Enoka Lab logoCarlson 202G
Department of Integrative Physiology
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0354
phone: 303-492-4965

Research Interests

Neuromuscular determinants of motor function (movement) in health and disease. Current projects address three main topics:

  1. Aging - identifying the adaptations responsible for the declines in sensorimotor function with advancing age.
  2. Motor units - characterizing the modulation of the activation signal sent from the nervous system to muscle and its influence on muscle function.
  3. Multiple sclerosis - evaluating therapeutic strategies that can reduce the burden of multiple sclerosis by restoring walking ability and reducing fatigue.

Enoka Lab Members September 2019


  • Director: Roger M. Enoka, Ph.D.
  • Graduate Students:
    • Leah Davis, M.S.
    • Melissa Mazzo, M.S.
    • Mohammed Alenazy, M.B.B.S., M.A.
    • Taylor Tvrdy, M.S. 
    • Joey Carzoli, M.S.
    • Sajjad Daneshgar, B.S.
    • Logan Weinman, B.S.
  • Undergraduate Students:
    • Lydia Walker
    • Amy Malcalza
  • Former Lab Members: Photos of former lab members are available in our gallery
  • Collaborators:
    • Enrique Alvarez, M.D., Ph.D., University of Colorado Denver;
    • Jacques Duchateau, Ph.D., Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium;
    • Dario Farina, Ph.D., Imperial College, UK;
    • Taian Vieira, Ph.D. and Alberto Botter, Ph.D., Politecnico di Torino, Italy;
    • Aleš Holobar, Ph.D., University of Maribor, Slovenia;
    • Awad Almuklass, Ph.D., P.T., King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia;
    • Brett Fling, Ph.D., Colorado State University.

Opportunities for Undergraduates

  • The requirements for undergraduate students who want research experience in our Laboratory are:
    • A major in integrative physiology
    • Opportunities include volunteering to assist with a research project, obtaining independent study credit, securing UROP funding, or completing an honors thesis
    • Students are expected to be available for at least 10 hours/week, which includes attending the weekly lab meeting, for a minimum of one semester.
  • For more information, contact Joey Carzoli at (joseph.carzoli@colorado.edu)

Recent Publications

  • Almuklass AM, Davis L, Hamilton LD, Hebert JR, Alvarez E, Enoka RM. Pulse width does not influence the gains achieved with neuromuscular electrical stimulation in people with multiple sclerosis: double-blind, randomized trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 32: 84-93, 2018.
  • Almuklass AM, Davis L, Hamilton LD, Vieira T, Botter A, Enoka RM. Motor unit discharge characteristics and walking performance of individuals with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurophysiology 119: 1273-1282, 2018.
  • Almuklass AM, Feeney DF, Mani D, Hamilton LD, Enoka RM. Peg-manipulation capabilities of middle-aged adults have a greater influence on pegboard time than those of young and old adults. Experimental Brain Research 236: 2165-2172, 2018.
  • Capobianco RA, Almuklass AM, Enoka RM. Manipulation of sensory feedback can improve stretching outcomes. European Journal of Sport Sciences 18: 83-91, 2018.
  • Capobianco RA, Mazzo MM, Enoka RM. Self-massage prior to stretching improves flexibility in young and middle-aged adults. Journal of Sport Sciences 4: 1-8, 2019.
  • Castronovo AM, Mrachacz-Kersting N, Stevenson AJT, Holobar A, Enoka RM, Farina D. Decrease in force steadiness with aging is associated with increased power of the common but not independent input to motor neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 120: 1616-1624, 2018.
  • Del Vecchio A, Casolo A, Negro F, Scorcelletti M, Bazzucchi I, Enoka RM, Felici F, Farina D. The increase in muscle force after four weeks of strength training is mediated by adaptations in motor unit recruitment and rate coding. Journal of Physiology 597: 1873-1887, 2019.
  • Enoka RM. Physiological validation of the decomposition of surface EMG signals. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 46: 70-83, 2019.
  • Feeney DF, Capobianco RA, Montgomery JR, Morreale J, Grabowski AM, Enoka RM. Individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction display asymmetrical gait and a depressed synergy between muscles providing sacroiliac joint force closure when walking. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 43: 95-103, 2018. 
  • Feeney DF, Mani D, Enoka RM. Variability in common synaptic input to motor neurons modulates both force steadiness and pegboard times in young and older adults. Journal of Physiology 596: 3793-3806, 2018.
  • Gould JR, Reineberg AE, Cleland BT, Knoblauch KE, Clinton GK, Banich MT, Corboy JR, Enoka RM. Adjustments in torque steadiness during fatiguing contractions are inversely correlated with IQ in persons with multiple sclerosis. Frontiers in Physiology 9: 1404, 2018.
  • Hamilton LD, Mani D, Almuklass AM, Davis LA, Vieira T, Botter A, Enoka RM. Electrical nerve stimulation modulates motor unit activity in contralateral biceps brachii during steady isometric contractions. Journal of Neurophysiology 120: 2603-2613, 2018.
  • Hamilton LD, Mazzo M, Petrigna L, Ahmed AA, Enoka RM. Poor estimates of motor variability are associated with longer grooved pegboard times for middle-aged and older adults. Journal of Neurophysiology 121: 588-601, 2019.
  • Mani D, Almuklass AM, Amiridis IG, Enoka RM. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation can improve mobility in older adults with two different pulse-width and frequency combinations: double-blind, randomized trial. Experimental Gerontology 108: 269-275, 2018.
  • Mani D, Almuklass AM, Hamilton LD, Vieira T, Botter A, Enoka RM. Motor unit activity, force steadiness, and perceived fatigability are correlated with mobility in older adults. Journal of Neurophysiology 120: 1988-1997, 2018. 
  • Mani D, Feeney DF, Enoka RM. The modulation of force steadiness by electrical nerve stimulation applied to the wrist extensors differs for young and older adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology 119: 301-310, 2019.