Michael C. Neale

Date first presented

June 2021 Virtual Workshop


The basics of variation - means and variances are considered, followed by description of i) the tracing rules of path analysis and ii) matrix representation of path models.  The discussion is illustrated with a simple common factor model, and considers model identification.  The 27-minute presentation concludes with rationale for always using Open Source software for scientific purposes, as using closed source code is inappropriate for science.