Enoka Lab logoRamaley W205
Department of Integrative Physiology
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0354
phone: 303-492-4965

Research Interests

Neuromuscular determinants of motor function (movement) in health and disease. Current projects address three main topics:

  1. Aging - identifying the adaptations responsible for the declines in sensorimotor function with advancing age.
  2. Motor units - characterizing the modulation of the activation signal sent from the nervous system to muscle and its influence on muscle function.
  3. Multiple sclerosis - evaluating therapeutic strategies that can reduce the burden of multiple sclerosis by restoring walking ability and reducing fatigue.

Enoka Lab Members September 2019


  • Director: Roger M. Enoka, Ph.D.
  • Graduate Students:
    • Melissa Mazzo, M.S.
    • Mohammed Alenazy, M.B.B.S., M.A.
    • Taylor Tvrdy, M.S. 
    • Joey Carzoli, M.S.
    • Sajjad Daneshgar, B.S.
    • Logan Weinman, B.S.
    • Anneli Folkesson, B.A.
    • Kelsey Kroger, M.S.
  • Undergraduate Students:
    • Eva Kent
    • Amy Malcalza
    • John Maldanado
    • Bailey McLagan
  • Former Lab Members: Photos of former lab members are available in our gallery
  • Collaborators:
    • Enrique Alvarez, M.D., Ph.D., University of Colorado Denver;
    • Jacques Duchateau, Ph.D., Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium;
    • Dario Farina, Ph.D., Imperial College, UK;
    • Taian Vieira, Ph.D. and Alberto Botter, Ph.D., Politecnico di Torino, Italy;
    • Aleš Holobar, Ph.D., University of Maribor, Slovenia;
    • Awad Almuklass, Ph.D., P.T., King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia;
    • Brett Fling, Ph.D., Colorado State University.

Opportunities for Undergraduates

  • The requirements for undergraduate students who want research experience in our Laboratory are:
    • A major in integrative physiology
    • Opportunities include volunteering to assist with a research project, obtaining independent study credit, securing UROP funding, or completing an honors thesis
    • Students are expected to be available for at least 10 hours/week, which includes attending the weekly lab meeting, for a minimum of one semester.
  • For more information, contact Anneli Folkesson at (anneli.folkesson@colorado.edu)

Recent Publications

  • Almuklass AM, Capobianco RA, Feeney DF, Alvarez E, Enoka RM. Sensory nerve stimulation causes an immediate improvement in motor function of persons with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders 38: 101508, 2020.
  • Capobianco RA, Mazzo MM, Enoka RM. Self-massage prior to stretching improves flexibility in young and middle-aged adults. Journal of Sport Sciences 4: 1-8, 2019.
  • Davis LA, Alenazy MS, Almuklass AM, Feeney DF, Vieira T, Botter A, Enoka RM. Force control during submaximal isometric contractions is associated with walking performance in persons with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurophysiology 123: 2191-2200, 2020.
  • Davis LA, Allen SP, Hamilton LD, Grabowski AM, Enoka RM. Age-independent differences in postural sway of young and older adults are associated with the ability to perform steady contractions with leg muscles. Experimental Brain Research 238: 487-497, 2020.
  • Del Vecchio A, Casolo A, Negro F, Scorcelletti M, Bazzucchi I, Enoka RM, Felici F, Farina D. The increase in muscle force after four weeks of strength training is mediated by adaptations in motor unit recruitment and rate codling. Journal of Physiology 597: 1873-1887, 2019. 
  • Del Vecchio A, Holobar A, Falla D, Felici F, Enoka RM, Farina D. Tutorial: Analysis of motor unit discharge characteristics from high-density surface EMG signals. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 53: 102426, 2020.
  • Enoka RM. A primer on motor unit physiology. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 47: 123-124, 2019. 
  • Enoka RM. Physiological validation of the decomposition of surface EMG signals. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 46: 70-83, 2019.
  • Enoka RM, Amiridis IG, Duchateau J. Electrical stimulation of muscle: electrophysiology and rehabilitation. Physiology 35: 40-56, 2020.
  • Hamilton LD, Mazzo MM, Petrigna L, Ahmed AA, Enoka RM. Poor estimates of motor variability are associated with longer grooved pegboard times for middle-aged and older adults. Journal of Neurophysiology 121: 588-601, 2019. 
  • Mani D, Feeney DF, Enoka RM. The modulation of force steadiness by electrical nerve stimulation applied to the wrist extensors differs for young and older adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology 119: 301-310, 2019.
  • Marshall PW, Metcalf E, Hagstrom AD, Cross R, Siegler JC, Enoka RM. Changes in fatigue are the same for trained men and women after resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 52: 196-204, 2020.