robinson-Burris

PhD program; BA, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, 2016
Gagan Sapkota

Gagan Sapkota

PhD program; BS Mathematics/Philosophy St. Peters College, 2012; MA Philosophy, Georgia State University, 2016

Alexander Schaffer

M.A. program; BA United States Air Force Academy, 2018
Kevin Scott

Kevin Scott

MA program; BA Chemistry, Gustavus Adolphus College 2012. Areas of interest: artificial intelligence, existential risk, and applied ethics

Michael Sechman

PhD program; BA, Philosophy, California State University, Northridge, 2010; Areas of interest: Modern Philosophy (esp., Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume); Epistemology (esp., skepticism, rationality, virtue epistemology, ameliorative epistemology); Cognitive Science (esp., inference and judgment, cognitive illusions, evolutionary psychology)
Austin Silberberg

Austin Silberberg

MA program; BA French, Front Range Community College; BA French, BA Philosophy, University of Northern Colorado. Areas of interest: Metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics
Emily SLome

Emily Slome

Ph.D. program; BA, New York University, 2014; MA, Bioethics, New York University, 2016; Areas of Interest: applied ethics, bioethics.
Jasmine Carter

Jasmine Straight (previously Carter)

PhD program; BS Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 2014, University of Denver

Jayda Taylor

Bachelor's - Accelerated Master's program
Maggie Taylor

Maggie Taylor

PhD program; MA Philosophy/Public Policy 2015, George Washington University
Lisa Thomas-Smith

Lisa Thomas-Smith

MA program, later PhD program; BA, University of Illinois Springfield, 2010

Stephen Troy

MA program; BS Communications Media, Fitchburg State University 2010, BA Philosophy University of Colorado Boulder 2020. Areas of Interest: Political philosophy, ancient philosophy, philosophy of religion
Brandon Upson

Brandon Upson

MA program; B.A. Philosophy and Psychology, Humboldt State University, 2019. Areas of interest: Social philosophy, moral psychology, ethics

David Valencia

MA program; BS Business Administration, University of Southern California. Areas of interest: Applied ethics, political philosophy, bioethics
Brittany Vessely

Brittany Vessely

MA program; BA Political Science, Social Science, Colorado Christian University 2012. Areas of interest: metaethics, classics, epistemology, history of ethics and political philosophy, and philosophy of religion.
Andrew Waldeck-Young

Andrew Waldeck-Young

MA program, later PhD program; BA, Clark University, 2012

Tory Walker

Bachelor's - Accelerated Master's program

Henry Wang

Bachelor's - Accelerated Master's program

Alison Weinberger

PhD progam; BA philosophy, BS mathematics, University of Colorado Boulder 2020. Areas of interest: Philosophy of mathematics, metaphysics, epistemology (with a particular interest in Bayesian epistemology and philosophy of probability)

Wen Xu

Ph.D. program; B.A. Emory University 2017, M.A. University of Western Ontario 2019

Jonathyn Zapf

MA program, later PhD program; BA, Biology, Grace College, 2012. Areas of interest: Epistemology, philosophy of religion.

Staff

University Faculty Affiliates

Marc Bekoff

Professor Emeritus
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Research Interests : Ethology, animal behavior, behavioral ecology, development and evolution of behavior, social communication and organization, animal protection, cognitive ethology, animal cognition.
Christopher Braider

Christopher Braider

Professor
French and Italian
Research Interests : 17th-century French literature, modern philosophy, literary theory.
Andrew Calabrese

Andrew Calabrese

Professor
Media Studies
Research Interests : The relationship between communications media and citizenship, with an emphasis on theoretical and practical issues of media and globalization.
Michaele Ferguson

Michaele Ferguson

Associate Professor
Political Science
Research Interests : Contemporary Political Theory, Democratic Theory, Politics, Epistemology, Philosophy of Language, Feminist Theory.
David Mapel

David Mapel

Associate Professor
Political Science
Research Interests : Contemporary moral and political theory (theories of social justice, political obligation and authority, democratic theory, First Amendment issues), ethical issues in international relations (military intervention, secession, just war theory, global distributive justice, international law and society).
Laura Michaelis

Laura Michaelis

Professor
Linguistics
Research Interests : Tense and aspect, corpus syntax, spoken-language syntax, discourse pragmatics, prosody, Construction Grammar, simulation semantics, Latin syntax and semantics.
Don Monk

Don Monk

Professor
Mathematics
Research Interests : Logic, Boolean Algebras.
Michael Mozer

Michael Mozer

Professor
Computer Science
Research Interests : Computational modeling, machine learning architectures and algorithms, integrated symbolic and subsymbolic computation, speech recognition, data mining, neural networks, cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience.
Jan Mycielski

Jan Mycielski

Professor Emeritus
Mathematics
Research Interests : Philosophy of Mathematics, Mathematical Logic, Set Theory, Theory of Knowledge.
Martha Palmer

Martha Palmer

Professor
Linguistics • Computer Science
Research Interests: Computational Linguistics, with a special emphasis on Semantics and its use in natural language processing applications such as Machine Translation, Information Extraction and Question Answering.

Steve Vanderheiden

Associate Professor
Political Science
Research Interests : normative political theory, environmental politics, environmental ethics, democratic theory.

Emeriti

Leonard Boonin

Leonard Boonin

Professor Emeritus
From 1970 to 1996, Leonard Boonin was a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Colorado Boulder where he also served at various points as the Chair of the Department and the Director of the Center for Values and Social Policy. He retired in 1996 as Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, having previously held positions at the University of Missouri, the State University of New York at Oswego, and Hunter College...

Sheralee Brindell

Senior Instructor Emerita
John Fisher

John Fisher

Professor Emeritus
Prof. John Fisher was a professor of philosophy here from 1968 to 2011 when he retired as Emeritus Professor of Philosophy. He received a BS in Physics from the University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Institute of Technology, and a PhD in philosophy from the University of Minnesota Twin Cities. He has published widely in areas including ethics, metaphysics and philosophy of language, but his area of specialty is aesthetics and...
Graeme Forbes

Graeme Forbes

Professor Emeritus
DPhil, Oxford, 1980. Semantics, Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology.
Alison Jaggar

Alison Jaggar

Professor Emerita • College Professor of Distinction
PhD, Buffalo, 1970. Contemporary Social, Moral, and Political Philosophy, often from a feminist perspective.
Diane Mayer

Diane Mayer

Senior Instructor Emerita
Diane Mayer taught as an Instructor in the department from 1983 until 2011, when she retired as a Senior Instructor Emerita. She did her BA in Religion and Biblical Studies at Smith College (1968), and her PhD here at CU-Boulder in the 1970s, writing a dissertation on Kant, directed by Berel Lang. She put herself through grad school as a dispatcher for the CU police department, calmly handling emergency calls...

Ed Miller

Professor Emeritus
Claudia Mills

Claudia Mills

Associate Professor Emerita
Prof. Claudia Mills was a beloved philosophy professor here at CU-Boulder from 1991 to 2014, when she retired as Emeritus Associate Professor of Philosophy. She was born in New York City on August 21, 1954. She received her B.A. degree from Wellesley College in 1976, her M.A. degree from Princeton University in 1979, and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Princeton University in 1991. She also received an M.L.S. degree from...
Wes Morriston

Wes Morriston

Professor Emeritus
Prof. Wes Morriston was a professor of philosophy at CU-Boulder from 1972-2014 when he retired as Emeritus Professor of Philosophy. He received a BA in philosophy from Queen’s University in Belfast in 1967, then earned an MA and PhD in philosophy from Northwestern University in 1969 and 1972. Prof. Morriston specialized in the philosophy of religion, and published many papers in this area during his career, many of which are...
Michael Tooley

Michael Tooley

Professor Emeritus • College Professor of Distinction
PhD, Princeton, 1968. Metaphysics and Epistemology, Ethics (especially Applied Ethics), Philosophy of Religion.
Michael Zimmerman

Michael Zimmerman

Professor Emeritus
Michael Zimmerman was Professor of Philosophy at Tulane University for 31 years, from 1975-2006, and then came to Boulder, where he was Director of the Center for Humanities and the Arts from 2006-2010. In 2010 he returned to teaching, and retired as Emeritus Professor of philosophy in 2015. He had an extraordinarily productive and successful scholarly career, writing in environmental philosophy, integral theory, Heidegger and Nietzsche, and Buddhism. He’s written...