Fall 2009 - Spring 2010. A novel camera system will be developed for reduced invasiveness and improved vision during cardiac surgeries on children with Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD). Currently, it is very difficult to see the borders of a VSD from the right ventricular (RV) side of the heart, and easy to see the border from the Left Ventricular (LV) side. This is because the RV has a lot of trabecular muscle (that resembles holes) while the LV has smooth walled muscle. Cutting a hole in the LV to see a VSD does a lot of damage to the heart's function. Instead common surgical approaches are: 1) through a right atrial incision looking through the tricuspid valve (most common), and 2) through an incision in the right ventricle.