Geoscience education research (GER) furthers our understanding of how people learn geoscience and how instructional practices can enhance learning. The central premise of this line of research views the learner and the teacher as partners in the educational process. GER utilizes methods that require a deep cognate grounding in geoscience knowledge, practices, worldview, and priorities in addition to social and education science methods. GER uses both qualitative and quantitative research methods to identify conceptual challenges to learning Earth processes and systems; develop scientific, analytical, spatial, and critical thinking skills; improve student’s motivation and interest in the geosciences; and design, implement, and assess learner-centered instructional strategies that promote effective long-lasting learning.