Published: Oct. 11, 2018 By


The art of glassmaking dates back as early as the 15th century B.C.E. in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Early on, glassmakers knew how to color glass by mixing metallic oxides into the ingredients and popular colors included various shades of blue, as well as shades of yellow, green, blue, purple, and red. Glass began to be imported to the Italian peninsula in the middle of the 1st millennium B.C.E., showing up in Etruscan contexts, as in an early 5th century B.C.E. set of jewelry from an Etruscan tomb, as well as in the Greek colonies of southern Italy and Sicily. A specifically Roman glass industry, however, seems to have developed in the middle of the 1st century B.C.E., influenced by eastern Mediterranean glassmakers. Glass played many roles in ancient Rome, being used for tablewares, toilet items, jewelry, storage and transportation, mosaics, and so on. Because of its fragile nature, much of the glass that has survived to the modern period is broken, but the CU collection contains 17 whole or nearly-whole vessels that contribute to our understanding of glass in the ancient Roman world. 

The collection of ancient glass in the University of Colorado Art Museum originated in 1969 with a gift from the May Company to the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History of an Eastern Mediterranean amphoriskos, along with a stone alabastron from Macedonia (see Appendix). In 1979 H. Medill Sarkisian donated to the CU Museum of Natural History 16 vessels, along with 16 African pieces, from the collection in his store in Denver. The two remaining pieces in the collection have no records of their acquisition. The collection consists of two pieces from the eastern Mediterranean and 15 Roman pieces (1). The collection was transferred in its entirety from the CU Museum of Natural History to the CU Art Museum in 2008.

Since all of the pieces come from private collections, none of them have any archaeological context or definite provenance. The collection is most notable for its poor condition. Two pieces have been shattered and repaired ineptly. Two more are cracked. Two more have rust stains from bad mounts and one has been glued or otherwise permanently attached to a metal stand. Iridescence and flaking are common throughout the collection. This weathering is no doubt due to the age of the pieces, but the rest of the damage described above is the result of maltreatment in the last three centuries (2). 

Accompanying this catalogue are student-created essays on the basic history and uses of glass and how glass was made in ancient Rome.

Organization of the Catalogue

Each entry in the catalogue contains the following information:

  • Museum accession number
  • Means of acquisition and transfers (if known)
  • Dimensions (height and greatest diameter)
  • Likely provenance
  • Date
  • Classification (if known)
    • All Roman pieces are classified by Isings Form and Harden Fabric. Isings Forms are based on the shape of the vessel, number of handles, and decorations. Harden Fabrics refer to the characteristics of the glass of each vessel, specifically color, quality (i.e., number of impurities), and weathering. No. 1, an amphoriskos, is classified by Grose Group, which is determined largely by shape and the position of the handles (3). 
  • Description
    • The description covers shape, color, decoration, condition, repairs (if any), and method of manufacture. Shape is described from "top to bottom, as is customary with glass vessels because the finishing of the rim is the most defining part of a blown vessel" (4). 
  • Comments
    • These include remarks on the function and distribution of the type as a whole, peculiarities in the individual specimen, problems with classification, and similar vessels from other collections and sites.

See the individual entries for additional information and discussion of the objects. 


1. Eastern Mediterranean Amphoriskos (CU 22,726) [2008.18.2.1]

Gift of the May Company (1969)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 7.9 cm
Diameter (max.): 4.8 cm
Eastern Mediterranean, late 6th to early 4th century B.C.E.

Classification: Grose Group I.3 (5) 

Description: Mouth, neck, and part of handle missing. Preserved section of handle attached to top of shoulder. Body ovoid with flat base knob. Royal blue body with opaque aqua and yellow-orange zigzag pattern. One unmarvered yellow-orange stripe at the top of zigzag pattern, two more below, and one at base of vessel (very similar to the coloring of Schlick-Nolte 2002, no. V-11). Body repaired with wax or hot glue. Core-formed (i.e., hot glass is applied to a removable core, either by dipping or trailing threads of glass over the core as it rotates). Handles and base knob applied separately. (6).

Comment: This type of amphoriskos, which was probably used as an ointment bottle, is ubiquitous in the eastern Mediterranean, such places as Egypt (Honey 1946, pl. 1E), Israel (Eliayu Dobkin Pavillion 1981, p. 18), Lebanon (Baramki 1967, pl. V), and Georgia (Vickers and Kakhidze 2001, fig. 21), as well as in Italy (Mariacher 1961, pl. 2), in the 6th through 3rd centuries B.C.E. This coloring, which is also rather commonplace, is probably in imitation of Murrhine ware (7). Other comparable examples are Eisen 1927, pl. 4; Richter 1974, fig. 515; Hayes 1975, no. 12; Constable-Maxwell Collection 1979, lot 5; and Grose 1989, nos. 107 and 108. A late 6th or early 5th century B.C.E. example at the Art Institute of Chicago and a contemporary example at the Metropolitan Museum of Art show how common the style was and suggest what CU's vessel may have looked like when it was complete. 

The original museum record of this vessel indicates that the neck was missing at the time of accessioning, but makes no mention of the body being broken, suggesting this damage occurred since 1969.

2. Eastern Mediterranean Ribbed Cup or Bowl (CU 29,003) [2008.18.2.3]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 7.1 cm
Diameter (max.): 9.4 cm
Eastern Mediterranean, 1st century B.C.E. to 1st century C.E.

Description: Everted rim with unworked edge turning in at top. Slight shoulder. Body bulges out in center. Pinched-out ribs extening from just above middle of body to underside of base. Flat bottom. Pale greenish tint. Some iridescence and a great deal of white incrustation. Mold-blown.

Comment: This type of vessel, sometimes known as a zarte Rippenschale, bears some resemblance to Isings Form 17, but without marvered threads (8). Decorated versions of this type (e.g. Eisen 1927, pl. 37; Megaw 1957, pl. 4f; von Saldern 1980, pl. 2) have similar bodies. Other, simpler examples are Fitzwilliam Museum 1978, nos. 60a and b; Gill 2000, p. 102; and also Avigad 1983, fig. 219, a fragment of a bowl from Jerusalem dating to the early 1st century B.C.E. (or earlier). See, also, Weinberg and Stern 2009 G 213. 

3. Shallow Pillar-Molded Bowl (CU 28,998) [2008.18.2.4]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 3.8 cm
Diameter (max.): 10.2 cm
Roman, 1st century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 3a; Harden Fabric 2 or 3

Description: Unworked lip on shallow bowl with somewhat sagged profile. 21 pillar-molded ribs descend from pronounced shoulder to flat base of vessel. Much iridescence and flaking, to the extent that the original color is not discernable (at present it is several shades of brown). Sagged (i.e., heated on a dome-shaped mold) (9).

Comment: The weathering of this bowl has been extensive and it has been abused in other ways, as indicated by a patch of glue-like substance on side. Nevertheless, the shape and what remains of the original coloring suggests this bowl may be mosaic (cf. Eisen 1927, pl. 32; von Saldern 1968, no. 12). Other examples of this shape are Hayes 1975, no. 50 and Grose 1989, no. 232.

4. Ribbed Bowl (CU 28,995) [2008.18.2.5]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 4.8 cm
Diameter (max.): 17.8 cm
Roman, 1st century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 3c; Harden Fabric 1

Description: Slightly outcurved rim on a wide bowl. 65 relatively evenly spaced ribs around center of bowl, reaching neither the lip nor the base. Colorless, almost transparent glass with green tint. Chip missing from rim. Some iridescence and a large rusty patch extending in an arc from the rim to the bottom. Sagged.

Comment: Not enough examples of this type come from an archaeological context to establish a definite chronology; a handful of fragments from the western provinces of the Roman Empire belong to the 1st century C.E. (10). Other similar examples are Eisen 1927, pl. 40; Hayes 1975, no. 47; Fitzwilliam Museum 1978, no. 32c; Constable-Maxwell Collection 1979, lot 38; and Grose 1989, no. 234.

The shape of the rust damage indicates either a repair of a large break or that at one time the bowl was on display on a bad metal mounting, presumably propped up like a modern decorative plate.

5. Flask (CU 28,997) [2008.18.2.6]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 15.7 cm
Diameter (max.): 10.2 cm
Roman, 1st century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 70; Harden Fabric 3

Description: Unworked lip with short, vaguely funnel-shaped mouth. At junction of funnel and neck is a closed tubular fold. It is hollow on the inside but appears as an added coil from the exterior. Relatively tall cylindrical neck with abrupt transition to globular body. Rounded base. Original color obscured by iridescence. Much flaking. Blown.

Comment: Vessberg 1953, pl. 58, no. 110; Hayes 1975, no. 146; Constable-Maxwell Collection 1979, lot 125; and Stern 2001, nos. 37, 38 and 103: all belong to Isings Form 70 and all have similar bodies to this flask. The rims of all of these vessels, however, are folded downwards, whereas the fold in the rim of this flask creates a ridge. The dating of this vessel is based on the dates of the examples above and Isings’ remarks on the form. This stylistic variation is slight enough that this flask could easily have been made in the same area as any of the examples cited. The rim of Davidson 1952, no. 796, which dates to the 15th century C.E. or later, is also comparable, as is Weinberg and Stern 2009 G 16, which dates to the 16th to 17th century C.E. 

6. Bottle with Funnel Mouth (CU 29,000) [2008.18.2.7]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 7.6 cm
Diameter (max.): 5.1 cm
Roman, late 2nd century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 92; Harden Fabric 6

Description: Uneven lip with short funnel-shaped mouth. Narrow cylindrical neck that tapers out toward bottom. Smooth transition from neck to bulbous body with rounded base. Purple with white trail would spirally from base to middle of neck. Some iridescence and flaking. Blown, thread applied afterwards (11). 

Comment: The purple color comes from the exposure of manganese compounds in the glass to sunlight (12). Similar examples are Eisen 1927, pl. 90; Dusenbery 1967, no. 17; Hayes 1975, no. 112; Fitzwilliam Museum 1978, no. 93c; Constable-Maxwell Collection 1979, lot 55; Whitehouse 2001, no. 700; Schlick-Nolte 2002, no. V-51; and Weinberg and Stern 2009, G 128. 

7. Unguentarium (CU 28,994) [2008.18.2.8]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 12.2 cm
Diameter (max.): 2.5 cm
Roman, 1st century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 9; Harden Fabric 7

Description: Rounded rim folded in. Tall cylindrical neck with smooth transition to rounded shoulder. Body tapers conically downward and ends in rounded boss at bottom. Dark blue. Large bubbles in fabric. Opaque due to dirt encrustation, especially on neck. Solid lip of dirt or grit inside that rattles when shaken. Blown.

Comment: Most other examples of this type have rounded bodies that taper downward (e.g., Isings’ line-drawing (13)), so this piece could be a slightly later development or a regional variation. The closest parallels (all of which have rounded bodies) are Simonett 1941, fig. 62, no. 16a; Hayes 1975, nos. 102 and 103; Fleming 1996, fig. 18 (which is mold blown); and Whitehouse 2001, no. 770.

8. Unguentarium (no CU accession number) [2008.18.2.9]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 11.2 cm
Diameter (max.): 1.9 cm
Roman, Late 1st century C.E.

Classification: Isings Forms 8; Harden Fabric 9

Description: Rounded rim, folded in. Tall cylindrical neck flares at both ends. Slight constriction toward base of neck. Smooth transition to base with slightly flared straight walls. Base concave. Green. Iridescence near rim and central constriction, with a pale residue inside. Modern metal stand, glued to base. Blown.

Comment: Vessels of this type appear as early as Augustan times at Magdalensberg, Austria, and in the second half of the 1st century C.E. they become very numerous. For example, large quantities of them have been found at Pompeii and Herculaneum (14). The fabric of this specimen is suggestive of mass production, which supports a late 1st century C.E. date. Similar examples include Hayes 1975, nos. 235, 570, 630, and 666; Fitzwilliam Museum 1978, no. 64b; Fleming 1996, fig. 16; and Whitehouse 1997, nos. 228 and 241. 

The metal stand affixed to the vessel and the and the residue inside may be evidence that this unguentarium was once used as an inkwell (15).

9. Candlestick Unguentarium (CU 29,004) [2008.18.2.10]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 14.5 cm
Diameter (max.): 5.3 cm
Roman, 2nd century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 82A(1); Harden Fabric 9

Description: Flat rim folded over unevenly. Tall, cylindrical neck flares outward at both ends. Smooth transition to squat globular body. Original color obscured by white debris, probably pale green. Body shattered and repaired by gluing or cementing; hence body is solid and completely filled in. Blown.

Comment: Though this form is classified as Isings Form 82A(1), it differs in a number of ways: there is no constriction at the base of the neck, the base is rounded rather than flat (though the vessel can still stand on its own), and the neck tapers out at both ends. However, these differences may not altogether be significant (16). The unevenness of the rim suggests mass production. Close parallels are Hayes 1975, nos. 227 (from Palestine), 253 and 498 (both from Cyprus), and 573; and Whitehouse 1997, nos. 251 and 270.

10. Pyriform Unguentarium (CU 29,002) [2008.18.2.11]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 5.6 cm
Diameter (max.): 4.8 cm
Roman, 3rd century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 26a; Harden Fabric 3

Description: Wide mouth with rounded rim folded in. Relatively short neck with concave profile and smooth transition to globular body. Flattened base. Clear with bluish-green tint. Some iridescence and flaking. Blown.

Comment: Six similar specimens are in the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto (Hayes 1975, nos. 271, 272, 291, 294, 323 and 474). See also Goldman 1950, no. 25; Isings 1971, no. 241 (at Heerlen); Whitehouse 1997, nos. 286 and 289; and Whitehouse 1998, no. 94.

11. Amphoriskos (CU 28,996) [2008.18.2.12]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 9.5 cm
Diameter (max.): 4.4 cm
Roman, 1st century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 120a; Harden Fabric 6

Description: Irregular rim, folded-in, with wide mouth. Handle on one side connects rim to shoulder with pronounced attachment points. Short, irregularly-formed neck. Pronounced, rounded shoulder. Ovoid body. Base tapers to a rounded point. Original color completely obscured by iridescence. Much flaking. Blown, handle added separately (17).

Comment: The shape of this jug, which has also been described as "bomboid" (18), is straightforward, yet difficult to classify. Isings Form 120a has a small base ring, but not a point. The shape of the body is closer to Form 60 (amphoriskos with a pointed base). Direct parallels are not forthcoming. Mariacher 1961, pl. 17; Hayes 1975, no. 284; and Constable-Maxwell Collection 1979, lot 255, have globular bodies rather than ovoid, and Hayes 1975, nos. 286 and 339 have similar bodies except for the flattened base and pour spout. Hayes 1975, no. 415 is close in shape, save for the ribs on the body. Perhaps the most similar is Charleston and Archer 1977, no. 8, which in all respects is very close to this jug except for the flattened base.

12. Sprinkler Flask (CU 22,320) [2008.18.2.13]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 8.1 cm
Diameter (max.) 7.1 cm
Roman, 3rd century C.E.

Classification: Harden Fabric 3

Description: Wide, flat rim. Cylindrical neck, constricted at its base with abrupt transition to globular body. Small base foot. Greenish yellow inside, otherwise translucent. Blown. 

Comment: The constriction in the neck of this vessel allowed a bather to apply single drops of perfume to their bodies (19). This sprinkler is a less elaborate version of such bottles as Hayes 1975, no. 282, and Stern 2001, no. 140, which have faint diagonal ribs, and Fitzwilliam Museum 1978, no. 105a, which has a honeycomb pattern.

Though there is no record as to when or how the museum acquired this piece, it has been part of the collection since at least 1979, as it was exhibited that year by the chemistry department as part of a lecture by Cyril Stanley Smith, a metallurgist and science historian who worked on the Manhattan Project.

13. Sprinkler Flask (CU 28,999) [2008.18.2.14]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 8.9 cm
Diameter (max.): 6.6 cm
Roman, 3rd century C.E.

Classification: Harden Fabric 4

Description: Wide, flat lip with short neck. Constriction at base of neck. Bulbous body with rounded base. Eight short ribs or fins encircle body at irregular vertical positions. Green. Some iridescence and flaking. Blown, ribs tweezed.

Comment: The CU collection contains another example of a Roman sprinkler. The shape of this sprinkler is closest to Stern 2001, no. 134, and the ribs resemble those of Stern 2001, no. 136.

14. Aryballos (CU 29,005) [2008.18.2.15]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 8.3 cm
Diameter (max.): 6.4 cm
Roman, 3rd to 4th century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 61; Harden Fabric 4 or debased Fabric 3

Description: Thick rim folded out. Two trailed handles attached from either side of rim to shoulder. Short funnel neck. Body spherical, but somewhat flattened. Fluting on lower half of body. Relatively thick base concave with pontil mark (20). Transparent with bluish-green tint. Some iridescence and dirt. Crack beneath one handle. Blown, handles added separately.

Comment: This design is in imitation of bronze and ceramic vessels of similar function (21). Examples come from all over the Roman Empire, but a disproportionately large number have been excavated north of the Black Sea (22). Other examples are Isings 1971, no. 42 (in Heerlen); Hayes 1975, no. 119; and Sorokina 1987, fig. 1.1.

15. Bottle with Funnel Neck (CU 28,992) [2008.18.2.16]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 17.0 cm
Diameter (max.): 7.1 cm
Roman, 3rd to 4th century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 103; Harden Fabric 4

Description: Tall, narrow funnel neck with unworked rim. Base of neck slightly rounded and then constricted at shoulder. Globular body with flat base. Iridescence obscures original color. Much flaking. Some weathering on body from a bad metal mount (23). Blown, perhaps in two pieces. 

Comment: This form generally has an unworked rim, but some examples (von Saldern 1980, no. 156 and Whitehouse 1997, no. 311) do have small lips. Other bottles with unworked rims are Clairmont 1963, nos. 543, 544, and 546-9 and Hayes 1975, nos. 288, 289, and 541. An especially colorful version is Stern 2001, no. 129.

16. Flask with Funnel Neck (CU 28,993) [2008.18.2.17]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 10.2 cm
Diameter (max.): 6.1 cm
Roman, 4th century C.E.

Classification: Isings Form 104b; Harden Fabric 4

Description: Funnel mouth with rounded rim. Bulbous body, without base ring. Low relief fluting on body, resulting in nine ribs that reach halfway up body. Pontil mark on base. Green. Some iridescence and flaking. Blown, with ribs pinched during reheating.(24).

Comment: Vessels of this sort were probably used as a table ware for wine and other liquids (25). Examples of this form come from all over the Roman Empire. Similar examples are Harden 1966, fig. 10; Stern 2001, nos. 104 and 105; Whitehouse 1997, no. 312; and possibly Gorin-Rosen 2004, no. 11 (26). See also Hayes 1975, nos. 316 and 317, which have similar shapes but lack fluting.

17. Basket-Handled Double Unguentarium [2008.18.2.18]

Gift of H. Medill Sarkisian and Justine Sarkisian Rodriguez (1979)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 17.0 cm
Diameter (max.): 4.8 cm
Roman, 4th to 5th century C.E.

Classification: Harden Fabric 9

Description: High basket handle, rounded and attached to either side of the folded-in rims of twin tubular bodies. Double chambers formed either by pinching single open vessel or folding over. Bodies of adjoined tubes narrow slightly at center and appear wedged or pinched at base. Yellow with greenish tint. Crack at base of handle, apparently glued. Blown. 

Comment: The double unguentarium occurs almost exclusively in Syria and Palestine in the 4th and 5th centuries C.E. (27). A 4th century C.E. example of this type of handle comes from a tomb at Beit Fajjar in Palestine (Husseini 1935, pl. 85, no. 3) (28). Other examples are Ayalon 1994, fig. 5; Stern 2001, no. 179; and Whitehouse 2001, no. 748. More elaborate versions are numerous, including even quadruple unguentaria (29). One specimen from Palestine seems to have been used for eye paint and it is probable this vessel served a similar purpose (30). 

Appendix: A Macedonian Alabaster Vessel in the University of Colorado Museum

18. Stone Alabastron (CU 22,718) [2008.18.2.2]

Gift of the May Company (1969)
Transferred to CU Art Museum (2008)
Height: 8.9 cm
Diameter (max.): 4.8 cm
Macedonian, 4th century B.C.E.

Description: Lip missing. Rim chipped but repaired by means of an adhesive bandage. Roughly cylindrical shape with slight increase in diameter at middle. Cream-grey alabaster (i.e., calcareous sinter). Some weathering on bottom. Probably made with tubular drill (31).

Comment: This vase was originally identified as Egyptian from the 1st millennium B.C.E. but was re-identified in 2017 as a 4th century B.C.E. Macedonian vessel by Dr. Sarah James. 

The term 'alabaster' was used in antiquity to refer to travertine, a type of limestone formed by the chemical precipitation of water saturated with dissolved calcium carbonate. There are two varieties of travertine: calcerous tufa and calcareous sinter. The latter was used by the Egyptians to make stone vessels. In the 18th century C.E. the term was used to refer to a form of gypsum that resembled travertine and travertine was referred to as Egyptian alabaster or onyx marble, both of which terms are misleading (32).

Alabastra made of glass, constructed on the same motif as those of alabaster, were very numerous in Egypt and Syria throughout the 1st millennium B.C.E. and spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean (33). 


  1. Good introductions to Roman glass (with bibliographies) are Harden 1969 and Stern 1999.
  2. For a brief introduction to the weathering of ancient glass, see Fleming 1997, p. 61-2.
  3. Isings 1957; Harden 1936, p. 20-4; Grose 1987, p. 130-1.
  4. Weinberg and Stern 2009: 17. 
  5. This judgment is based primarily on the one surviving handle and the shape of the body.
  6. For core-forming and references see Grose 1987, p. 31. Core-forming creates a rough interior surface, which is visible in this vessel on account of its fragmentary condition.
  7. See Tressaud and Vickers 2007. On Murrhine ware see Pliny the Elder, Natural History XXXVII.7-8.
  8. For zarte Rippenschalen, see von Saldern 1980, p. 12-3.
  9. See Grose 1987, p. 32 for a description of this technique.
  10. Isings 1957, p. 20-1.
  11. Stern 2001, p. 57.
  12. Lucas 1962, p. 187. For the standard chemical composition of Roman glass, see Brill 1967, p. 91 and Fleming 1997, p. 10.
  13. Isings 1957, p. 25.
  14. Whitehouse 1997, p. 136; Isings 1957, p. 24.
  15. This idea was suggested to me by Dr. Beth Dusinberre.
  16. See discussion at Whitehouse 1997, p. 147-8.
  17. See Harden 1936, p. 16.
  18. Kris Anderson, personal communication.
  19. Eisen 1927, p. 333-6.
  20. For pontil scars see Stern 1999, p. 448.
  21. Isings 1957, p. 78-81.
  22. Sorokina 1987, p. 40.
  23. This judgment was made by my colleague Kris Anderson.
  24. Stern 2001, p. 218.
  25. Harden 1936, p. 185.
  26. See Isings 1957, pp. 123-5 for western examples.
  27. Harden 1969, p. 63, n. 91; also Charleston and Archer 1977, p. 74.
  28. See also Harden 1966, fig. 9.
  29. E.g., Marichar 1961, pl. 17; Baramki 1967, pl. 22; Harden 1969, pl. 11F; Hayes 1975, nos. 360 and 458; Charleston and Archer 1977, no. 12; Fitzwilliam Museum 1978, no. 109; Fleming 1997, pls. 15 and 88. Examples of quadruple unguentaria are Constable-Maxwell Collection 1979, lots 243 and 245.
  30. Stern 2001, p. 317.
  31. Lucas 1962, p. 425-6.
  32. Harrell 1990, p. 37-42.
  33. Eisen 1927, p. 121-2. For examples of glass alabastra from Egypt, see Honey 1946, pls. 1A and 1D.


  • Avigad, N. Discovering Jerusalem. Nashville: T. Nelson, 1983.
  • Ayalon, E. “A Roman-Byzantine Mausoleum at Khirbet Sabiya, Kefar Sava,” ‘Atiqot 25 (1994): 27-39.
  • Baramki, D. The Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut. Beirut: The American University, 1967.
  • Brill, R. H. “A Great Glass Slab from Ancient Galilee,” Archaeology 20:2 (1967): 88-95.
  • Catalogue of the Constable-Maxwell Collection of Ancient Glass. London: Maggs Brothers, 1979.
  • Charleston, R. J. and M. Archer. Glass and Stained Glass. Fribourg: National Trust, Office du Livre, 1977.
  • Clairmont, C. W. The Excavations at Dura-Europos Final Report IV, pt. V: The Glass Vessels. Locust Valley, N.Y: J. J. Augustin, 1963.
  • Davidson, G. R. Corinth XII: The Minor Objects. Princeton, NJ: American School fo Classical Studies at Athens, 1952.
  • Dusenbery, E. B. “Ancient Glass from the Cemeteries of Samothrace,” Journal of Glass Studies 9 (1967): 34-49.
  • Eisen, G. A. Glass: Its Origin, History, Chronology, Technic and Classification to the Sixteenth Century, v. 1. New York: W. E. Rudge, 1927.
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