This report details the development of a learning progression for the understanding of fractions. The intended use of the learning progression is to support formative assessment practices for children as they receive instruction during elementary school. The validity of the learning progression is evaluated by mapping its levels to vertically scaled test items answered by students taking Curriculum Associates' i-Ready Diagnostic Assessment. It is shown that there is a significant moderate correlation between the levels of the learning progression and the difficulty of the test items associated with each level.
Undocumented students who became eligible for California’s state aid program enroll in college at similar rates to their peers, though are more likely to attend community college due to differences in where they apply. Yet undocumented students who attend four-year colleges are equally likely to persist and earn a degree, pushing against any evidence of “mismatch” that suggests these students are not prepared for those environments.
We find that Florida’s Bright Futures financial aid program had essentially no impact on postsecondary enrollment and degree completion. These findings align with emerging notions that state merit aid programs produce smaller effects when compared to more effective need-based aid.
The federal government instituted changes to simplify the FAFSA filing process – known as “prior-prior year” – which led students to submit their FAFSA substantially earlier and increased refiling rates for independent students. Nonetheless, the policy did not appear to substantially alter state aid receipt or postsecondary attendance for any groups.