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Genetic Elements & Genetically-modified Organisms

Export Control Classification Number (ECCN): 1C353

Genetic elements

  • Genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of microorganisms controlled by 1C351a. to c., 1C352, 1C354, or 1C360
  • Genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the “toxins” controlled by 1C351.d or “sub-units of toxins” thereof,

Genetically modified organisms

  • Genetically modified organisms that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of microorganisms controlled by 1C351.a to .c, 1C352, 1C354, or 1C360
  • Genetically modified organisms that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the “toxins” controlled by 1C351.d or “sub-units of toxins” thereof.

Notes: 

  1. “Genetic elements” include, inter alia, chromosomes, genomes, plasmids, transposons, and vectors, whether genetically modified or unmodified, or chemically synthesized in whole or in part.
  2. This ECCN does not control nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, serotype 0157 and other verotoxin producing strains, except those nucleic acid sequences that contain coding for the verotoxin or its sub-units.
  3. “Nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of any of the microorganisms controlled by 1C351.a to .c, 1C352, 1C354, or 1C360” means any sequence specific to the relevant controlled microorganism that:
    1. In itself or through its transcribed or translated products represents a significant hazard to human, animal, or plant health; or
    2. Is known to enhance the ability of a microorganism controlled by 1C351.a to .c, 1C352, 1C354, or 1C360, or any other organism into which it may be inserted or otherwise integrated, to cause serious harm to human, animal, or plant health.
  4. “Genetically modified organisms” include organisms in which the genetic material (nucleic acid sequences) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination, and encompasses those produced artificially in whole or in part.
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