Welcome to the S.M. George Group Website.  Our research group concentrates on surface chemistry, thin film growth and etching, and nanoscale engineering. Index clip

We study the atomic layer processing of thin films.  Our focus is on atomic layer deposition (ALD), atomic layer etching (ALE) and molecular layer deposition (MLD).  Projects range across a variety of disciplines.  Some research is exploring the chemistry of thin film growth and etching.  Other studies are examining the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of thin films.  We also pursue many applications of ALD, ALE and MLD in areas such as semiconductor processing, Li ion batteries, supercapacitors, water desalination and solar energy conversion.

We are particularly interested in developing the toolset needed for the atomic layer processing of semiconductor devices.  Advanced semiconductor manufacturing is requiring atomic level precision in deposition, patterning and etching.  For example, the fabrication of 3D FinFETs will require ALD to grow and ALE to remove material.  Selectivity in both ALD and ALE is also desirable to avoid using masks.  The challenges of processing at sub-10 nm are great.  However, they present important opportunities for our research.FET

We also have interests in new methods of thin film growth and etching using non-thermal excitation with electrons, radicals, ions and radiation.  These non-thermal sources are required to lower temperatures for processing on thermally sensitive substrates and to minimize diffusion in nanolayered devices.  We are also pursuing electrochemical applications of ALD and MLD where coating of ultrathin films is needed on high surface area and high aspect ratio electrodes.  Many energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and Li ion batteries, greatly benefit from ALD and MLD coatings.

In addition, we are also interested in scaleup of ALD, ALE and MLD for commercialization.  We are actively working on the development of spatial ALD and spatial MLD and moving these methods to true roll-to-roll operation.  We also have a longstanding interest in barrier technology and the development of flexible ultrabarriers.

We invite you to explore more detail about our research in the Projects section.  If you have any questions, then you can also email Prof. George at Steven.George@colorado.edu.  Thank you for your interest.