toohey teaching enh

Professor Darin Toohey explaining the absorption of radiation by stratospheric ozone.

The Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (ATOC) at CU-Boulder offeres a wide range of undergraduate and graduate courses. Below are brief descriptions of all courses offered by ATOC. The links to the right provide details on courses offered this semester, next semester, and courses approved for the Natural Science requirement of the College of Arts & Sciences Core Curriculum. Please refer to the University Catalog for further details.

Undergraduate Courses

 

This course explores such topics as the ozone hole, the polar vortex and climate change, introducing students to the fundamental physical and chemical principles that govern pollution, weather and climate while also studying the history of atmospheric science, policy and communication of controversial topics. Students engage in hands-on measurements of the stratosphere and analysis of NASA satellite data, and practice thinking critically and creatively about the observations and their implications. Students emerge from the class with a better understanding of some of the most profound aspects of the Earth's atmosphere, an appreciation for how scientific research is conducted, and a heightened awareness of how the media portray scientific issues related to the Earth's climate system. This course is accepted for credit toward the CU Boulder Space Minor “Earth, Space and the Universe” requirement category.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Introduces principles of modern meteorology for nonscience majors, with emphasis on scientific and human issues associated with severe weather events. Includes description, methods of prediction, and impacts of blizzards, hurricanes, thunderstorms, tornadoes, lightning, floods, and firestorms. Approved for GT-SC2. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Discusses the Earth's climate for nonscience majors, focusing on the role of the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere and land surface. Describes the water cycle, atmospheric circulations and ocean currents, and how they influence global climate, El Nino and the ozone hole. Discusses human impacts from climate change. Recommended prerequisite: ATOC 1050. Credit not granted for this course and GEOL 1060. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Illustrates fundamentals of meteorology with laboratory experiments. Covers collection, analysis and discussion of data related to local weather. Uses computers for retrieval and interpretation of weather data from Colorado and across the U.S. Optional lab for ATOC 1050. Recommended prerequisite or corequisite: ATOC 1050. Approved for GT-SC1. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science lab.  Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences lab.

Acquaints students at the lower division level with current research in atmospheres, oceans and climate (Topics may vary each semester). May be repeated up to 9 total credit hours with the degree as long as the topic is different. Students may register for more than one section of this course in the same semester. Recommended prerequisite or corequisite: will vary depending on topic. Recommended restriction: students with 0-56 credits (Freshmen or Sophomores).

Explores the processes that influence middle latitude weather including atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud and precipitation processes, atmospheric dynamics, air masses and fronts, and mid-latitude cyclones. Recitations and homework assignments will allow students to apply these concepts to real weather data through analysis of weather maps, thermodynamics diagrams and conceptual models. Recommended prerequisites: ATOC 1050 or ATOC major. Approved for Arts and Sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Explores Earth's dynamic oceans. Discusses the disciplines of oceanography including marine geology, chemistry, biology and physical oceanography with emphasis on global change. Specific topics may include: tectonics, currents, biogeochemical cycles, ecology and global warming. Recommended prerequisite: any 1000-level ATOC or GEOL course or ATOC major. Same as GEOL 3070. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Familiarizes students with a wide range of atmospheric behavior pertinent to air travel: rudiments of aerodynamics; aircraft stability and control; atmospheric circulation, vertical motion, turbulence and wind shear; fronts, clouds and storms. Recommended prerequisite: ATOC 1050 or ATOC major. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Discusses instruments, techniques and statistical methods used in atmospheric observations. Covers issues of data accuracy and analysis of weather maps. Provides application to temperature and precipitation records, weather forecasting and climate change trends. Uses computers to access data sets and process data. Recommended prerequisites: ATOC 1050 or ATOC 1060 or ATOC 3600 or GEOG 3601 or ENVS 3600 or GEOG 1001 and one semester calculus. Same as GEOG 3301. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences. Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences lab.

Examines the composition of the atmosphere and sources of gaseous and particulate pollutants: their chemistry, transport and removal from the atmosphere. Applies general principles to acid rain, smog and stratospheric ozone depletion. Recommended prerequisite: one semester of college-level chemistry or one year of high school chemistry. Same as CHEM 3151. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science. Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Describes the basic components of the climate system: the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and lithosphere. Investigates the basic physical processes that determine climate and link the components of the climate system. Covers the hydrological cycle and its role in climate, climate stability and global change. Recommended prerequisites: one semester of calculus and ATOC 1060 or ATOC 3300 or GEOG 3301 or GEOG 1001 or ATOC major. Same as GEOG 3601 and ENVS 3600. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science. Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Explores the physics and chemistry of the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan. Examines evolution of the atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars; and the escape of gases from the Galilean satellites, Titan and Mars; the orbital characteristics of moons, planets, and comets. Uses recent results of space exploration. Elective for APS major and minor. Same as ASTR 3720. Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Provides a large-scale synthesis of the processes impacting ocean biogeochemistry. Transforms theoretical understanding into real-world applications using oceanographic data and models. Topics include: chemical composition, biological nutrient utilization and productivity, air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, ocean acidification, ocean deoxygenation, iron fertilization, biogeochemical climate feedbacks and more. Recommended prerequisites: one semester of calculus and one semester of chemistry. Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.  Same as ATOC 5200.

Acquaints students at the upper division level with current research in atmospheres, oceans, and climate. Topics may vary each semester. May be repeated up to 18 total credit hours within the degree as long as the topic is different. Students may register for more than one section of this course in the same semester. Recommended prerequisites and corequisites: will vary depending on topic. Recommended restriction: students with 57-180 credits (Juniors or Seniors).  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

In this cousre, students will learn how to convert physical descriptions of the earth system into numerical models.  This will involve learning how to make assumptions to simplify complex systems, how to discretize and code mathematical euqations so they can be solved on a computer, how to assess if the result and approximations are reasonable, and how to use a simple model to address a research question. During the course of the semster, students will build simple 1D climate models and gain an understanding of how this reduced complexity model differ from more complex climate models.  The programming language for the class will be Python. Strongly recommended pre-requisistes: Calculus 1&2, Differential Equations, Linear Algebra, and previous programming experience (any language, Python recommended; a very good class to gain the required Python skills is ATOC 4500 Scientific Programming and Data Visualization).  For ATOC minors, this course will satisfy 3 credit hours of the upper division coursework requirements.  For ATOC majors, this course may be used as one of the 4 Methods of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences courses.

Objective analysis is the extraction of information from data using statistical methods, most often via a computer program.  The goals of the course are twofold: 1) provide a working knowledge of the basic methods used to objectively analyze atmospheric and oceanic data, 2) develop skills to critically evaluate published studies using objective analysis techniques.  The course will start with a review of basic statistics applied to atmospheric and oceanic sciences datasets: Bayes Theorem, statistical significance testing, and Monte Carlo techniques.  We will then learn techniques to extract information from data directly such as compositing, linear regression, 1st order autoregressive model, matrix methods including EOF/PCA analysis, and time series techniques including power spectra analysis and filtering.  Other analysis methods may be covered, depending on interest.  Class Format: This course is very much a learning by doing course. In addition to lecture by the professor, in-class time will include hands-on “application labs” in Python Jupyter Notebooks.  During the application labs, you will run existing computing codes to analyze data and apply the methods learned in the class.  Homework will require you to write code in and run code to analyze atmospheric and oceanic sciences datasets. Required background: Knowledge of programming, matrix algebra, and calculus will be assumed.  Class is targeted at undergraduate students conducting research using atmospheric and oceanic sciences data.  For ATOC majors, this course may be used as one of the 4 Methods of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences courses.

Fundamentals of remote sensing of the atmosphere and ocean. Principles of satellite and ground-based remote sensing and active (lidar and radar) and passive methods. Lectures will include both descriptive and quantitative approaches to the subject material and include in-class demonstrations and measurements and data from the ATOC Skywatch Observatory.  In addition to instruments and their application to observations of the atmosphere and ocean, other topics include fundamentals of atmospheric radiation and inverse methods for deriving geophysical variables from measurements. Prerequisites are one year of calculus and one year of physics with calculus.  For ATOC minors, this course will satisfy 3 credit hours of the upper division coursework requirements.  For ATOC majors, this course may be used as one of the three Methods of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences courses.

This course provides a comprehensive study of the structure, evolution, and dynamics of atmospheric phenomena on the mesoscale, which have horizontal scales ranging from a few to several hundred kilometers.  Topics include land/sea breezes, horizontal convective rolls, drylines, deep convective storms, outflow boundaries, tornadoes, mesoscale convective systems, terrain induced airflows, mountain waves and the mesoscale aspects of extratropical and tropical cyclones.  These phenomena will be studied with both qualitative (e.g., through data analyses and case studies) and quantitative (e.g., through mathematical calculations and derivations) approaches in order to demonstrate the linkage between observed mesoscale processes and their theoretical foundations.  Data from weather radars will be employed extensively throughout the course.  As a result, part of the course will cover basic radar principles and interpretation of radar data..

Climate models consist of simultaneously solved equations describing physical, biological, and chemical processes. The numerical solutions produced by climate models provide invaluable information about the primary drivers of variability and change in the Earth’s climate system. In addition to enabling simulation of past and future climates that we cannot directly nor completely observe, climate models can be used to test physical hypotheses about how the climate system functions. ATOC4500/ATOC7500 provides an overview of climate modeling. The course begins with a review of the climate system components, Earth’s energy balance, and water/carbon cycles. Next, a hierarchy of climate models are presented starting with simple energy balance models, moving on to intermediate complexity models with rudimentary heat transport and seasonality, and finally ending with global coupled climate models. Standard climate model approaches and experiments are presented, and then used in companion homework exercises. The course culminates with the students designing and running experiments using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) on the Cheyenne supercomputer. These experiments will provide students with real-world experience running a climate model used internationally for climate science and to inform climate policy. This course is aimed at upper level undergraduate ATOC minors/majors. The course is also cross-listed as ATOC7500 for graduate students. Graduate students enrolled in the course will be expected to complete more challenging homework assignments.

The east coast is forecast to get a dramatic storm over the next few days. The storm is expected to be a "bomb", which means a drop in central pressure of 24 mb in less than 24 hours. Such a dramatic drop in pressure with an intense mid-latitude cyclone is indicative of a strong baroclinic environment, or a strong contrast in temperature over a short distance. The preceding cold air over the eastern half of the US the last week is one of the ingredients that can lead to such a dramatic storm.  It is snowing in Tallahassee for the first time in 28 years. The forecast is for the snow to extend along the east coast from Floria to Maine.  However, the biggest impacts might come from the winds. The resulting strong pressure gradient might produce wind gusts to near hurricane-force over portions of New England such as Cape Cod.  If you have interest in learning more about dramatic mid-latitude cyclones, such as this east coast storm, then ATOC 4500-003 - Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology is the course for you. The daily weather of the middle latitudes is a complex interplay of air masses, fronts, cyclones, and anticyclones. This interaction of the different weather components is dependent on the laws of physics and are governed by mathematical equations representing the motions and behavior of the atmosphere. This course will connect the theory and equations of atmospheric dynamics with the weather maps and analyses of synoptic-scale weather systems, such as fronts, jet streams, and mid-latitude cyclones. The connection will be made through an applied approach in studying current and past significant weather events through manual and computer-based calculations and analyses.  For ATOC minors, this course will satisfy 3 credit hours of the upper division coursework requirements.  For ATOC majors, this course may be used as one of the three Methods of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences courses.

Are you tired of sitting in lecture classes? Do you want to gain hands-on experience making meteorological measurements? Do you want to see what it is like to be an observational atmospheric scientist? If so, field observations and measurements is the class for you. In this class students will plan, conduct, and analyze data from two mini-field campaigns around Boulder, CO. In preparation for these field campaigns we will discuss and conduct experiments to understand errors associated with measuring the state of the atmosphere. Students will then design field campaigns that will deploy two portable weather stations and 20 handheld weather sensors. For the field campaigns some of these instruments will be deployed at fixed locations on open space land while other instruments will be deployed on mobile platforms (cars, bikes, and unmanned aircraft - drones). Students will analyze data collected over the course of the semester and present their results in both oral presentations and in written reports that are similar in style to those given by professional scientists. At the end of the semester students taking this class will have gained first-hand experience with the issues involved with making scientifically useful measurements of the atmosphere, will be able to design field missions, and will be able to analyze and present the results of these field missions to their scientific peers.  Pre-requisite: ATOC 1050, ATOC 3050, or consent of instructor.  For ATOC minors, this course will satisfy 3 credit hours of the upper division coursework requirements.  For ATOC majors, this course may be used as one of the 4 Methods of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences courses.

Fundamentals of environmental instrumentation: thermometry, barometry, anemometry, and radiometry are some of the key topics to be covered.  Practical "hands-on" experiments to train students on elements of instrument design and operation, data acquisition, sampling theory, instrument response, error analysis, accuracy and precision, introduction to basic diagnostic equipment, among other topics.  Some of the labs will use instruments in the ATOC Skywatch Lab.

This course offers students a comprehensive introduction to emergency and wilderness (including space) medicine, climate change, and the relationship between humans and a changing climate. The first week takes place on the Anschutz Medical Campus. Morning and afternoon series of lectures and hands-on activities are focused on a myriad of core topics: introduction to trauma and medicine; hands-on anatomy labs; EMS and Emergency Department immersion; approach to a successful pre-health graduate school application; medicine and social media; survey of the science of climate change; and the health impacts of environmental change. The second week takes place at Camp Granite Lake in the heart of the Rocky Mountains. This program provides hands-on learning experiences and physician shadowing opportunities that are crucial for any student interested in pursuing a health profession or conducting research in remote, extreme or austere environments. At the end of this course, students have learned valuable skills in assessing and treating patients in an emergency and wilderness medical crisis, gained shadowing exposure with paramedics and physicians in an emergency setting, and have been given the opportunity to meet with members of a medical school admissions team to discover how to be more successful in medical school and health profession school applications. Finally, students earn CPR certification and Wilderness First Responder certification, providing them with skills to respond to any medical emergency in the wilderness.

Enrollment is managed through Extraordinary Programs, Office of Continuing Education, University of Colorado Boulder. This class is held offsite: Aurora, CO (classroom and labs at CU Anschutz Medical Campus) and Golden, CO (field site at Camp Granite Lake). Each session of this course spans 13 consecutive days including the weekend in between. The course is offered in three sessions per year: late May/early June, August, and January. The schedule on most days starts at 8:00 AM and ends late in the evening (see complete sample schedule below). The course involves 51 contact hours of classroom instruction during the first week, followed by a week in the field. Total contact hours estimated at 135.

Karnauskas (Associate Professor, Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences) and Lemery (Associate Professor, Dept. of Emergency Medicine and Section Chief, Wildnerness and Environmental Medicine) serve as course Co-Directors. Prof. Karnauskas serves as the Instructor for students enrolled for undergraduate credit through CU Boulder Continuing Education. Other instructors based out of CU Anschutz include Elaine Reno, M.D. (Assistant Professor, Dept. of Emergency Medicine) and Todd Miner, Ed.D.

Prerequisite: Permission of instructors.

More information: https://www.coloradowm.org/courses/pre-med/colorado-emergency-wilderness...

Investigating main processes that control weather and climate in the western United States and other mountain ranges around the world is the emphasis of this course. Provides an advanced survey of synoptic, mesoscale, and microscale meteorology in complex terrain including orographically modified cyclone evolution, front-mountain interactions, terrain and thermally driven flows, mountain waves, downslope winds, and orographic precipitation. Recommended prerequisite: ATOC 1050 or ATOC major. Same as ATOC 5550. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science. Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Utilizing a range of operational weather observations to analyze current weather conditions, providing hands-on experience interpreting observations and relating those observations to the physical principles that govern atmospheric behavior is the course emphasis. It focuses on how to read weather reports, analyze observations, and how to prepare weather maps to analyze current conditions and how to interpret numerical weather forecasts. Recommended prerequisite: ATOC 1050 or ATOC 1060 or ATOC 4720 or ATOC major. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Provides a fundamental overview of the physics of Earth's atmosphere. Topics include atmospheric composition and structure, atmospheric radiation and optics (rainbows, halos and other phenomena), atmospheric  thermodynamics, cloud physics and atmospheric electricity and lightning. Including both descriptive and quantitative approaches to the subject material. Where applicable, observations from the ATOC Skywatch Observatory will be introduced. Recommended prerequisite: one year of calculus and one year of physics with calculus.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Introduces the fundamental physical principles that govern the atmospheric circulations across a range of spatial and temporal scales and provides a quantitative description and interpretation of a wide range of atmospheric phenomena. Topics include atmospheric forces, governing equations, balanced and unbalanced flows, atmospheric waves and mid-latitude cyclones. Recommended prerequisite: one year of calculus and one semester of physics with calculus.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Introduces the field of physical oceanography, with emphasis on the ocean's interaction with the global atmosphere. Analysis of the ocean's heat, salt, and momentum budgets, wind-driven and thermohaline circulations, climate cycles including El Nino, and the ocean's role in climate change. Theory complemented by state-of-the-art observations and models. Department recommended prerequisites: ATOC 1060 or ATOC 3070 or ATOC 3600 and one semester of calculus. Same as ATOC 5730.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Introduces students to the dynamic causes of deserts in the context of atmospheric processes and land-surface physics. Discusses desert severe weather, desert microclimates, human impacts and desertification, inter-annual variability in aridity (drought), the effects of deserts on global climate and the impact of desert climate on humans. Recommended prerequisites: One semester of calculus and ATOC 1050 or ATOC 1060 or ATOC 3600 or ATOC major. Same as ATOC 5750. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural sciences.

Explores the complex interactions of the atmosphere and wind energy generation. Surveys wind turbine designs. Explores planetary boundary layer dynamics, traditional and novel wind measurement methods, forecasting methods, wind turbine and wind farm wakes, wind farm optimization, sound propagation from wind plants, climate change impacts on wind resources and the impacts of wind plants on local environments. Recommended prerequisite: ATOC 1050 or ATOC major. Same as ATOC 5770. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.  Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Examines controversial issues related to the environment, including climate change. Covers scientific theories and the intersection between science and governmental policy. Includes discussion, debate and critical reading of textual materials. Department enforced prerequisite: ATOC 1060 or ATOC 3600. Same as ATOC 5000 and ENVS 5830. Approved for arts and sciences gen ed: natural sciences.

Teaches programming in python, as well as analysis skills for accessing, analyzing and visualizing data that are commonly used in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Basic data analysis includes curve fitting and re-gridding/aggregation of satellite observations or meteorological data for global climatologies. The course content is primarily conveyed through hands-on code development. A final project, involving the independent analysis and visualization of a scientific data set, integrates skills acquired throughout the course. Recommended requisites: prior experience with Python or a basic programming course such as CSCI 1300 or equivalent, basic knowledge of calculus and algebra. For ATOC minors, this course will satisfy 3 credit hours of the upper division coursework requirements.  For ATOC majors, this course may be used as one of the 4 Methods of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences courses.

May be repeated up to 6 total credit hours. Department enforced prerequisite: instructor consent.

Students work independently on a research topic under the guidance of a faculty member. A written thesis and an oral presentation of the work are required. Registration by arrangement and with consent of faculty mentor. Department enforced restriction:  minimum 3.00 GPA.

 

Graduate Courses

NOTE: Most ATOC graduate level courses require one year of college chemistry and calculus-based physics, and math up through differential equations.

Discusses current issues such as ozone depletion, global warming and air quality for graduate students in nonscientific fields. Provides the scientific background necessary to understand, follow scientific developments and critically evaluate these issues. Same as ATOC4800 and ENVS 5830.

Covers atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics and the underlying governing laws and mathematical and physical principles. Topics include atmospheric composition and thermodynamics, conservation laws and atmospheric governing equations, geostrophic balance and balanced flows, vorticity dynamics and boundary layers. Recommended prerequisite: one year of calculus-based physics and math through differential equations. ATOC graduate core course.

Provides fundamental knowledge of observations, theory, dynamics and modeling in physical oceanography. Promotes critical thinking and the development of skills for data analysis and interpretation. Recommended prerequisites: one year of calculus-based physics and math up through differential equations. ATOC graduate core course.

Examines large-scale motions in a stratified rotating atmosphere and ocean, and quasi-geostrophic flow, barotropic and baroclinic instabilities, cyclogenesis, global circulations and boundary layer processes. Ageostrophic motions, including Kelvin waves, internal gravity waves and the theory of frontogenesis are also considered. Recommended prerequisite: ATOC 5050, one year of calculus-based physics and math up through differential equations. ATOC graduate core course.

Explores the existing theories of the El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) mechanisms, theory o f thermocline in a qusi-geostrophic system, and dynamics of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circuluation (AMOC) and its associated thermohaline circulation.  Covers physica mechanisms, associated mathematic equations, and numerical model simulations.  Discusses their direct research applications in understanding the past, present and future climate variability and change.  Offered once per year (3 credits). May be repeated up to 9 total credit hours. Recommended prerequisites: ATOC 5400 and ATOC 5051 or ATOC 5060.

Reviews basic kinetics and photochemistry of atmospheric species and stratospheric chemistry with emphasis on processes controlling ozone abundance. Tropospheric chemistry focusing on photochemical smog, acid deposition, oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and global climate change. Recommended prerequisite: one semester of college-level chemistry. ATOC graduate core course. Same as CHEM 5151.

Follows Graduate Atmospheric Chemistry (ATOC 5151) and explores advanced topics in atmospheric chemistry, such as secondary aerosol formation, oxidant formation, the chemistry of global climate change and/or design of advanced laboratory experiments. Recommended prerequisite: CHEM 5151 or ATOC 5151. Same as CHEM 5152.

Provides a large-scale synthesis of the processes impacting ocean biogeochemistry. Transforms theoretical understanding into real-world applications using oceanographic data and models. Topics include: chemical composition, biological nutrient utilization and productivity, air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, ocean acidification, ocean deoxygenation, iron fertilization, biogeochemical climate feedbacks and more. Same as ATOC 4200.

Examines fundamentals of radiative transfer and remote sensing with primary emphasis on the Earth's atmosphere; emission, absorption and scattering by molecules and particles; multiple scattering; polarization; radiometry and photometry; principles of inversion theory; extinction- and emission-based passive remote sensing; principles of active remote sensing; lidar and radar; additional applications such as the greenhouse effect and Earth's radiative energy budget. ATOC graduate core course. Department enforced prerequisites: one year of calculus-based physics, and math up through differential equations. Same as ASEN 5235.

Covers the role of the ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and atmosphere in the global carbon cycle. Specific topics include marine carbonate chemistry, biological production, terrestrial fluxes, anthropogenic emissions, and the evolution of the global carbon cycle in a changing climate.

Covers equations of fluid motion relevant to planetary atmospheres and oceans and stellar atmospheres; effects of rotation and viscosity; and vorticity dynamics, boundary layers and wave motions. Introduces instability theory, nonlinear equilibration and computational methods in fluid dynamics. Department enforced prerequisite: partial differential equations or equivalent. Same as ASTR 5400.

Nonlinear waves and instabilities; wave-mean and wave-wave interactions, resonant triads; secondary instability and transition to turbulence; diagnosis, modeling, and parameterization of turbulent flows in geophysics and astrophysics. Department enforced prerequisite: ASTR 5120 or ATOC 5060 or ATOC 5400. Same as ASTR 5410.

Applied mathematics course; provides necessary analytical background for courses in plasma physics,fluid dynamics, electromagnetism, and radiative transfer. Covers integration techniques, linear and nonlinear differential equations, WKB and Fourier transform methods, adiabatic invariants, partial differential equations, integral equations, and integrodifferential equations. Same as ASTR 5540.

Investigating main processes that control weather and climate in the western United States and other mountain ranges around the world is the emphasis of this course. Provides an advanced survey of synoptic, mesoscale, and microscale meteorology in complex terrain including orographically modified cyclone evolution, front-mountain interactions, terrain and thermally driven flows, mountain waves, downslope winds, and orographic precipitation. Same as ATOC 4550.

Application of radiative transfer theory to problems in planetary atmospheres, with primary emphasis on the Earth's atmosphere; principles of atomic and molecular spectroscopy; infrared band representation; absorption and emission of atmospheric gases; radiation flux and flux divergence computations; radiative transfer and fluid motions; additional applications such as the greenhouse effect, inversion methods and climate models. Department enforced  prerequisite: ATOC 5235. Same as ASTR 5560.

Examines the physics and chemistry of clouds and aerosols in the planetary atmospheres, where they impact climate, atmospheric chemistry, remote sensing and weather. Applies basic microphysical, radiative and chemical processes affecting particles to issues in current literature. Recommended prerequisite: one semester of college-level chemistry and calculus-based physics and math up through differential equations. ATOC graduate core course.

Introduces the field of physical oceanography, with emphasis on the ocean's interaction with the global atmosphere. Analysis of the ocean's heat, salt, and momentum budgets, wind-driven and thermohaline circulations, climate cycles including El Nino, and the ocean's role in climate change. Theory complemented by state-of-the-art observations and models. Department recommended prerequisites: ATOC 1060 or ATOC 3070 or ATOC 3600 and one semester of calculus. Same as ATOC 4730.

Introduces students to the dynamic causes of deserts in the context of atmospheric processes and land-surface physics. Discusses desert severe weather, desert microclimates, human impacts and desertification, inter-annual variability in aridity (drought), the effects of deserts on global climate and the impact of desert climate on humans. Same as ATOC 4750.

Explores the complex interactions of the atmosphere and wind energy generation. Surveys wind turbine designs. Explores planetary boundary layer dynamics, traditional and novel wind measurement methods, forecasting methods, wind turbine and wind farm wakes, wind farm optimization, sound propagation from wind plants, climate change impacts on wind resources and the impacts of wind plants on local environments. Same as ATOC 4770.

Covers the structure, composition, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres. Also includes origin of planetary atmospheres, chemistry and cloud physics, greenhouse effects, climate, and the evolution of planetary atmospheres past and future. Same as ASTR 5810 and GEOL 5810.

Reviews protoplanetary disks, condensation in the solar nebula, composition of meteorites, planetary accretion, comets and asteroids, planetary rings and extrasolar planets. Applies celestial mechanics to the orbital evolution of solar system bodies. Same as ASTR 5820 and GEOL 5820.

Examines current topics in planetary science, based on recent discoveries, spacecraft observations and other developments. Focuses on a specific topic each time the course is offered, such as Mars, Venus, Galilean satellites, exobiology, comets or extrasolar planets. May be repeated up to 6 total credit hours, provided the topics vary. Same as ASTR 5830 and GEOL 5830.

Studies current research on a topic in planetary science. Students and faculty give presentations. Subjects may vary each semester. May be repeated up to 4 total credit hours to meet candidacy requirements. Same as ASTR 5835 and GEOL 5835.

May be repeated up to 6 total credit hours. Students may register for more than one section of this course in the same semester.

Studies an area of current research in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Students read selected papers from the literature. Students and faculty give presentations and participate in discussions. May be repeated for a total of 6 credit hours within the degree. May be repeated for a total of 3 credit hours within a semester.

Discusses background theory and procedures used for modeling climate on a variety of space and time scales. Includes numerical simulation of weather and climate with models in a hierarchy of complexity, assessments of error growth, prediction of circulations and impact of radiative and other influences. Explores various numerical methods, develops core computing skills and considers data handling and visualization. Consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory. Recommended prerequisite: ATOC 5050 or calculus.

Acquaints students with current research in atmospheres, oceans and climate. Topics may vary each semester. May be repeated for a total of 9 credit hours. Students may register for more than one section of this course in the same semester.

All doctoral students must register for not fewer than 30 hours of dissertation credit as part of the requirements for the degree. For a detailed discussion of doctoral dissertation credit, refer to the Graduate School section.