Recognizing and understanding conversational groups, or F-formations, is a critical task for situated agents designed to interact with humans. F-formations contain complex structures and dynamics, yet are used intuitively by people in everyday face-to-face conversations. Prior research exploring ways of identifying F-formations has largely relied on heuristic algorithms that may not capture the rich dynamic behaviors employed by humans. We introduce REFORM (REcognize F-FORmations with Machine learning), a data-driven approach for detecting F-formations given human and agent positions and orientations. REFORM decomposes the scene into all possible pairs and then reconstructs F-formations with a voting-based scheme. We evaluated our approach across three datasets: the SALSA dataset, a newly collected human-only dataset and a new set of acted human-robot scenarios, and found that REFORM yielded improved accuracy over a state-of-the-art F-formation detection algorithm. We also introduce symmetry and tightness as quantitative measures to characterize F-formations.
- Hooman Hedayati, Annika Muehlbradt, Daniel J. Szafir and Sean Andrist. 2020. REFORM: Recognizing F-formations for Social Robots. In Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2020). (Las Vegas, Nevada–October 25-29, 2020).
Additional researcher: Sean Andrist, senior researcher, Microsoft