1. H.R. Culver, J. Sinha, T.R. Prieto, C.J. Calo, B.D. Fairbanks, and C.N. Bowman, “Click Nucleic Acid-DNA Binding Behavior: Dependence on Length, Sequence, and Ionic Strength,” Biomacromolecules, In Press (2020).  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.0c00996
  2. Y. Hu, B.A. Kowalski, S. Mavila, M. Podgorski, J. Sinha, A.C. Sullivan, R.R. McLeod, and C.N. Bowman. “Holographic Photopolymer Material with High Dynamic Range (Δn) via Thiol–Ene Click Chemistry,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2020. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c08872
  3. L. MacDougall, H. Culver, C.C. Lin, C.N. Bowman and K.S. Anseth, “Degradable and Resorbable Polymer,”  In Press, Chapter in Biomaterials Science, 4th Edition, 2020.
  4. X. Han, B.D. Fairbanks, J. Sinha, and C.N. Bowman, “Sequence-Controlled Synthesis of Advanced Clickable Synthetic Oligonucleotides,” Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 41, 2000327 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.202000327
  5. A.M. Martinez, M.K. McBride, T.J. White, and C.N. Bowman, “Reconfigurable and Spatially Programmable Chameleon Skin‐Like Material Utilizing Light Responsive Covalent Adaptable Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Elastomers,” Advanced Functional Materials,  30, 2003150 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202003150
  6. J. Sinha, M. Podgorski, A. Tomaschke, V.L. Ferguson, and C.N. Bowman, “Phototriggered Base Amplification for Thiol-Michael Addition Reactions in Cross-linked Photopolymerizations with Efficient Dark Cure,” Macromolecules, 53,  6331-6340 (2020). DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.0c00776
  7. K.F. Long, N.J. Bongiardina, P. Mayordomo, M.J. Olin, A.D. Ortega, and C.N. Bowman, “Effects of 1°, 2°, and 3° Thiols on Thiol–Ene Reactions: Polymerization Kinetics and Mechanical Behavior,” Macromolecules, 53, 5805-5815 (2020). DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.0c00369
  8. D.M. Love, B.D. Fairbanks, and C.N. Bowman, “Evaluation of Aromatic Thiols as Photoinitiators,” Macromolecules, 53, 5237-5247 (2020). DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.0c00757 
  9. Z. Wen, X. Han, B.D. Fairbanks, K. Yang and C.N. Bowman, “Development of Thiourethanes as Robust, Reprocessable Networks,” Polymer, 202, 122715 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2020.122715
  10. N. Sowan, Y. Lu, K.J. Kolb, L.M. Cox, R. Long, and C.N. Bowman, “Enhancing the Toughness of Composites via Dynamic Thiol-Thioester Exchange (TTE) at the Resin-Filler Interface,” Polymer Chemistry, 11, 4760-4767 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/D0PY00563K  
  11. Podgórski, M., Mavila, S., Huang, S., Spurgin, N., Sinha, J. and Bowman, C.N. “Thiol–Anhydride Dynamic Reversible Networks,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 59, 9345 - 9349 (2020). DOI:10.1002/anie.202001388
  12. G. Gao, X. Han, N. Sowan, X. Zhang, P. Shah, M. Chen, C.N. Bowman and J.W. Stansbury, “Stress Relaxation via Covalent Dynamic Bonds in Nanogel-Containing Thiol-Ene Resins,” ACS Macro Letters, 9, 713-719 (2020). DOI: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.0c00275
  13. A.J. Anderson, H.R. Culver, S.J. Bryant, and C.N. Bowman, “Viscoelastic and Thermoreversible Gel Networks Crosslinked by Non-covalent Interactions Between CAN and DNA,” Polymer Chemistry, 11, 2959-2968 (2020). DOI: 10.1039/D0PY00165A
  14. M. Podgorski, N. Spurgin, S. Mavila, and C.N. Bowman, “Mixed Mechanisms of Bond Exchange in Covalent Adaptable Networks: Monitoring the Contribution of Reversible Exchange and Reversible Addition in Thiol-Succinic Anhydride Dynamic Networks,”  Polymer Chemistry, 11,5365-5376 (2020).   DOI:10.1039/D0PY00091D   
  15. A. Harguindey, H. Culver, J. Sinha, C.N. Bowman and J. Cha, “Efficient Cellular Uptake of Click NucleicAcid Modified Proteins,”  Chemical Communications56, 4820-4823 (2020). DOI: 10.1039/C9CC09410F   
  16. M. Podgorski, B.D. Fairbanks, B.E. Kirkpatrick, M.K. McBride, A. Martinez, A. Dobson, N.J. Bongiardina, and C.N. Bowman, “Towards Stimuli Responsive Dynamic Thermosets Through Continuous Development and Improvements in Covalent Adaptable Networks,” Advanced Materials, 32, 1906876 (2020). DOI: 10.1002/adma.201906876  (Cover Illustration Taken from this Article)
  17. L.M. Cox, A.M. Martinez, A.K. Blevins, N. Sowan, Y. Ding, and C.N. Bowman, “Nanoimprint Lithography: Emergent Materials and Methods of Actuation,” Nano Today, 31, 10038 (2020).  DOI:10.1016.j.nantod.2019.100838
  18. M.D. Alim, K.K. Childress, N.J. Baugh, A.M. Martinez, A. Davenport, B.D. Fairbanks, M.K. McBride, B.T. Worrell, J.W. Stansbury, R.R. McLeod, and C.N. Bowman, “ A Photopolymerizable Thermoplastic with Tunable Mechanical Performance,” Materials Horizons, 7, 835-842 (2020). DOI: 10.1039/C9MH01336A
  19. K.L. Morrissey, B.D. Fairbanks, D.S. Bull, M.P. Stoykovich, and C.N. Bowman, “Flocculation Behavior and Mechanisms of Block Copolymer Architectures on Silica Microparticle nad Chlorella Vulgaris Systems,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 567, 316-322 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j/jcis.2020.02.001
  20. A.L. Dobson, N.J. Bongiardina, and C.N. Bowman, “Combined Dynamic Network and Filler Interface Approach for Improved Adhesion and Toughness in Pressure Sensitive Adhesives,” ACS Applied Polymer Materials2, 1053-1060 (2020). DOI: 10.1021/acsapm.9b00992
  21. D. Love, B. Fairbanks, and C.N. Bowman, “Reaction Environment Effect on the Kinetics of Radical Thiol-EnePolymerizations in the Presence of Amines and Thiolate Anions,” ACS Macro Lettters, 9, 174-179 (2020).  DOI: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.9b00960
  22. K.K. Childress, M.D. Alim, J.J. Hernandez, J.W. Stansbury, and C.N. Bowman, "Additive manufacture of lightly crosslinked semicrystalline thiol-enes for enhanced mechanical performance," Polymer Chemistry11, 39-46 (2020). DOI: 10.1039/c9py01452g
  23. B.D. Fairbanks, H.R. Culver, S. Mavila, and C.N. Bowman, “Towards High-Efficiency Synthesis of Xenonucleic Acids,” Trends in Chemistry, 2, 43-56 (2020).  DOI: 10.1016/j.trechm.2019.06.004
  24. J. Sinha, A. Dobson, O. Bankhar, M. Podgorski, P.K. Shah, S.L.W. Zajdowicz, A. Alotaibi, J.W. Stansbury, and C.N. Bowman, "Vinyl sulfonamide based thermosetting composites via thiol-Michael polymerization," Dental Materials, 36, 249-256 (2020). DOI:10.1016/j.dental.2019.11.012
  25. N. Sowan, A. Dobson, M. Podgorski, and C.N. Bowman, "Dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) in dental restorative materials: Implementation of a DCC-based adaptive interface (AI) at the resin-filler interface for improved performance," Dental Materials, 36, 53-59 (2020). DOI:10.1016/j.dental.2019.11.021


  1. K.K. Childress, K. Kim, DJ Glugla, CB Musgrave, C.N. Bowman, and JW Stansbury “Independent Control of Singlet Oxygen and Radical Generation via Irradiation of a Two-Color Photosensitve Molecule,” Macromolecules, 13, 4968-4978 (2019).   DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.9b00424
  2. D. Love, K. Kim, D.W. Domaille, O. Williams, J.W. Stansbury, C.B. Musgrave, and C.N. Bowman, “Catalyst-free, aza_Michael Polymerization of Hydrazides: Polymerizability, Kinetics, and Mechanistic Origin of alpha Effect,” Polymer Chemistry, 10, 5790 – 5804 (2019).  DOI: 10.1039/C9PY01199D
  3. A. Harguindey, R. Shambojit, AW Harris, B. Fairbanks, AP Goodwin, C.N. Bowman, and JN Cha “Click Nucleic Acid Mediated Loading of Prodrug Activating Enzymes in PEG-PLGA Nanoparticles for Combination Chemotherapy,” Biomacromolecules, 4, 1683-1690 (2019).   DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00040
  4. J. Sinha, B.D.  Fairbanks, HB Song, and C.N. Bowman, “Phosphate-Based Cross-Linked Polymers from lodo-ene Photopolymerization: Tuning Surface Wettability through Thiolene Chemistry,” ACS Macro Letters, 8, 213-217 (2019).   DOI: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.8b00934
  5. M.D. Alim, S. Mavila, D.B. Miller, S. Huang, M. Podgorski, L.M. Cox, A.C. Sullivan, R.R. McLeod, and C.N. Bowman, “Realizing High Refractive Index Thiol-X Materials: A General and Scalable Synthetic Approach,” ACS Materials Letters, 1, 582-588 (2019).  DOI: 10.1021/acsmaterialslett.9b00331
  6. L.M. Cox, A.K. Blevins, J.A. Drisko, Y. Qi, Y.F. Ding, C.I. Fiedler-Higgins, R. Long, C.N. Bowman, and J.P. Killgore, "Tunable Mechanical Anisotropy, Crack Guiding, and Toughness Enhancement in Two-Stage Reactive Polymer Networks," Advanced Engineering Materials, 21, (2019). DOI: 10.1002/adem.201900578
  7. M.K. McBride, B.T. Worrell, T. Brown, L.M. Cox, N. Sowan, C. Wang, M. Podgorski, A.M. Martinez, and C.N. Bowman, Enabling Applications of Covalent Adaptable Networks, in Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 10, 175-198 (2019). J.M. Prausnitz, Editor.  DOI: 10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030217
  8. M. Podgorski, B.T. Worrell, J. Sinha, M.K. McBride, and C.N. Bowman, "Thermal Metamorphosis in (Meth)acrylate Photopolymers: Stress Relaxation, Reshaping, and Second-Stage Reaction," Macromolecules, 52, 8114-8123 (2019). DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.9b01678
  9. D.W. Zhang, H.R. Culver, and C.N. Bowman, "Hybrid Cerasomes Composed of Phosphatidylcholines and Silica Networks for the Construction of Vesicular Materials with Functionalized Shells," ACS Applied Nano Materials, 2, 7549-7558 (2019). DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.9b01634
  10. D.W. Zhang, P.K. Shah, H.R. Culver, S.N. David, J.W. Stansbury, X.B. Yin, and C.N. Bowman, "Photo-responsive liposomes composed of spiropyran-containing triazole-phosphatidylcholine: investigation of merocyanine-stacking effects on liposome-fiber assembly-transition," Soft Matter, 15, 3740-3750 (2019). DOI: 10.1039/c8sm02181c
  11. M.D. Alim, D.J. Glugla, S. Mavila, C. Wang, P.D. Nystrom, A.C. Sullivan, R.R. McLeod, and C.N. Bowman, Two-stage holographic photopolymers with high dynamic range, in Holography: Advances and Modern Trends Vi, A. Fimia, M. Hrabovsky, and J.T. Sheridan, Editors.   2019.  DOI: 10.1117/12.2522148


  1. D. Konetski, D.W. Zhang, D.K. Schwartz, and C.N. Bowman, “Photoinduced Pinicytosis for Artificial Cell and Protocell Systems,” Chemistry of Materials, 30, 8757-8763 (2018).   DOI. 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b02608
  2. C. Wang, S. Mavila, BT. Worrell, WX. Xi, T. Goldman, C.N. Bowman, "Productive Exchange of Thiols and Thioesters to Form Dynamic Polythioester-Based Polymers" ACS Macro Letters, 11, 1312-1316 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.8b00611
  3. C. Wang, T. Goldman, BT. Worrell, MK. McBride, MD. Alim, C.N. Bowman, "Recyclable and Repolymerizable Thiol-X Photopolymers" Materials Horizons, 5, 1042-1046 (2018). DOI: 10.1039/c8mh00724a
  4. S. Mavila, B. Worrell, H. Culver, T. Goldman, C. Wang, CH. Lim, D. Domaille, S. Pattanayak, MK. McBride, CB. Musgrave, C.N. Bowman, "Dynamic and Responsive DNA-like Polymers" Journal of the American Chemical Society140, 13594-13598 (2018). DOI:10.1021/jacs.8b09105
  5. D. S. Konetski, A. Baranek, S. Mavila, XP. Zhang, C.N. Bowman, “Formation of Lipid Vesicles in Situ Utilizing the Thiol-Michael Reaction” Soft Matter, 14, 7645-7652 (2018). DOI:  10.1039/c8sm01329b
  6. X. Han, DW. Domaille, B. Fairbanks, LC. He, H. Culver, XP. Zhang, J. Cha, C.N. Bowman, “New Generation of Clickable Nucleic Acids: Synthesis and Active Hybridization with DNA” Biomacromolecules, 19, 4139-4146 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01164
  7. B.T. Worrell, S. Mavila, C. Wang, T.M. Kontour, C.H. Lim, M.K. McBride, C.B. Musgrave, R. Shoemaker, C.N. Bowman, “A User’s Guide to the Thiol-Thioester Exchange in Organic Media: Scope, Limitations, and Applications in Material Science” Polymer Chemistry, 9, 4523-4534 (2018). DOI: 10.1039/c8py01031
  8. T.E. Brown, J.S. Silver, B.T. Worrell, I.A. Marozas, F.M. Yavitt, K.A. Gunay, C.N. Bowman, K.S. Anseth, “Secondary Photocrosslinking of Click Hydrogels to Probe Myoblast Mchanotransduction in Three Dimensions” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140, 11585-11588 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b0755
  9. X.P. Zhang, L. Cox, Z.B. Wen, W.X. Xi, Y.F. Ding, C.N. Bowman, “Implementation of two distinct wavelengths to induce multistage polymerization in shape memory materials and nanoimprint lithography” Polymer, 156, 162-168, (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2018.09.032
  10. D.W. Zhang, Q.K. Liu, R. Visvanathan, M.R. Tuchband, G.H. Sheetah, B.D. Fairbanks, N.A. Clark, I.I. Smalyukh, C.N. Bowman, “A Supramolecular Hydrogel Prapred From a Thymine-Containing Artificial Nucleolipid: Study of Assembly and Lyotropic Mesophases” Soft Matter, 14, 7045-7051 (2018). DOI: 10.1039/c8sm01383g
  11. Z. Wen, M. McBride, X. Zhang, X. Han, A. Martinez, R. Shao, C. Zhu, R. Visvanathan, N. Clark, Y. Wang, K. Yang, C.N. Bowman, “Reconfigurable LC Elastomers: Using a Termally Programmable Monodomain to Acess Two-Way Free-Standing Mulitple Shape Memory Polymers” Macromolecules, 51, 5812-5819 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.8b01315
  12. S. Huang, J. Sinha, M. Podgorski, X. Zhang, M. Claudino, C.N. Bowman, “Mechanistic Modeling of the Thiol-Michael Addition Polymerization Kinetics: Structural Effects of the Thiol and Vinyl Monomers” Macromolecules, 51, 5979-5988 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.8b01264
  13. M. McBride, A. Martinez, L. Cox, M. Alim, K. Childress, M. Beiswinger M. Podgorski, B. Worrell, J. Killgore, C.N. Bowman, “A Readily Programmable, Fully Reversible Shap-Switching Materail” Science Advances, 4, eaat4634 (2018). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4634
  14. B. Worrell, M. McBride, G. Lyon, L. Cox, C. Wang, S. Mavila, CH. Lim, H. Coley, C. Musgrave, Y. Ding, C.N. Bowman, “Bistable and photoswitchable states of matter” Nature Communications9, 3204 (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-05300-7
  15. D.S. Bull, N. Nelson, D. Konetski, C.N. Bowman, D.K. Schwartz, A.P. Goodwin, “Contact Line Pinning Is Not Required for Nanobubble Stability on Copolymer Brushes,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 9, 4239-4244 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b01723
  16. X. Zhang, S. Huang, M. Podgórski, X. Han, M. Claudino, C.N. Bowman, “Assessment of TEMPO as a Thermally Activatable Base Generator and Its Use in Initiation of Thermally-Triggered Thio-Michael Addition Polymerizations,” Polymer Chemistry, 9, 4294-4302  (2018). DOI:10.1039/C8PY00662H
  17. N. Sowan, L.M. Cox, P.K. Shah, H. Byul Song, J.W. Stansbury, C.N. Bowman, “Dynamic Covalent Chemistry at Interfaces: Development of Tougher, Healable Composites Through Stress Relaxation at the Resin-Silica Nanoparticles Interface,” Advanced Materials Interfaces, 5, 1800511 (2018). DOI: 10.1002/admi.201800511
  18. M.K. Mcbride, M. Podgórski, S. Chatani, B. Worrell, C.N. Bowman, “Thermoreversible Folding as a Route to Unique Shape Memory Character in Ductile Polymer Networks,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 10, 22739-22745 (2018). DOI:  10.1021/acsami.8b06004
  19. A.J. Anderson, E.B. Peters, A. Neumann, J. Wagner, B. Fairbanks, S.J. Bryant, C.N. Bowman, “Cytocompatibility and Cellular Internalization of PEGylated “Clickable” Nucleic Acid Oligomers,” Biomacromolecules, 19, 2535-2541 (2018). DOI:  10.1021/acs.biomac.8b00162
  20. H. Byul Song, A. Baranek, B.T. Worrell, W.D. Cook, C.N. Bowman, “Photopolymerized Triazole‐Based Glassy Polymer Networks with Superior Tensile Toughness,” Advanced Functional Materials, 28, 1801095 (2018). DOI:  10.1002/adfm.201801095
  21. T.E. Brown, B.J. Carberry, B.T. Worrell, O.Y. Dudaryeva, M.K. McBride, C.N. Bowman, K.S. Anseth, “Photopolymerized dynamic hydrogels with tunable viscoelastic properties through thioester exchange,” Biomaterials178, 496-503 (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.03.060
  22. X. Zhang, W. Xi, G. Gao, X. Wang, J.W. Stansbury, C.N. Bowman, “o-Nitrobenzyl-Based Photobase Generators: Efficient Photoinitiators for Visible-Light Induced Thiol-Michael Addition Photopolymerization,” ACS Macro Letters, 7, 852-857 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.8b00435
  23. D. S. Konetski, S. Mavila, C. Wang, B.T. Worrell, C.N. Bowman, “Production of Dynamic Lipid Bilayers Using the Reversible Thiol-Thioester Exchange Reaction,” Chemical Communications, 54, 8108-8111 (2018). DOI:  10.1039/C8CC03471K
  24. T. Liu, P.K. Shah, Z. Liu, G. Gao, C.N. Bowman, J.W. Stansbury, “Effects of Photodegradable o‐Nitrobenzyl Nanogels on the Photopolymerization Process,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering303, 1800206 (2018). DOI: 10.1002/mame.201800206
  25. D.W. Domaille, D. Love, X. Rima, A. Harguindey-Sanchez, B. Fairbanks, D. Klug, J.N. Cha, C.N. Bowman, “Post-Synthetic Functionalization of a Polysulfone Scaffold with Hydrazone-Linked Functionality,” Polymer Chemistry, 9, 3791-3797  (2018). DOI:  10.1039/C8PY00631H
  26. D. Zhang, Z. Liu, D. Konetski, C. Wang, B.T. Worrell, C.N. Bowman, “Liposomes formed from photo-cleavable phospholipids: in situ formation and photo-induced enhancement in permeability,” RSC Advances, 8, 14669-14675 (2018). DOI:  10.1039/C8RA00247A
  27. J. Sinha, M. Podgórski, S. Huang, C.N. Bowman, “Multifunctional monomers based on vinyl sulfonates and vinyl sulfonamides for crosslinking thiol-Michael polymerizations: monomer reactivity and mechanical behavior,” Chemical Communications, 54, 3034-3037 (2018). DOI: 10.1039/C8CC00782A
  28. D. Love, K. Kim, JT Goodrich, B.D. Fairbanks, B.T. Worrell, M.P. Stoykovich, C.B. Musgrave, C.N. Bowman, "Amine Induced Retardation of the Radical-Mediated Thiol-Ene Reaction via the Formation of Metastable Disulfide Radical Anions, " Journal of Organic Chemistry, 83, 2912-2919 (2018). DOI:  10.1021/acs.joc.8b00143
  29. S. Zajdowicz, H.B. Song, A Baranek, and C.N. Bowman, "Evaluation of Biofilm Formation on Novel Cu-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC)-Based Resins for Dental Restoratives," Dental Materials, 34, 657-666 (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.01.011
  30. S. Huang, M. Podgórski1, X. Zhang, J. Sinha, M. Claudino, J.W. Stansbury and C.N. Bowman, "Dental restorative materials based on thiol-Michael photopolymerization," Journal of Dental Research, 97, 530-536 (2018). DOI: 10.1177//0022034518755718
  31. A.A. Alzahrani, M. Saed, C.M. Yakacki, H.B. Song, N. Sowan, J.J. Walston, P.K. Shah, M.K. Mcbride, J.W. Stansbury and C.N. Bowman, “Fully recoverable rigid shape memory foam based on copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) using a salt leaching technique,” Polymer Chemistry, 9, 121-130 (2018). DOI:  10.1039/C7PY01121K
  32. D.W. Hanzon, N.A. Traugutt, M.K. McBride, C.N. Bowman, C.M. Yakacki, and K. Yu, “Adaptable Liquid Crystal Elastomers with Transesterification-based Bond Exchange Reactions,” Soft Matter, 14, 951-960 (2018). DOI:  10.1039/C7SM02110K


  1. M.D. Alim, D.J. Glugla, S. Mavila, C. Wang, P.D. Nystrom, A.C. Sullivan, R.R. McLeod, and C.N. Bowman, “High Dynamic Range Two-Stage Photopolymers via Enhanced Solubility of a High Refractive Index Acrylate Writing Monomer,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 10, 1217-1224 (2017). DOI:  10.1021/acsami.7b15063
  2. H.B. Song, X. Wang, J.R. Patton, J.W. Stansbury, and C.N. Bowman, "Kinetics and mechanics of photo-polymerized triazole-containing thermosetting composites via the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition," Dental Materials, 33, 621-629 (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2017.03.010
  3. B.D. Fairbanks, D.M. Love, and C.N. Bowman, "Efficient Polymer-Polymer Conjugation via Thiol-ene Click Reaction,” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 218, ARTN 1700073 (2017).
  4. Z. Liu, B. Fairbanks, L. He, T. Liu, P. Shah, J.N. Cha, J.W. Stansbury, and C.N. Bowman, "Water-soluble clickable nucleic acid (CNA) polymer synthesis by functionalizing the pendant hydroxyl," Chemical Communications, 53, 10156-10159 (2017). DOI: 10.1039/C7CC05542K
  5. X. Zhang, W. Xi, S. Huang, K. Long, and C.N. Bowman, "Wavelength-Selective Sequential Polymer Network Formation Controlled with a Two-Color Responsive Initiation System," Macromolecules, 50, 5652-5660 (2017). DOI:  10.1021/acs.macromol.7b01117
  6. P.K. Shah, J.W. Stansbury, and C.N. Bowman, "Application of an addition-fragmentation-chain transfer monomer in di(meth) acrylate network formation to reduce polymerization shrinkage stress," Polymer Chemsitry, 8, 4339-4351 (2017). DOI:  10.1039/C7PY00702G
  7. L.M. Cox, X. Sun, C. Wang, N. Sowan, J.P. Killgore, R. Long, H.A. Wu, C.N. Bowman, and Y. Ding, "Light-Stimulated Permanent Shape Reconfiguration in Cross-Linked Polymer Microparticles," ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9, 14422-14428 (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b02759
  8. A. Harguindey, D.W. Domaille, B.D. Fairbanks, J. Wagner, C.N. Bowman, and J.N. Cha, "Synthesis and Assembly of Click-Nucleic-Acid-Containing PEG-PLGA Nanoparticles for DNA Delivery," Advanced Materials, 29, ARTN: 1700743 (2017). DOI: 10.1002/adma.201700743
  9. C. Wang, M.M. Zieger, A. Schenzel, M. Wegener, J. Willenbacher, C. Barner-Kowollik, and C.N. Bowman, "Photoinduced Tetrazole-Based Functionalization of Off-Stoichiometric Clickable Microparticles," Advanced Functional Materials, 27, ARTN 1605317 (2017). DOI:10.1002/adfm.201605317
  10. M.K. McBride, M. Hendrikx, D. Liu, B.T. Worrell, D.J. Broer, and C.N. Bowman, "Photoinduced Plasticity in Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Networks," Advanced Materials, 29, ARTN: 1606509 (2017). DOI:  10.1002/adma.201606509


  1. Lyon, G.B.; Cox, L.M.; Goodrich, J.T.; Baranek, A.D.; Ding, Y.; Bowman, C.N. Remoldable Thiol–Ene Vitrimers for Photopatterning and Nanoimprint Lithography. Macromolecules 49(23), (2016). doi:10.1021/acs.macromol.6b01281
  2. Glugla, D.J.; Alim, M.D.; Byars, K.D.; Nair, D.P.; Bowman, C.N.; Maute, K.K.; McLeod, R.R. Rigid Origami via Optical Programming and Deferred Self-Folding of a Two-Stage Photopolymer. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(43), (2016). doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b08981
  3. Claudino, M.; Zhang, X.; Alim, M.D.; Podgórski, M.; Bowman, C.N. Mechanistic Kinetic Modeling of Thiol–Michael Addition Photopolymerizations via Photocaged “Superbase” Generators: An Analytical Approach.Macromolecules 49(21), (2016). doi: 10.1021/acs.macromol.6b01605
  4. Lee, K.M.; Ware, T.H.; Tondiglia, V.P.; McBride, M.K.; Zhang, X.; Bowman, C.N.; White, T.J. Initiatorless Photopolymerization of Liquid Crystal Monomers. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(41), (2016). doi:10.1021/acsami.6b09144
  5. Konetski, D.; Gong, T.; Bowman, C.N. Photoinduced Vesicle Formation via the Copper-Catalyzed Azide–Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction. Langmuir (2016). doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b02043
  6. Podgórski, M.; Wang, C.; Yuan, Y.; Konetski, D.; Smalyukh, I.; Bowman, C.N. Pristine Polysulfone Networks as a Class of Polysulfide-Derived High-Performance Functional Materials. Chemistry of Materials28, 2102–2109 (2016). doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02026
  7. Gelebart, A.H.; McBride, M.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Bowman, C.N.; Broer, D.J. Photoresponsive Fiber Array: Toward Mimicking the Collective Motion of Cilia for Transport Applications. Advanced Functional Materials26, 5322–5327 (2016). doi: 10.1002/adfm.201601221
  8. Hardy, M.D.; Konetski, D.; Bowman, C.N.; Devaraj, N.K. Ruthenium photoredox-triggered phospholipid membrane formation. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry (2016). doi: 10.1039/C6OB00290K
  9. Baranek, A.; Song, H.B.; McBride, M.; Finnegan, P.; Bowman, C.N. Thermomechanical Formation-Structure-Property Relationships in Photopolymerized Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne (CuAAC) Networks.Macromolecules49, 1191-1200 (2016). doi: 10.1021/acs.macromol.6b00137
  10. Lyon, G.B.; Baranek, A.D.; Bowman, C.N. Scaffolded Thermally Remendable Hybrid Polymer Networks. Advanced Functional Materials26, 1477-1485 (2016). doi: 10.1002/adfm.201505368
  11. Zhang, X.; Xi, W.; Wang, C.; Podgórski, M.; Bowman, C.N. Visible-Light-Initiated Thiol-Michael Addition Polymerizations with Coumarin-Based Photobase Generators: Another Photoclick Reaction Strategy. ACS Macro Letters5, 229-233 (2016). doi: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.5b00923
  12. Song, H.B.; Baranek, A.D.; Bowman, C.N. Kinetics of bulk photo-initiated copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) polymerizations. Polymer Chemistry7, 603-612 (2016). doi: 10.1039/C5PY01655J


  1. Wang, C.; Zhang, X.; Podgórski, M.; Xi, W.; Shah, P.; Stansbury, J.; Bowman, C.N. Monodispersity/Narrow Polydispersity Cross-Linked Microparticles Prepared by Step-Growth Thiol–Michael Addition Dispersion Polymerizations. Macromolecules48, 8461-8470 (2015). doi: 10.1021/acs.macromol.5b02146
  2. Xi, W.; Pattanayak, S.; Wang, C.; Fairbanks, B.; Gong, T.; Wagner, J.; Kloxin, C.J.; Bowman, C.N. Clickable Nucleic Acids: Sequence-Controlled Periodic Copolymer/Oligomer Synthesis by Orthogonal Thiol-X Reactions. Angewandte Chemie International Edition54, 14462-14467 (2015). doi: 10.1002/anie.201506711
  3. He, L.; Mao, C.; Cho, S.; Ma, K.; Xi, W.; Bowman, C.N.; Park, W.; Cha, J.N. Experimental and theoretical photoluminescence studies in nucleic acid assembled gold-upconverting nanoparticle clusters. Nanoscale7, 17254-17260 (2015). doi: 10.1039/C5NR05035A
  4. Aguirre-Soto, A.; Hwang, A.T.; Glugla, D.; Wydra, J.W.; McLeod, R.R.; Bowman, C.N.; Stansbury, J.W. Coupled UV–Vis/FT–NIR Spectroscopy for Kinetic Analysis of Multiple Reaction Steps in Polymerizations. Macromolecules48, 6781-6790 (2015). doi: 10.1021/acs.macromol.5b01685
  5. Podgórski, M.; Becka, E.; Claudino, M.; Flores, A.; Shah, P.K.; Stansbury, J.W.; Bowman, C.N. Ester-free thiol–ene dental restoratives — Part A: Resin development. Dental Materials31, 1255-1262 (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2015.08.148
  6. Podgórski, M.; Becka, E.; Claudino, M.; Flores, A.; Shah, P.K.; Stansbury, J.W.; Bowman, C.N. Ester-free thiol–ene dental restoratives — Part B: Composite development. Dental Materials31, 1263-1270 (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2015.08.147
  7. Podgórski, M.; Wang, C.; Bowman, C.N. Multiple Shape Memory Polymers Based on Laminates Formed from Thiol-Click Chemistry Based Polymerizations. Soft Matter11, 6852-6858 (2015). doi: 10.1039/C5SM01260K
  8. Zhao, Z.; Mu, X.; Sowan, N.; Pei, Y.; Bowman, C.N.; Qi, H.J.; Fang, D. Effects of Oxygen to the Light Activation in Covalent Adaptable Network Polymers. Soft Matter11, 6134-6144 (2015). doi: 10.1039/C5SM00555H
  9. Wang, C.; Chatani, S.; Podgórski, M.; Bowman, C.N. Thiol-Michael Addition Miniemulsion Polymerizations: Functional Nanoparticles and Reactive Latex Films. Polymer Chemistry6, 3758-3763 (2015). doi: 10.1039/C5PY00326A
  10. Mu, X.; Sowan, N.; Tumbic, J.A.; Bowman, C.N.; Mather, P.T.; Qi, J.H. Photo-induced bending in a light-activated polymer laminated composite. Soft Matter11, 2673-2682 (2015). doi: 10.1039/C4SM02592J
  11. Yakacki, C.M.; Saed, M.; Nair, D.P.; Gong, T.; Reed, S.M.; Bowman, C.N. Tailorable and programmable liquid-crystalline elastomers using a two-stage thiol–acrylate reaction. RSC Advances5, 18997-19001 (2015). doi: 10.1039/C5RA01039J
  12. Podgórski, M.; Becka, E.; Chatani, S.; Claudino, M.; Bowman, C.N. Ester-free Thiol-X Resins: New Materials with Enhanced Mechanical Behavior and Solvent Resistance. Polymer Chemistry6, 2234-2240 (2015). doi: 10.1039/C4PY01552E


  1. Peng, H.; Wang, C.; Xi, W.; Kowalski, B.A.; Gong, T.; Xie, X.; Wang, W.; Nair, D.P.; McLeod, R.R.; Bowman, C.N. "Facile Image Patterning via Sequential Thiol-Michael/Thiol-Yne Click Reactions", Chemistry of Materials 26(23) 6819-6826 (2014) doi: 10.1021/cm5034436
  2. Cox, L.M.; Li, Z.; Sowan, N.; Nair, D.P.; Xiao, J.; Bowman, C.N.; Ding, Y.; "Reconfigurable surface patterns on covalent adaptive network polymers using nanoimprint lithography", Polymer 55(23) 5933-5937 (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.polymer.2014.09.024
  3. Xi, W.; Peng, H.; Aguirre-Soto, A.; Kloxin, C.J.; Stansbury, J.W.; Bowman, C.N.; "Spatial and Temporal Control of Thiol-Michael Addition via Photocaged Superbase in Photopatterning and Two-Stage Polymer Networks Formation", Macromolecules 47(18) 6159-6165 (2014) doi: 10.1021/ma501366f
  4. Alzahrani, A.A.; Nair, D.P.; Smits, D.J.; Saed, M.; Yakacki, C.M.; Bowman, C.N.; "Photo-CuAAC Induced Wrinkle Formation in a Thiol-Acrylate Elastomer via Sequential Click Reactions", Chemistry of Materials26(18) 5303-5309 (2014) doi: 10.1021/cm502237b
  5. Meng, Y.; Fenoli, C.R.; Aguirre-Soto, A.; Bowman, C.N.; Anthamatten, M.; "Photoinduced diffusion through polymer networks", Advanced Materials 26(37) 6497-6502 (2014) doi: 10.1002/adma.201402097
  6. McBride, M.K.; Gong, T.; Nair, D.P.; Bowman, C.N.; "Photo-mediated copper (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) 'click' reactions for forming polymer networks as shape memory materials", Polymer26(18) 5303-5309 (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.polymer.2014.08.001
  7. Berg, G.; McBride, M.K.; Wang, C.; Bowman, C.N.; "New directions in the chemistry of shape memory polymers", Polymer 55(23) 5849-5872 (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.polymer.2014.07.052
  8. Chatani, S.; Wang, C.; Podgórski, M.; Bowman, C.N.; "Triple Shape Memory Materials Incorporating Two Distinct Polymer Networks Formed by Selective Thiol-Michael Addition Reactions", Macromolecules 47(15) 4949-4954 (2014) doi: 10.1021/ma501028a
  9. Chatani, S.; Podgórski, M.; Wang, C.; Bowman, C.N.; "Facile and Efficient Synthesis of Dendrimers and One-Pot Preparation of Dendritic-Linear Polymer Conjugates via a Single Chemistry: Utilization of Kinetically Selective Thiol-Michael Addition Reactions", Macromolecules 47(15) 4894-4900 (2014) doi: 10.1021/ma501418r
  10. Podgórski, M.; Chatani, S.; Bowman, C.N.; "Development of Glassy Step-Growth Thiol-Vinyl Sulfone Polymer Networks", Macromolecular Rapid Communications 35(17) 1497-1502 (2014) doi: 10.1002/marc.201400260
  11. Wang, C.; Podgórski, M.; Bowman, C.N.; "Monodisperse Functional Microspheres from Step-growth “Click” Polymerizations: Preparation, Functionalization and Implementation", Materials Horizons 1 535-539 (2014) doi:10.1039/C4MH00082J
  12. Wydra, J.W.; Cramer, N.B.; Stansbury, J.W.; Bowman, C.N.; "The reciprocity law concerning light dose relationships applied to BisGMA/TEGDMA photopolymers: Theoretical analysis and experimental characterization", Dental Materials 30(6) 605-612 (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2014.02.021
  13. Peng, H.; Bi, S.; Ni, M.; Xie, X.; Liao, Y.; Zhou, X.; Xue, Z.; Zhu, J.; Wei, Y.; Bowman, C.N.; Mai, Y.W.; "Monochromatic Visible Light “Photoinitibitor”: Janus-Faced Initiation and Inhibition for Storage of Colored 3D Images", Journal of the American Chemical Society 136(25) 8855-8858 (2014) doi: 10.1021/ja502366r
  14. Ma, J.; Mu, X.; Bowman, C.N.; Sun, Y.; Dunn, M.L.; Qi, J.H.; Fang, D.; "A photoviscoplastic model for photo activated covalent adaptive networks", Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 70 84-103 (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.jmps.2014.05.008
  15. Berg, G.; Gong, T.; Fenoli, C.R.; Bowman, C.N.; "A Dual-Cure, Solid-State Photoresist Combining a Thermoreversible Diels-Alder Network and a Chain Growth Acrylate Network", Macromolecules 47(10) 3473-3482 (2014) doi: 10.1021/ma500244r
  16. Peng, H.; Nair, D.P.; Kowalski, B.A.; Xi, W.; Gong, T.; Wang, C.; Cole, M.; Cramer, N.B.; Xie, X.; McLeod, R.R.; Bowman, C.N.; "High Performance Graded Rainbow Holograms via Two-Stage Sequential Orthogonal Thiol-Click Chemistry", Macromolecules 47(7) 2306-2315 (2014) doi: 10.1021/ma500167x
  17. Chatani, S.; Gong, T.; Earle, B.A.; Podgórski, M.; Bowman, C.N.; "Visible-Light Initiated Thiol-Michael Addition Photopolymerization Reactions", ACS Macro Letters 3(4) 315-318 (2014) doi: 10.1021/mz500132j
  18. Cole, M.A.; Jankousky, K.C.; Bowman, C.N.; "Thiol-ene functionalized siloxanes for use as elastomeric dental impression materials", Dental Materials 30(4) 449-455 (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2014.01.011
  19. Wydra, J.W.; Fenoli, C.R.; Cramer, N.B.; Stansbury, J.W.; Bowman, C.N.; "Influence of small amounts of addition-fragmentation capable monomers on polymerization-induced shrinkage stress", Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 52(9) 1315-1321 (2014) doi: 10.1002/pola.27120
  20. Fenoli, C.R.; Wydra, J.W.; Bowman, C.N.; "Controllable Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Termination Monomers for Advances in Photochemically Controlled Covalent Adaptable Networks", Macromolecules47(3) 907-915 (2014) doi: 10.1021/ma402548e
  21. Xi, W.; Scott, T.F; Kloxin, C.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "Click Chemistry in Materials Science", Advanced Functional Materials 24(18) 2572-2590 (2014) doi: 10.1002/adfm.201302847
  22. Podgórski, M.; Nair, D.P.; Chatani, S.; Berg, G.; Bowman, C.N.; "Programmable Mechanically Assisted Geometric Deformations of Glassy Two-Stage Reactive Polymeric Materials", ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 6(9) 6111-6119 (2014) doi: 10.1021/am405371r
  23. Chatani, S.; Kloxin, C.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "The power of light in polymer science: photochemical processes to manipulate polymer formation, structure, and properties", Polymer Chemistry 5 2187-2201 (2014) doi: 10.1039/C3PY01334K
  24. Alzahrani, A.A.; Erbse, A.; Bowman, C.N.; "Evaluation and Development of Novel Photoinitiator Complexes for Photoinitiating the Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction", Polymer Chemistry 51874-1882 (2014) doi: 10.1039/C3PY01064C
  25. Fenoli, C.R.; Bowman, C.N.; "Synthesis of novel trithiocarbonate and allyl sulfide containing monomers", Polymer Chemistry 5 62-68 (2014) doi: 10.1039/C3PY00709J
  26. Nair, D.P.; Podgórski, M.; Chatani, S.; Gong, T.; Xi, W.; Fenoli, C.R.; Bowman, C.N.; "The Thiol-Michael Addition Click Reaction: A Powerful and Widely Used Tool in Materials Chemistry", Chemistry of Materials26(1) 724-744 (2014) doi: 10.1021/cm402180t


  1. Chatani, S.; Sheridan, R.J.; Podgórski, M.; Nair, D.P.; Bowman, C.N.; "Temporal control of thiol-click chemistry", Chemistry of Materials 25(19) 3897-3901 (2013) doi: 10.1021/cm402229j
  2. Nair, D.P.; Cramer, N.B.; McBride, M.K.; Gaipa, J.C.; Lee, N.C.; Shandas, R.; Bowman, C.N.; "Fabrication and Characterization of Novel High Modulus, Two-Stage Reactive Thiol-Acrylate Composite Polymer Systems", Macromolecular Symposia 329(1) 101-107 (2013) doi: 10.1002/masy.201200105
  3. Gong, T.; Adzima, B.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "A novel copper containing photoinitiator, copper(II) acylphosphinate, and its application in both the photomediated CuAAC reaction and in atom transfer radical polymerization", Chemical Communications 49 7950-7952 (2013) doi: 10.1039/C3CC43637C
  4. Koehler, K.C.; Alge, D.L.; Anseth, K.S.; Bowman, C.N.; "Development of a maleimide amino acid for use as a tool for peptide conjugation and modification", International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics 19(3) 265-274 (2013) doi: 10.1007/s10989-013-9347-y
  5. Kloxin, C.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "Covalent adaptable networks: smart, reconfigurable and responsive network systems", Chemical Society Reviews 42 7161-7173 (2013) doi: 10.1039/C3CS60046G
  6. Ashley, J.F.; Bowman, C.N.; Davis, R.H.; "Hydrodynamic separation of particles using pinched-flow fractionation", AIChE Journal 59(9) 3444-3457 (2013) doi: 10.1002/aic.14087
  7. Sheridan, R.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "Understanding the process of healing of thermoreversible covalent adaptable networks", Polymer Chemistry 4 4974-4979 (2013) doi: 10.1039/C2PY20960H
  8. Xi, W.; Krieger, M.; Kloxin, C.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "A new photoclick reaction strategy: photo-induced catalysis of the thiol-Michael addition via a caged primary amine", Chemical Communications 49 4504-4506 (2013) doi: 10.1039/C3CC41123K
  9. Cole, M.A.; Bowman, C.N.; "Evaluation of thiol-ene click chemistry in functionalized polysiloxanes", Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 51(8) 1749-1757 (2013) doi: 10.1002/pola.26551
  10. Koehler, K.C.; Alge, D.L; Anseth, K.S.; Bowman, C.N.; "A Diels-Alder modulated approach to control and sustain the release of dexamethasone and induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells", Biomaterials 34(16) 4150-4158 (2013) doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.02.020
  11. Gong, T.; Adzima, B.J.; Baker, N.H.; Bowman, C.N.; "Photopolymerization Reactions Using the Photoinitiated Copper (I)-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) Reaction", Advanced Materials25(14) 2024-2028 (2013) doi: 10.1002/adma.201203815
  12. Shenoy, R.; Tibbitt, M.W.; Anseth, K.S.; Bowman, C.N.; "Formation of core-shell particles by interfacial radical polymerization initiated by a glucose oxidase-mediated redox system", Chemistry of Materials 25(5) 761-767 (2013) doi: 10.1021/cm303913f
  13. Chatani, S.; Nair, C.P.; Bowman, C.N.; "Relative reactivity and selectivity of vinyl sulfones and acrylates towards the thiol-Michael addition reaction and polymerization", Polymer Chemistry 4 1048-1055 (2013). doi: 10.1039/C2PY20826A
  14. Cole, M.A.; Jankousky, K.C.; Bowman, C.N.; "Redox initiation of bulk thiol-ene polymerizations", Polymer Chemistry 4 1167-1175 (2013) doi: 10.1039/C2PY20843A
  15. Koehler, K.C.; Anseth, K.S.; Bowman, C.N.; "Diels-Alder Mediated Controlled Release from a Poly(ethylene glycol) Based Hydrogel", Biomacromolecules 14(2) 538-547 (2013) doi: 10.1021/bm301789d
  16. Shenoy, R.; Bowman, C.N.; "A Comprehensive Kinetic Model of Free-Radical-Mediated Interfacial Polymerization", Macromolecular Theory and Simulations 22(2) 115-126 (2013) doi: 10.1002/mats.201200062


  1. Koehler, K.C.; Durackova, A.; Kloxin, C.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "Kinetic and thermodynamic measurements for the facile property prediction of Diels-Alder-conjugated material behavior", AIChE Journal 58(11) 3545-3552 (2012) doi: 10.1002/aic.13733
  2. Berron, B.J.; May, A.M.; Zheng, Z.; Balasubramaniam, V.; Bowman, C.N.; "Antigen-responsive, microfluidic valves for single use diagnostics", Lab on a Chip 12 708-710 (2012) doi: 10.1039/C2LC21101G
  3. Adzima, B.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "The emerging role of click reactions in chemical and biological engineering" AIChE Journal 58(10) 2952-2965 doi: 10.1002/aic.13909
  4. Nair, D.P.; Cramer, N.B.; McBride, M.K.; Gaipa, J.C.; Shandas, J.C.; Bowman, C.N.; "Enhanced two-stage reactive polymer network forming systems", Polymer 53(12) 2429-2434 (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.polymer.2012.04.007
  5. Baylor, M.E.; Cerjan, B.W.; Pfiefer, C.R.; Boyne, R.W.; Couch, C.L.; Cramer, N.B.; Bowman, C.N.; McLeod, R.R.; "Monolithic integration of optical waveguide and fluidic channel structures in a thiol-ene/methacrylate photopolymer", Optical Materials Express 2(11) 1548-1555 (2012) doi: 10.1364/OME.2.001548
  6. Leung, D.; Bowman, C.N.; "Reducing shrinkage stress of dimethacrylate networks by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer", Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 213(2) 198-204 (2012) doi: 10.1002/macp.201100402
  7. Bowman, C.N.; Kloxin, C.J.; "Covalent adaptable networks: reversible bond structures incorporated in polymer networks", Angewandte Chemie International Edition 51(18) 4272-4274 (2012) doi: 10.1002/anie.201200708
  8. Cook, W.D.; Schiller, T.L.; Chen, F.; Moorhoff, C.; Thang, S.H.; Bowman, C.N.; Scott, T.F.; "Effect of cross-link density on photoplasticity of epoxide networks containing allylic dithioether moieties", Macromolecules45(24) 9734-9741 (2012) doi: 10.1021/ma301557z
  9. Hume, S.L; Hoyt, S.M.; Walker, J.S.; Sridhar, B.V.; Ashley, J.F.; Bowman, C.N.; Bryant, S.J.; "Alignment of multi-layered muscle cells within three-dimensional hydrogel macrochannels", Acta Biomaterialia 8(6) 2193-2202 (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2012.02.001
  10. Park, H.Y.; Kloxin, C.J.; Fordney, M.F.; Bowman, C.N.; "Stress relaxation of trithiocarbonate-dimethacrylate-based dental composites", Dental Materials 28(8) 888-893 (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2012.04.016
  11. Xi, W.; Wang, C.; Kloxin, C.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "Nitrogen-Centered Nucleophile Catalyzed Thiol-Vinylsulfone Addition, Another Thiol-ene "Click" Reaction", ACS Macro Letters 1(7) 811-814 (2012) doi: 10.1021/mz3001918
  12. Ye, S.; Azarnoush, S.; Smith, I.R.; Cramer, N.B.; Stansbury, J.W.; Bowman, C.N.; "Using hyperbranched oligomer functionalized glass fillers to reduce shrinkage stress", Dental Materials 28(9) 1004-1011 (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2012.05.003
  13. Nair, D.P.; Cramer, N.B.; Gaipa, J.C.; McBride, M.K.; Matherly, E.M.; McLeod, R.R.; Shandas, R.; Bowman, C.N.; "Two-stage reactive polymer network forming systems", Advanced Functional Materials 22(7) 1502-1510 (2012) doi: 10.1002/adfm.201102742
  14. Park, H.Y.; Kloxin, C.J.; Fordney, M.F.; Bowman, C.N.; "Stress Reduction and Tg Enhancement in Ternary Thiol-Yne-Methacrylate Systems via Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer", Macromolecules 45(14) 5647-5652 (2012) doi: 10.1021/ma300225q
  15. Park, H.Y.; Kloxin, C.J.; Abuelyaman, A.S.; Oxman, J.D.; Bowman, C.N.; "Stress Relaxation via Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer in High Tg, High Conversion Methacrylate-Based Systems", Macromolecules 45(14) 5640-5646 (2012) doi: 10.1021/ma300228z
  16. Shenoy, R.; Bowman, C.N.; "Kinetics of interfacial radical polymerization initiated by a glucose-oxidase mediated redox system", Biomaterials 33(29) 6909-6914 (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.06.0 14
  17. Cole, M.A.; Bowman, C.N.; "Synthesis and characterization of thiol-ene functionalized siloxanes and evaluation of their crosslinked network properties", Polymer Chemistry 50(20) 4325-4333 (2012) doi: 10.1002/pola.26245
  18. Sheridan, R.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "A Simple Relationship Relating Linear Viscoelastic Properties and Chemical Structure in a Model Diels-Alder Polymer Network", Macromolecules 45(18) 7634-7641 (2012) doi: 10.1021/ma301329u
  19. Park, H.Y.; Kloxin, C.J.; Abuelyaman, A.S.; Oxman, J.D.; Bowman, C.N.; "Novel dental restorative materials having low polymerization shrinkage stress via stress relaxation by addition-fragmentation chain transfer", Dental Materials 28(11) 1113-1119 (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2012.06.012
  20. Adzima, B.J.; Kloxin, C.J.; DeForest, C.A.; Anseth, K.S.; Bowman, C.N.; "3D Photofixation Lithography in Diels-Alder Networks", Macromolecular Rapid Communications 33(24) 2092-2096 (2012) doi: 10.1002/marc.201200599


  1. Boulden, J.E.; Cramer, N.B.; Schreck, K.M.; Couch, C.L.; Bracho-Troconis, C.; Stansbury, J.W.; Bowman, C.N., "Thiol-ene-methacrylate composites as dental restorative materials", Dental Materials 27(3) 267-272 (2011) doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2010.11.001
  2. Schreck, K.M.; Leung, D.; Bowman, C.N.; "Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-Ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks", Macromolecules 44(19) 7520-7529 (2011) doi: 10.1021/ma201695x
  3. Sheridan, R.J.; Adzima, B.J.; Bowman, C.N.; "Temperature Dependent Stress Relaxation in a Model Diels-Alder Network", Australian Journal of Chemistry 64(8) 1094-1099 (2011) doi: 10.1071/CH11176
  4. Ye, S.; Cramer, N.B.; Smith, I.R.; Voigt, K.R.; Bowman, C.N.; "Reaction Kinetics and Reduced Shrinkage Stress of Thiol-Yne-Methacrylate and Thiol-Yne-Acrylate Ternary Systems", Macromolecules 44(23) 9084-9090 (2011) doi: 10.1021/ma2018809
  5. Scott, T.F.; Kloxin, C.J.; Forman, D.L.; McLeod, R.R.; Bowman, C.N.; "Principles of voxel refinement in optical direct write lithography", Journal of Materials Chemistry 21 14150-14155 (2011) doi: 10.1039/C1JM11915J
  6. Ye, S.; Cramer, N.B.; Stevens, B.E.; Sani, R.L.; Bowman, C.N.; "Induction Curing of Thiol-Acrylate and Thiol-Ene Composite Systems", Macromolecules 44(12) 4988-4996 (2011) doi: 10.1021/ma200098e
  7. Ashley, J.F.; Cramer, N.B.; Davis, R.H.; Bowman, C.N.; "Soft-lithography fabrication of microfluidic features using thiol-ene formulations", Lab on a Chip 11 2772-2778 (2011) doi: 10.1039/C1LC20189A
  8. Kloxin, C.J; Scott, T.F.; Park, H.; & Bowman, C.N., “Mechanophotopatterning on a Photoresponsive Elastomer”, Advanced Materials 23(17) 1977-1981 (2011) doi:10.1002/adma.201100323.
  9. Berron, B.J., Johnson, L.M.; Ba, X.; McCall, J.D.; Alvey, N.J.; Anseth K.S. & Bowman, C.N., "Glucose Oxidase Mediated Radical Chain Polymerization for Detection of Biorecognition Events in Microtiter Assays." Biotechnology and Bioengineering 108(7) 1521-1528 (2011). doi:10.1002/bit.23101
  10. Adzima, B.J.; Tao, Y.; Kloxin, C.J.; DeForest, C.A.; Anseth, K.S.; & Bowman, C.N., “Spatial and temporal control of the alkyne—azide cycloaddition by photoinitiated Cu(II) reduction”, Nature Chemistry 3 (3) 256-259 (2011) doi:10.1038/nchem.980.
  11. Ye, S.; Cramer, N.B.; & Bowman, C.N., “ Relationship between Glass Transition Temperature and Polymerization Temperature for Cross-Linked Photopolymers“, Macromolecules 44 (3) 490-494 (2011). doi:10.1021/ma101296j.
  12. Morrill J.A.; Biggs J.H.; & Bowman, C.N., “Development of quantitative structure-activity relationships for explanatory modeling of fast reacting (meth)acrylate monomers bearing novel functionality“, Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 29 (5) 763-772 (2011). doi:10.1016/j.jmgm.2010.12.009.
  13. Boulden, J.E.; Cramer, N.B.; Schreck, K.M.; Couch, C.L.; Brancho-Troconois, C.; Stansbury, J.W. & Bowman, C.N., “ Thiol-ene-methacrylate composites as dental restorative materials“, Dental Materials 27(3) 267-272 (2011). doi:10.1016/j.dental.2010.11.001.
  14. Avens, H.J.; Chang, E.; May, A.M.; Berron, B.J.; Seedorf, G.J.; Balasubramaniam, V. & Bowman, C.N., "Fluorescent Polymeric Nanocomposite Films Generated by Surface-Mediated Photoinitiation of Polymerization" Journal of Nanoparticle Research 13 (1) 331-346 (2011). DOI: 10.1007/s11051-010-0034-z
  15. Avens, H.J.; Berron, B.J.; May, A.M.; Voigt, K.R.; Seedorf, G.J.; Balasubramaniam, V. & Bowman, C.N.; "Sensitive Immunofluorescent Staining of Cells via Generation of Fluorescent Nanoscale Polymer Films in Response to Biorecognition," Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 59 (1) 76-87 (2011). DOI:10.1369/jhc.2010.95594
  16. Park, H.Y.; Kloxin, C.J.; Scott, T.F. & Bowman, C.N., “ Stress Relaxation by Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer in Highly Cross-Linked Thiol-Yne Networks“, Macromolecules 43 (24) 10188-10190 (2011). doi:10.1021/ma1020209


  1. Shenoy, R. & Bowman, C.N. "Mechanism and implementation of oxygen inhibition suppression in photopolymerizations by competitive photoactivation of a singlet oxygen sensitizer", Macromolecules 43(19) 7964-7970 (2010). doi:10.1021/ma1012682
  2. Kloxin, A.M.; Kloxin, C.J.; Bowman, C.N. & Anseth, K.S. "Mechanical properties of cellularly responsive hydrogels and their experimental determination", Advanced Materials 22 (31) 3484-3494 (2010). doi:10.1002/adma.200904179
  3. Nair, D.P.; Cramer, N.B. & Bowman, C.N. "Photopolymerized thiol-ene systems as shape memory polymers", Polymer 51 (19) 4383-4389 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2010.07.027
  4. Park, H.Y.; Kloxin, C.J.; Scott, T.F. & Bowman, C.N. "Covalent adaptable networks as dental restorative resins: Stress relaxation by addition-fragmentation chain transfer in allyl sulfide containing resins", Dental Materials 26 (10) 1010-1016 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.dental.2010.06.007
  5. Lawson, M.C.; Hoth, K.C., DeForest, C.A.; Bowman, C.N.; & Anseth, K.S. "Inhibition of staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms using polymerizable vancomycin derivatives", Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 468 (8) 2081-2091 (2010). doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1266-z
  6. Matsushima, H.; Shin, J.; Bowman, C.N. & Hoyle, C.E. "Thiol-isocyanate-acrylate ternary networks by selective thiol-click chemistry", Journal of Polymer Science Part A - Polymer Chemistry 48 (15) 3255-3264 (2010). doi:10.1002/pola.24102
  7. Johnson, L.M.; DeForest, C.A.; Pendurti, A.; Anseth, K.S. & Bowman C.N. "Formation of three-dimensional hydrogel multilayers using enzyme-mediated redox chain initiation", ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces2 (7) 1963-1972 (2010). doi:10.1021/am100275n
  8. Adzima, B.J.; Kloxin, C.J.; & Bowman, C.N. "Externally triggered healing of a thermoreversible covalent network via self-limited hysteresis heating", Advanced Materials 22 (25) 2784-2787 (2010). doi:10.1002/adma.200904138
  9. Cramer, N.B.; Couch, C.L.; Schreck, K.M.; Boulden, J.E.; Wydra, R.; Stansbury, J.W. & Bowman, C.N. "Properties of methacrylate-thiol-ene formulations as dental restorative materials", Dental Materials 26 (8) 799-806 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.dental.2010.04.005
  10. Lowe, A.B.; Hoyle, C.E. & Bowman, C.N. "Thiol-yne click chemistry: A powerful and versatile methodology for materials synthesis", Journal of Materials Chemistry 20 (23) 4745-4750 (2010). doi:10.1039/b917102a
  11. Fairbanks, B.D.; Sims, E.A.; Anseth, K.S.& Bowman, C.N. "Reaction rates and mechanisms for radical, photoinitated addition of thiols to alkynes, and implications for thiol-yne photopolymerizations and click reactions", Macromolecules 43 (9) 4113-4119 (2010). doi:10.1021/ma1002968
  12. Johnson, L.M.; Bowman, C.N.; & Stansbury, J.W. "Optimization of multicomponent photopolymer formulations using high-throughput analysis and kinetic modeling", AIChE Journal 56 (5) 1262-1269 (2010). doi:10.1002/aic.12055
  13. Shin, J.; Matsushima, H.; Comer, C.M.; Bowman, C.N.; & Hoyle, C.E. "Thiol-isocyanate-ene ternary networks by sequential and simultaneous thiol click reactions", Chemistry of Materials 22 (8) 2616-2625 (2010). doi:10.1021/cm903856n
  14. Johnson, L.M.; Hansen, R.R.; Urban, M.; Kuchta, R.D.; & Bowman, C.N. "Photoinitiator nucleotide for quantifying nucleic acid hybridization", Biomacromolecules 11 (4) 1133-1138 (2010). doi:10.1021/bm901441v
  15. Hoyle, C.E.; Lowe, A.B.; & Bowman, C.N. "Thiol-click chemistry: a multifaceted toolbox for small molecule and polymer synthesis", Chemical Society Reviews 39 (4) 1355-1387 (2010). doi:10.1039/b901979k
  16. Kloxin, C.J.; Scott, T.F.; Adzima, B.J.; & Bowman, C.N. "Covalent adaptable networks (CANs): a unique paradigm in cross-linked polymers", Macromolecules 43 (6) 2643-2653 (2010). doi:10.1021/ma902596s
  17. Hoyle, C.E. & Bowman, C.N. "Thiol-ene click chemistry", Angewante Chemie-International Edition 49 (9) 1540-1573 (2010). doi:10.1002/anie.200903924
  18. Cramer, N.B.; Couch, C.L.; Schreck, K.M.; Carioscia, J.A.; Boulden, J.E.; Stansbury, J.W.; & Bowman, C.N. "Investigation of thiol-ene and thiol-ene-methacrylate based resins as dental restorative materials", Dental Materials 26 (1) 21-28 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.dental.2009.08.004
  19. Avens H.J.; & Bowman, C.N. "Development of fluorescent polymerization-based signal amplification for sensitive and non-enzymatic biodetection in antibody microarrays", Acta Biomaterialia 6 (1) 83-89 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2009.06.008


  1. Fairbanks, B.D.; Schwartz, M.P.; Halevi, A.E.; Nuttelman, C.R.; Bowman, C.N.; & Anseth, K.S., "A Versatile Synthetic Extracell-ular Matrix Mimic via Thiol-Norbornene Photopolymerization", Advanced Materials 21(48) 5005-5010 (2009). doi:10.1002/adma.200901808
  2. Johnson, P.M.; Stansbury, J.W.; & Bowman, C.N., "FTIR Microscopy for Kinetic Measurements in High-Throughput Photopolymerization: Experimental Design and Application", Macromolecular Reaction Engineering 3 (9) 522-528 (2009). doi:10.1002/mren.200900029
  3. Avens H.J. & Bowman C.N., "Mechanism of Cyclic Dye Regeneration During Eosin-Sensitized Photoinitiation in the Presence of Polymerization Inhibitors", Journal of Polymer Science Part A - Polymer Chemistry 47 (22) 6083-6094 (2009). doi:10.1002/pola.23649
  4. Fairbanks B.D.; Schwartz M.P.; Bowman C.N.; & Anseth K.S., "Photoinitiated polymerization of PEG-diacrylate with lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate: polymerization rate and cytocompatibility", Biomaterials 30 (35) 6702-6707 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.08.055
  5. Johnson L.M.; Fairbanks B.D.; Anseth K.S.; & Bowman C.N., "Enzyme-Mediated Redox Initiation for Hydrogel Generation and Cellular Encapsulation", Biomacromolecules 10 (11) 3114-3121 (2009). doi:10.1021/bm900846m
  6. Kilambi, H.; Reddy, S.K.; Schneidewind, L.;Stansbury, J.W.; & Bowman, C.N., "Influence of the Secondary Functionality on the Radical-Vinyl Chemistry of Highly Reactive Monoacrylates", Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 47 (19) 4859-4870 (2009). doi:10.1002/pola.23503
  7. Johnson L.M.; Avens H.J.; Hansen R.R.; Sewell H.L.; Bowman C.N., "Characterization of the Assaying Methods in Polymerization-Based Amplification of Surface Biomarkers", Australian Journal of Chemistry 62(8), 877-884 (2009) doi:10.1071/CH09095
  8. Lawson M.C.; Shoemaker R.; Hoth K.B.; Bowman C.N.; and Anseth K.S., "Polymerizable Vancomycin Derivatives for Bactericidal Biomaterial Surface Modification: Structure-Function Evaluation",Biomacromolecules 10 (8), 2221-2234 (2009) doi:10.1021/bm900410a
  9. Long, K.N.; Scott, T.F.; Qi, H.J.; Bowman, C.N.; and Dunn, M.L., "Photomechanics of light-activated polymers", Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 57 (7) 1103-1121 (2009) doi:10.1016/j.jmps.2009.03.003
  10. Scott, T. F.; Kowalski, B. A.; Sullivan, A. C.; Bowman, C. N.; McLeod, R. R., "Two-Color Single-Photon Photoinitiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography", Science 324 (5929), 913-917 (2009) doi:10.1126/science.1167610
  11. Lee T. Y.; Cramer, N. B.; Hoyle, C. E.; Stansbury, J. W.; Bowman, C. N., "(Meth)Acrylate Vinyl Ester Hybrid Polymerizations", Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 47 (10), 2509-2516 (2009). doi:10.1002/pola.23327
  12. Berchtold K. A.; Hacioglu, B.; Nie, J.; Cramer, N. B.; Stansbury, J. W.; Bowman, C. N., "Rapid Solid-State Photopolymerization of Cyclic Acetal-Containing Acrylates", Macromolecules 42 (7), 2433-2437 (2009). doi:10.1021/ma802406j
  13. Kloxin, C. J.; Scott, T. F.; Bowman, C. N., "Stress Relaxation via Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer in a Thiol-ene Photopolymerization", Macromolecules 42 (7), 2551-2556 (2009). doi:10.1021/ma802771b
  14. Sikes, H.D.; Jenison, R.; Bowman C. N., "Antigen detection using polymerization-based amplification" Lab on a chip 9 (5), 653-656 (2009). doi:10.1039/b816198d
  15. Kilambi, H.; Cramer, N. B.; Schneidewind, L. H.; Shah, P.; Stansbury, J. W.; Bowman, C. N., "Evaluation of highly reactive mono-methacrylates as reactive diluents for BisGMA-based dental composites," Dental Materials 25 (1), 33-38 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.dental.2008.05.003
  16. Fairbanks, B. D.; Scott, T. F.; Kloxin, C. J.; Anseth, K. S.; Bowman, C. N., "Thiol-Yne Photopolymerizations: Novel Mechanism, Kinetics, and Step-Growth Formation of Highly Cross-Linked Networks,"Macromolecules 42 (1), 211-217 (2009). doi:10.1021/ma801903w


  1. Berchtold, K. A., Nie, J., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N., Reactivity of Monovinyl (Meth)acrylates Containing Cyclic Carbonates Macromolecules 41 (23), 9035-9043 (2008). DOI: 10.1021/ma801644j
  2. Adzima, B. J., Aguirre, H. A., Kloxin, C. J., Scott, T. F. & Bowman, C. N., Rheological and Chemical Analysis of Reverse Gelation in a Covalently Cross-Linked Diels-Alder Polymer Network Macromolecules41 (23), 9112-9117 (2008). doi:10.1021/ma801863d
  3. Bowman, C. N. & Kloxin, C. J., Toward an enhanced understanding and implementation of photopolymerization reactions AIChE Journal 54 (11), 2774-3037 (2008). doi:10.1002/aic.11678
  4. Avens, H. J., Randle, T. J., and Bowman, C. N., Polymerization behavior and polymer properties of eosin-mediated surface modification reactions. Polymer 49 (22), 4762 (2008). doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2008.08.054
  5. Cramer, N. B., O'Brien, C. P., and Bowman, C. N., Mechanisms, polymerization rate scaling, and oxygen inhibition with an ultra-rapid monovinyl urethane acrylate. Polymer 49 (22), 4756 (2008). doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2008.08.051
  6. Khire, V. S., Kloxin A. M., Couch, C. L., Anseth K. S. and Bowman, C. N., Synthesis, Characterization and Cleavage of Linear Polymers Attached to Silica Nanoparticles Formed Using Thiol-Acrylate Conjugate Addition Reactions. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 46 (20), 6896 (2008). doi:10.1002/pola.22999
  7. Khire, V. S., Lee, T. Y., and Bowman, C. N., Synthesis, Characterization and Cleavage of Surface-Bound Linear Polymers Formed Using Thiol-Ene Photopolymerizations. Macromolecules 41 (20), 7440 (2008). doi:10.1021/ma8008965
  8. Khire, V. S., Yi, Y., Clark, N. A., and Bowman, C. N., Formation and surface modification of nanopatterned thiol-ene substrates using Step and Flash Imprint Lithography. Advanced Materials 20 (17), 3308 (2008). doi:10.1002/adma.200800672
  9. Hansen, R. R., Avens, H. J., Shenoy, R. & Bowman, C. N. Quantitative evaluation of oligonucleotide surface concentrations using polymerization-based amplification. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry392, 167-175 (2008). doi:10.1007/s00216-008-2259-6
  10. Rydholm, A. E., Held, N. L., Benoit, D. S. W., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Modifying network chemistry in thiol-acrylate photopolymers through postpolymerization functionalization to control cell-material interactions. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 86A, 23-30 (2008). doi:10.1002/jbm.a.31526
  11. Kilambi, H., J. W. Stansbury & Bowman, C. N."Enhanced reactivity of monovinyl acrylates characterized by secondary functionalities toward photopolymerization and Michael addition: Contribution of intramolecular effects." Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 46, 3452-3458 (2008). doi:10.1002/pola.22660
  12. Scott, T. F., Kloxin, C. J., Draughon, R. B. & Bowman, C. N. Nonclassical dependence of polymerization rate on initiation rate observed in thiol-ene photopolymerizations. Macromolecules 41, 2987-2989 (2008). doi:10.1021/ma8002505
  13. Yi, Y. W., V. Khire, Bowman, C. N., Maclennan, J. E. & Clark, N. A.(2008). "Organization of liquid crystals on submicron scale topographic patterns with fourfold symmetry prepared by thiol-ene photopolymerization-based nanoimprint lithography." Journal of Applied Physics 103, 093508-093518 (2008). doi:10.1063/1.2913317
  14. Stansbury, J. W., Bowman, C. N. & Newman, S. M. Shining a light on dental composite restoratives. Physics Today 61, 82-83 (2008).
  15. Johnson, P. M., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. High-throughput kinetic analysis of acrylate and thiol-ene photopolymerization using temperature and exposure time gradients. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 46, 1502-1509 (2008). doi:10.1002/pola.22491
  16. Cook, W. D., Chausson, S., Chen, F., Le Pluart, L., Bowman, C. N. & Scott, T. F. Photopolymerization kinetics, photorheology and photoplasticity of thiol-ene-allylic sulfide networks. Polymer International 57, 469-478 (2008). doi:10.1002/pi.2357
  17. Hansen, R. R., Sikes, H. B. & Bowman, C. N. Visual detection of labeled oligonucleotides using visible-light-polymerization-based amplification. Biomacromolecules 9, 355-362 (2008). doi:10.1021/bm700672z
  18. Sikes, H. D., Hansen, R. R., Johnson, L. M., Jenison, R., Birks, J. W., Rowlen, K. L.& Bowman, C. N. Using polymeric materials to generate an amplified response to molecular recognition events. Nature Materials 7, 52-56 (2008). doi:10.1038/nmat2042
  19. Johnson, P. M., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetic modeling of a comonomer photopolymerization system using high-throughput conversion data. Macromolecules 41, 230-237 (2008). doi:10.1021/ma071383p


  1. Carioscia, J. A., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. "Evaluation and control of thiol-ene/thiol-epoxy hybrid networks." Polymer 48, 1526-1532 (2007).
  2. Good, B. T., Bowman, C. N. & Davis, R. H. A water-activated pump for portable microfluidic applications. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 305, 239-249 (2007).
  3. Good, B. T., Reddy, S., Davis, R. H. & Bowman, C. N. Tallorable low modulus, reversibly deformable elastomeric thiol-ene materials for microfluidic applications. Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical 120, 473-480 (2007).
  4. Johnson, P. M., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Alkyl chain length effects on copolymerization kinetics of a monoacrylate with hexanediol diacrylate. Journal of Combinatorial Chemistry 9, 1149-1156 (2007).
  5. Johnson, P. M., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Photopolyrner kinetics using light intensity gradients in high-throughput conversion analysis. Polymer 48, 6319-6324 (2007).
  6. Khire, V. S., Lee, T. Y. & Bowman, C. N. Surface modification using thiol-acrylate conjugate addition reactions. Macromolecules 40 , 5669-5677 (2007).
  7. Kilambi, H., Konopka, D., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Factors affecting the sensitivity to acid inhibition in novel acrylates characterized by secondary functionalities. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 45, 1287-1295 (2007).
  8. Kilambi, H., Reddy, S. K., Beckel, E. R., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Influence of secondary functionalities on the reaction behavior of monovinyl (meth)acrylates. Chemistry of Materials 19 , 641-643 (2007).
  9. Kilambi, H., Reddy, S. K. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of photopolymerizations of acrylates in the presence of iniferters. Macromolecules 40 , 6131-6135 (2007).
  10. Kilambi, H. et al. Design, development, and evaluation of monovinyl acrylates characterized by secondary functionalities as reactive diluents to diacrylates. Macromolecules 40, 6112-6118 (2007).
  11. Kilambi, H., Reddy, S. K., Schneidewind, L., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Copolymerization and dark polymerization studies for photopolymerization of novel acrylic monomers. Polymer 48, 2014-2021 (2007).
  12. Kilambi, H., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Deconvoluting the impact of intermolecular and intramolecular interactions on the polymerization kinetics of ultrarapid mono(meth)acrylates. Macromolecules 40, 47-54 (2007).
  13. Lawson, M. C., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Vancomycin derivative photopolymerized to titanium kills S. epidermidis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research461, 96-105 (2007).
  14. Lee, T. Y., Carioscia, J., Smith, Z. & Bowman, C. N. Thiol-allyl ether-methacrylate ternary systems. Evolution mechanism of polymerization-induced shrinkage stress and mechanical properties. Macromolecules 40 , 1473-1479 (2007).
  15. Lee, T. Y., Smith, Z., Reddy, S. K., Cramer, N. B. & Bowman, C. N. Thiol-allyl ether-methacrylate ternary systems. Polymerization mechanism. Macromolecules 40 , 1466-1472 (2007).
  16. Rydholm, A. E., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Effects of neighboring sulfides and pH on ester hydrolysis in thiol-acrylate photopolymers. Acta Biomaterialia 3, 449-455 (2007).
  17. Rydholm, A. E., Reddy, S. K., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Development and characterization of degradable thiol-allyl ether photopolymers. Polymer48 , 4589-4600 (2007).
  18. Sebra, R. P., Reddy, S. K., Masters, K. S., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Controlled polymerization chemistry to graft architectures that influence cell-material interactions. Acta Biomaterialia , 151-161 (2007).


  1. Haraldsson, K. T. et al. 3D polymeric microfluidic device fabrication via contact liquid photolithographic polymerization (CLiPP). Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical 113 , 454-460 (2006).
  2. Harant, A. W., Khire, V. S., Thibodaux, M. S. & Bowman, C. N. Thiol-ene photopolymer grafts on functionalized glass and silicon surfaces. Macromolecules 39 , 1461-1466 (2006).
  3. Khire, V. S., Benoit, D. S. W., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Ultrathin gradient films using thiol-ene polymerizations. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 44 , 7027-7039 (2006).
  4. Khire, V. S., Harant, A. W., Watkins, A. W., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Ultrathin patterned polymer films on surfaces using thiol-ene polymerizations. Macromolecules 39 , 5081-5086 (2006).
  5. Kilambi, H., Stansbury, J. & Bowman, C. N. Mechanistic studies of enhanced polymerization characteristics of novel (meth)acrylic monomers. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 231 (2006).
  6. Lee, T. Y. & Bowman, C. N. The effect of functionalized nanoparticles on thiol-ene polymerization kinetics. Polymer 47 , 6057-6065 (2006).
  7. O'Brien, A. K. & Bowman, C. N. Impact of oxygen on photopolymerization kinetics and polymer structure. Macromolecules 39 , 2501-2506 (2006).
  8. O'Brien, A. K. & Bowman, C. N. Modeling the effect of oxygen on photopolymerization kinetics. Macromolecular Theory and Simulations 15 , 176-182 (2006).
  9. O'Brien, A. K., Cramer, N. B. & Bowman, C. N. Oxygen inhibition in thiol-acrylate photopolymerizations. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 44 , 2007-2014 (2006).
  10. Reddy, S. K., Cramer, N. B. & Bowman, C. N. Thiol-vinyl mechanisms. 1. Termination and propagation kinetics in thiol-ene photopolymerizations. Macromolecules 39 , 3673-3680 (2006).
  11. Reddy, S. K., Cramer, N. B. & Bowman, C. N. Thiol-vinyl mechanisms. 2. Kinetic modeling of ternary thiol-vinyl photopolymerizations. Macromolecules 39 , 3681-3687 (2006).
  12. Reddy, S. K., Cramer, N. B., Kalvaitas, M., Lee, T. Y. & Bowman, C. N. Mechanistic modelling and network properties of ternary thiol-vinyl photopolymerizations. Australian Journal of Chemistry 59 , 586-593 (2006).
  13. Reddy, S. K., Okay, O. & Bowman, C. N. Network development in mixed step-chain growth thiol-vinyl photopolymerizations. Macromolecules 39 , 8832-8843 (2006).
  14. Rydholm, A. E., Held, N. L., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Gel permeation chromatography characterization of the chain length distributions in thiol-acrylate photopolymer networks. Macromolecules 39 , 7882-7888 (2006).
  15. Rydholm, A. E., Reddy, S. K., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Controlling network structure in degradable thiol-acrylate biomaterials to tune mass loss behavior. Biomacromolecules , 2827-2836 (2006).
  16. Scott, T. F., Draughon, R. B. & Bowman, C. N. Actuation in crosslinked polymers via photoinduced stress relaxation. Advanced Materials 18 , 2128-+ (2006).
  17. Sebra, R. P., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Integrated surface modification of fully polymeric microfluidic devices using living radical photopolymerization chemistry. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 44 , 1404-1413 (2006).
  18. Sebra, R. P., Kasko, A. M., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Synthesis and photografting of highly pH-responsive polymer chains. Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical 119 , 127-134 (2006).
  19. Sebra, R. P., Masters, K. S., Cheung, C. Y., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Detection of antigens in biologically complex fluids with photografted whole antibodies. Analytical Chemistry 78 , 3144-3151 (2006).


  1. Beckel, E. R., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Evaluation of a potential ionic contribution to the polymerization of highly reactive (meth)acrylate monomers. Macromolecules 38 , 9474-9481 (2005).
  2. Beckel, E. R., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Effect of aliphatic spacer substitution on the reactivity of phenyl carbamate acrylate monomers. Macromolecules 38 , 3093-3098 (2005).
  3. Berchtold, K. A., Randolph, T. W. & Bowman, C. N. Propagation and termination kinetics of cross-linking photopolymerizations studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in conjunction with near IR spectroscopy. Macromolecules 38 , 6954-6964 (2005).
  4. Carioscia, J. A., Lu, H., Stanbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Thiol-ene oligomers as dental restorative materials. Dental Materials 21 , 1137-1143 (2005).
  5. Harant, A. W. & Bowman, C. N. Solvent vapor annealed block copolymer films on organosilane self-assembled monolayers. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 23 , 1615-1621 (2005).
  6. Harant, A. W., Whipple, S. G., Douglas, K. & Bowman, C. N. Micropatterning organosilane self-assembled monolayers with plasma etching and backfilling techniques. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 23 , 354-358 (2005).
  7. Johnson, P. M., Reynolds, T. B., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. High throughput kinetic analysis of photopolymer conversion using composition and exposure time gradients. Polymer 46 , 3300-3306 (2005).
  8. Kilambi, H., Beckel, E., Stansburfy, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Impact of hydrogen abstraction on monomer reactivity for novel acrylic systems. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 229 , U1104-U1104 (2005).
  9. Kilambi, H., Beckel, E. R., Berchtold, K. A., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Influence of molecular dipole on monoacrylate monomer reactivity. Polymer 46 , 4735-4742 (2005).
  10. Lovestead, T. M., Berchtold, K. A. & Bowman, C. N. An investigation of chain length dependent termination and reaction diffusion controlled termination during the free radical photopolymerization of multivinyl monomers. Macromolecules 38 , 6374-6381 (2005).
  11. Lovestead, T. M. & Bowman, C. N. A modeling investigation of chain length dependent termination during multivinyl free radical chain photopolymerizations: Accounting for the gel. Macromolecules 38 , 4913-4918 (2005).
  12. Lovestead, T. M., Burdick, J. A., Ansetha, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Understanding multivinyl monomer photopolymerization kinetics through modeling and GPC investigation of degradable networks. Polymer 46 , 6226-6234 (2005).
  13. Lu, H., Carioscia, J. A., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Investigations of step-growth thiol-ene polymerizations for novel dental restoratives. Dental Materials 21 , 1129-1136 (2005).
  14. Lu, H., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Impact of curing protocol on conversion and shrinkage stress. Journal of Dental Research 84 , 822-826 (2005).
  15. Lu, H., Stansbury, J. W., Nie, J., Berchtold, K. A. & Bowman, C. N. Development of highly reactive mono-(meth)acrylates as reactive diluents for dimethacrylate-based dental resin systems. Biomaterials 26 , 1329-1336 (2005).
  16. Okay, O. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetic modeling of thiol-ene reactions with both step and chain growth aspects. Macromolecular Theory and Simulations 14 , 267-277 (2005).
  17. Okay, O., Reddy, S. K. & Bowman, C. N. Molecular weight development during thiol-ene photopolymerizations. Macromolecules 38 , 4501-4511 (2005).
  18. Reddy, S. K., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Modeling of network degradation in mixed step-chain growth polymerizations. Polymer 46 , 4212-4222 (2005).
  19. Reddy, S. K., Sebra, R. P., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Living radical photopolymerization induced grafting on thiol-ene based substrates. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 43 , 2134-2144 (2005).
  20. Rydholm, A. E., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Degradable thiol-acrylate photopolymers: polymerization and degradation behavior of an in situ forming biomaterial. Biomaterials 26 , 4495-4506 (2005).
  21. Scott, T. F., Schneider, A. D., Cook, W. D. & Bowman, C. N. Photoinduced plasticity in cross-linked polymers. Science 308 , 1615-1617 (2005).
  22. Sebra, R. P., Masters, K. S., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Surface grafted antibodies: Controlled architecture permits enhanced antigen detection. Langmuir 21 , 10907-10911 (2005).
  23. Simms, H. M. et al. In situ fabrication of macroporous polymer networks within microfluidic devices by living radical photopolymerization and leaching. Lab on a Chip , 151-157 (2005).


  1. Beckel, E. R., Nie, J., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Effect of aryl substituents on the reactivity of phenyl carbamate acrylate monomers. Macromolecules 37 , 4062-4069 (2004).
  2. Berchtold, K. A. et al. Novel monovinyl methacrylic monomers containing secondary functionality for ultrarapid polymerization: Steady-state evaluation. Macromolecules 37 , 3165-3179 (2004).
  3. Cramer, N. B., Reddy, S. K., Cole, M., Hoyle, C. & Bowman, C. N. Initiation and kinetics of thiol-ene photopolymerizations without photoinitiators. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 42 , 5817-5826 (2004).
  4. Cramer, N. B. et al. Thiol-ene photopolymerization of polymer-derived ceramic precursors. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 42 , 1752-1757 (2004).
  5. Elliott, J. E., Macdonald, M., Nie, J. & Bowman, C. N. Structure and swelling of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels: effect of pH, ionic strength, and dilution on the crosslinked polymer structure. Polymer 45 , 1503-1510 (2004).
  6. Good, B. T., Bowman, C. N. & Davis, R. H. Modeling and verification of fluid-responsive polymer pumps for microfluidic systems. Chemical Engineering Science 59 , 5967-5974 (2004).
  7. Hutchison, J. B. et al. Robust polymer microfluidic device fabrication via contact liquid photolithographic polymerization (CLiPP). Lab on a Chip , 658-662 (2004).
  8. Lu, H., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Towards the elucidation of shrinkage stress development and relaxation in dental composites. Dental Materials 20 , 979-986 (2004).
  9. Lu, H., Stansbury, J. W., Dickens, S. H., Eichmiller, F. C. & Bowman, C. N. Probing the origins and control of shrinkage stress in dental resin-composites: I. Shrinkage stress characterization technique. Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Medicine 15 , 1097-1103 (2004).
  10. Lu, H., Stansbury, J. W., Dickens, S. H., Eichmiller, F. C. & Bowman, C. N. Probing the origins and control of shrinkage stress in dental resin composites. II. Novel method of simultaneous measurement of polymerization shrinkage stress and conversion. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials 71B , 206-213 (2004).
  11. Martens, P. J., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Degradable networks formed from multi-functional poly(vinyl alcohol) macromers: comparison of results from a generalized bulk-degradation model for polymer networks and experimental data. Polymer 45 , 3377-3387 (2004).
  12. Reddy, S. K. et al. Rate mechanisms of a novel thiol-ene photopolymerization reaction. Macromolecular Symposia 206 , 361-374 (2004).


  1. Beckel, E. R., Cramer, N. B., Harant, A. W. & Bowman, C. N. Electro-optic properties of thiol-ene polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals. Liquid Crystals 30 , 1343-1350 (2003).
  2. Cramer, N. B., Davies, T., O'Brien, A. K. & Bowman, C. N. Mechanism and modeling of a thiol-ene photopolymerization. Macromolecules 36 , 4631-4636 (2003).
  3. Cramer, N. B., Reddy, S. K., O'Brien, A. K. & Bowman, C. N. Thiol-ene photopolymerization mechanism and rate limiting step changes for various vinyl functional group chemistries. Macromolecules 36 , 7964-7969 (2003).
  4. Elliott, J. E., Nie, J. & Bowman, C. N. The effect of primary cyclization on free radical polymerization kinetics: experimental characterization. Polymer 44 , 327-332 (2003).
  5. Lovell, L. G. & Bowman, C. N. The effect of kinetic chain length on the mechanical relaxation of crosslinked photopolymers. Polymer 44 , 39-47 (2003).
  6. Lovell, L. G., Newman, S. M., Donaldson, M. M. & Bowman, C. N. The effect of light intensity on double bond conversion and flexural strength of a model, unfilled dental resin. Dental Materials 19 , 458-465 (2003).
  7. Lovestead, T. M., O'Brien, A. K. & Bowman, C. N. Models of multivinyl free radical photopolymerization kinetics. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology a-Chemistry 159 , 135-143 (2003).
  8. Luo, N., Metters, A. T., Hutchison, J. B., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. A methacrylated photoiniferter as a chemical basis for microlithography: Micropatterning based on photografting polymerization. Macromolecules 36 , 6739-6745 (2003).
  9. O'Brien, A. K. & Bowman, C. N. Modeling thermal and optical effects on photopolymerization systems. Macromolecules 36 , 7777-7782 (2003).
  10. Reddy, S. K., Cramer, N. B., Cross, T., Raj, R. & Bowman, C. N. Polymer-derived ceramic materials from thiol-ene photopolymerizations. Chemistry of Materials 15 , 4257-4261 (2003).
  11. Scott, T. F., Cook, W. D., Forsythe, J. S., Bowman, C. N. & Berchtold, K. A. FTIR and ESR spectroscopic studies of the photopolymerization of vinyl ester resins. Macromolecules 36 , 6066-6074 (2003).


  1. Anseth, K. S. et al. In situ forming degradable networks and their application in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Journal of Controlled Release 78 , 199-209 (2002).
  2. Berchtold, K. A., Lovestead, T. M. & Bowman, C. N. Coupling chain length dependent and reaction diffusion controlled termination in the free radical polymerization of multivinyl (meth)acrylates. Macromolecules 35 , 7968-7975 (2002).
  3. Cramer, N. B. et al. Formation of a host nanostructure for ferroelectric liquid crystals using thiol-ene polymers. Liquid Crystals 29 , 1291-1296 (2002).
  4. Cramer, N. B., Scott, J. P. & Bowman, C. N. Photopolymerizations of thiol-ene polymers without photoinitiators. Macromolecules 35 , 5361-5365 (2002).
  5. Elliott, J. E. & Bowman, C. N. Effect of primary cyclization on free radical polymerization kinetics: Modeling approach. Macromolecules 35 , 7125-7131 (2002).
  6. Elliott, J. E. & Bowman, C. N. Predicting network formation of free radical polymerization of multifunctional monomers. Polymer Reaction Engineering 10 , 1-19 (2002).
  7. Elliott, J. E. & Bowman, C. N. Effects of solvent quality during polymerization on network structure of cross-linked methacrylate copolymers. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 106 , 2843-2847 (2002).
  8. Goodner, M. D. & Bowman, C. N. Development of a comprehensive free radical photopolymerization model incorporating heat and mass transfer effects in thick films. Chemical Engineering Science 57 , 887-900 (2002).
  9. Hacioglu, B., Berchtold, K. A., Lovell, L. G., Nie, J. & Bowman, C. N. Polymerization kinetics of HEMA/DEGDMA: using changes in initiation and chain transfer rates to explore the effects of chain-length-dependent termination. Biomaterials 23 , 4057-4064 (2002).
  10. Lovestead, T. M., Berchtold, K. A. & Bowman, C. N. Modeling the effects of chain length on the termination kinetics in multivinyl photopolymerizations. Macromolecular Theory and Simulations 11 , 729-738 (2002).
  11. Luo, N., Hutchison, J. B., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Synthesis of a novel methacrylic monomer iniferter and its application in surface photografting on crosslinked polymer substrates. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 40 , 1885-1891 (2002).
  12. Luo, N., Hutchison, J. B., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Surface-initiated photopolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate on a diethyldithiocarbamate-mediated polymer substrate. Macromolecules 35 , 2487-2493 (2002).
  13. Nie, J. & Bowman, C. N. Synthesis and photopolymerization of N,N '-dimethyl,-N,N '-di(methacryloxy ethyl)-1,6-hexanediamine as a polymerizable amine coinitiator for dental restorations. Biomaterials 23 , 1221-1226 (2002).
  14. Pasmore, M., Todd, P., Pfiefer, B., Rhodes, M. & Bowman, C. N. Effect of polymer surface properties on the reversibility of attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the early stages of biofilm development. Biofouling 18 , 65-71 (2002).
  15. Poshusta, A. K., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Application of a kinetic gelation simulation to the characterization of in situ cross-linking biomaterials. Journal of Biomaterials Science-Polymer Edition 13 , 797-815 (2002).


  1. Berchtold, K. A., Hacioglu, B., Lovell, L., Nie, J. & Bowman, C. N. Using changes in initiation and chain transfer rates to probe the kinetics of cross-linking photopolymerizations: Effects of chain length dependent termination. Macromolecules 34 , 5103-5111 (2001).
  2. Berchtold, K. A., Lovell, L. G., Nie, J., Hacioglu, B. & Bowman, C. N. The significance of chain length dependent termination in cross-linking polymerizations. Polymer 42 , 4925-4929 (2001).
  3. Cramer, N. B. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetics of thiol-ene and thiol-acrylate photopolymerizations with real-time Fourier transform infrared. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 39 , 3311-3319 (2001).
  4. Elliott, J. E., Anseth, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetic modeling of the effect of solvent concentration on primary cyclization during polymerization of multifunctional monomers. Chemical Engineering Science 56 , 3173-3184 (2001).
  5. Elliott, J. E. & Bowman, C. N. Monomer functionality and polymer network formation. Macromolecules 34 , 4642-4649 (2001).
  6. Elliott, J. E., Lovell, L. G. & Bowman, C. N. Primary cyclization in the polymerization of bis-GMA and TEGDMA: a modeling approach to understanding the cure of dental resins. Dental Materials 17 , 221-229 (2001).
  7. Lovell, L. G., Berchtold, K. A., Elliott, J. E., Lu, H. & Bowman, C. N. Understanding the kinetics and network formation of dimethacrylate dental resins. Polymers for Advanced Technologies 12 , 335-345 (2001).
  8. Lovell, L. G., Elliott, B. J., Brown, J. R. & Bowman, C. N. The effect of wavelength on the polymerization of multi(meth)acrylates with disulfide/benzilketal combinations. Polymer 42 , 421-429 (2001). doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00386-4
  9. Lovell, L. G., Lu, H., Elliott, J. E., Stansbury, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. The effect of cure rate on the mechanical properties of dental resins. Dental Materials 17 , 504-511 (2001).
  10. Lu, H., Lovell, L. G. & Bowman, C. N. Exploiting the heterogeneity of cross-linked photopolymers to create High-T-g polymers from polymerizations performed at ambient conditions. Macromolecules 34 , 8021-8025 (2001).
  11. Ma, H. M., Davis, R. H. & Bowman, C. N. Principal factors affecting sequential photoinduced graft polymerization. Polymer 42 , 8333-8338 (2001).
  12. Ma, H. M., Hakim, L. F., Bowman, C. N. & Davis, R. H. Factors affecting membrane fouling reduction by surface modification and backpulsing. Journal of Membrane Science 189 , 255-270 (2001).
  13. Ma, H. M., Nielsen, D. R., Bowman, C. N. & Davis, R. H. Membrane surface modification and backpulsing for wastewater treatment. Separation Science and Technology 36 , 1557-1573 (2001).
  14. Martens, P., Metters, A. T., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. A generalized bulk-degradation model for hydrogel networks formed from multivinyl cross-linking molecules. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 105 , 5131-5138 (2001).
  15. Mason, M. N., Metters, A. T., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Predicting controlled-release behavior of degradable PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA hydrogels. Macromolecules 34 , 4630-4635 (2001).
  16. Metters, A. T., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. A statistical kinetic model for the bulk degradation of PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA hydrogel networks: Incorporating network non-idealities. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 105 , 8069-8076 (2001).
  17. Metters, A. T., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. Verification of scaling laws for degrading PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA hydrogels. Aiche Journal 47 , 1432-1437 (2001).
  18. Nie, J., Lovell, L. G. & Bowman, C. N. Synthesis and characterization of N-isopropyl, N-methacryloxyethyl methacrylamide as a possible dental resin. Biomaterials 22 , 535-540 (2001). doi:10.1016/S0142-9612(00)00209-X
  19. Pasmore, M. et al. Effects of ultrafiltration membrane surface properties on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm initiation for the purpose of reducing biofouling. Journal of Membrane Science 194 , 15-32 (2001).


  1. Elliott, B. J., Scranton, A. B., Cameron, J. H. & Bowman, C. N. Characterization and polymerization of metal complexes of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates and the synthesis of polymeric pseudocrown ethers. Chemistry of Materials 12 , 633-642 (2000).
  2. Elliott, B. J., Willis, W. B. & Bowman, C. N. Pseudo-crown ethers as fixed site carriers in facilitated transport membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 168 , 109-119 (2000).
  3. Goering, R. M., Bowman, C. N., Koval, C. A., Noble, R. D. & Ashley, M. E. Complexation structure and transport mechanism of 1,5-hexadiene and 1-hexene through silver facilitated transport membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 172 , 49-57 (2000).
  4. Ma, H. M., Bowman, C. N. & Davis, R. H. Membrane fouling reduction by backpulsing and surface modification. Journal of Membrane Science 173 , 191-200 (2000).
  5. Ma, H. M., Davis, R. H. & Bowman, C. N. A novel sequential photoinduced living graft polymerization. Macromolecules 33 , 331-335 (2000).
  6. Metters, A. T., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Fundamental studies of a novel, biodegradable PEG-b-PLA hydrogel. Polymer 41 , 3993-4004 (2000).
  7. Metters, A. T., Bowman, C. N. & Anseth, K. S. A statistical kinetic model for the bulk degradation of PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA hydrogel networks. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104 , 7043-7049 (2000).
  8. Mores, W. D., Bowman, C. N. & Davis, R. H. Theoretical and experimental flux maximization by optimization of backpulsing. Journal of Membrane Science 165 , 225-236 (2000).
  9. Newman, S. M., Lovell, L. G. & Bowman, C. N. Degree of cure with a quick curing light. Journal of Dental Research 79 , 369-369 (2000).


  1. J.E. Gibson and C.N. Bowman*, “Primary Cyclization Reactions in Crosslinked Polymers,” Wiley Polymer Networks Group Review, 2, 27 (1999).
  2. Elliott, B. J., Willis, W. B. & Bowman, C. N. Polymerization kinetics of pseudocrown ether network formation for facilitated transport membranes. Macromolecules 32 , 3201-3208 (1999).
  3. Elliott, J. E. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetics of primary cyclization reactions in cross-linked polymers: An analytical and numerical approach to heterogeneity in network formation. Macromolecules 32 , 8621-8628 (1999).
  4. Goodner, M. D. & Bowman, C. N. Modeling primary radical termination and its effects on autoacceleration in photopolymerization kinetics. Macromolecules 32 , 6552-6559 (1999).
  5. Lovell, L. G., Newman, S. M. & Bowman, C. N. The effects of light intensity, temperature, and comonomer composition on the polymerization behavior of dimethacrylate dental resins. Journal of Dental Research 78 , 1469-1476 (1999).
  6. Lovell, L. G., Stansbury, J. W., Syrpes, D. C. & Bowman, C. N. Effects of composition and reactivity on the reaction kinetics of dimethacrylate dimethacrylate copolymerizations. Macromolecules 32 , 3913-3921 (1999).
  7. Smith, B. M., Todd, P. & Bowman, C. N. Hyperbranched chelating polymers for the polymer-assisted ultrafiltration of boric acid. Separation Science and Technology 34 , 1925-1945 (1999).
  8. Thunhorst, K. L., Noble, R. D. & Bowman, C. N. Properties of the transport of alkali metal salts through polymeric membranes containing benzo-18-crown-6 crown ether functional groups. Journal of Membrane Science 156 , 293-302 (1999).
  9. Young, J. S. & Bowman, C. N. Effect of polymerization temperature and cross-linker concentration on reaction diffusion controlled termination. Macromolecules 32 , 6073-6081 (1999).
  10. M.D. Goodner and C.N. Bowman*, “Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Light Intensity and Initiator Effects on Solvent Free Photopolymerizations,” in American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Solvent Free Polymerizations and Processes, T.E. Long and M.O. Hunt, Editors, Volume 713, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1999, pp. 220. 


  1. Goering, R. M., Bowman, C. N., Koval, C. A., Noble, R. D. & Williamson, D. L. Role of ion-exchange membrane morphology and sorption properties in facilitated transport di-olefin/mono-olefin separations. Journal of Membrane Science 144 , 133-143 (1998).
  2. Guymon, C. A. et al. Polymerization conditions and electrooptic properties of polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals. Chemistry of Materials 10 , 2378-2388 (1998).
  3. Guymon, C. A. et al. Polymerization of polymer/ferroelectric liquid crystal composites formed with branched liquid crystalline bismethacrylates. Liquid Crystals 24 , 263-270 (1998).
  4. Kannurpatti, A. R., Anseth, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. A study of the evolution of mechanical properties and structural heterogeneity of polymer networks formed by photopolymerizations of multifunctional (meth)acrylates. Polymer 39 , 2507-2513 (1998).
  5. Kannurpatti, A. R. & Bowman, C. N. Structural evolution of dimethacrylate networks studied by dielectric spectroscopy. Macromolecules 31 , 3311-3316 (1998).
  6. Smith, B. M., Owens, J. L., Bowman, C. N. & Todd, P. Thermodynamics of borate ester formation by three readily grafted carbohydrates. Carbohydrate Research 308 , 173-179 (1998).
  7. Young, J. S., Kannurpatti, A. R. & Bowman, C. N. Effect of comonomer concentration and functionality on photopolymerization rates, mechanical properties and heterogeneity of the polymer. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 199 , 1043-1049 (1998).


  1. Bowman, C. N. & Guymon, C. A. Polymerization and properties of polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals. Mrs Bulletin 22 , 15-20 (1997).
  2. Goodner, M. D., Lee, H. R. & Bowman, C. N. Method for determining the kinetic parameters in diffusion-controlled free-radical homopolymerizations. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 36 , 1247-1252 (1997).
  3. Guymon, C. A. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetic analysis of polymerization rate acceleration during the formation of polymer/smectic liquid crystal composites. Macromolecules 30 , 5271-5278 (1997).
  4. Guymon, C. A. & Bowman, C. N. Polymerization behavior and kinetics during the formation of polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals. Macromolecules 30 , 1594-1600 (1997).
  5. Guymon, C. A. et al. Effects of monomer structure on their organization and polymerization in a smectic liquid crystal. Science 275 , 57-59 (1997).
  6. Kannurpatti, A. R., Anderson, K. J., Anseth, J. W. & Bowman, C. N. Use of ''living'' radical polymerizations to study the structural evolution and properties of highly crosslinked polymer networks. Journal of Polymer Science Part B-Polymer Physics 35 , 2297-2307 (1997).
  7. Thunhorst, K. L., Noble, R. D. & Bowman, C. N. Transport of ionic species through functionalized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 128 , 183-193 (1997).
  8. M.D. Goodner, H.R. Lee, and C.N. Bowman*, "A Method for Determining Kinetic Parameters in Diffusion Controlled Free Radical Polymerizations" I.E.C. Research36, 1247 (1997).
  9. A.B. Scranton., C.N. Bowman, and R.W. Peiffer, Editors, “Photopolymerization: Fundamentals and Applications,” American Chemical Society Symposium Series,. 673, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997.
  10. A.R. Kannurpatti, M.D. Goodner, H.R. Lee, and C.N. Bowman*, “Reaction Behavior and Kinetic Modeling Studies of Living Radical Photopolymerizations,” in American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Photopolymerization: Fundamentals and Applications, A.B. Scranton., C.N. Bowman, and R.W. Peiffer, Editors, 673, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 51
  11. C.A. Guymon, L.A. Dougan, and C.N. Bowman*, “Photopolymerization and Electro-optic Properties of Polymer Network/Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Composites,” American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Photopolymerization: Fundamentals and Applications, A.B. Scranton., C.N. Bowman, and R.W. Peiffer, Editors, 673, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 16.
  12. K.L. Thunhorst, R.D. Noble, and C.N. Bowman*, “Preparation of Functionalized Polymers by Reactions of Poly (Vinylbenzyl Chloride),” in Polymer Modification, C.E. Carraher, G. Swift, and C.N. Bowman, Editors, Plenum Publishing, New York, NY, 1997, p. 97.
  13. B.M. Smith, P. Todd, and C.N. Bowman*, “An Empirical and Modeling Study of Boron Speciation on Solution with a Reactive Dendrimeric Polymer,” in Polymer Modification, C.E. Carraher, G. Swift, and C.N. Bowman, Editors, Plenum Publishing, New York, NY, 1997, p. 197.


  1. Anseth, K. S., Anderson, K. J. & Bowman, C. N. Radical concentrations, environments, and reactivities during crosslinking polymerizations. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 197 , 833-848 (1996).
  2. Anseth, K. S., Bowman, C. N. & BrannonPeppas, L. Mechanical properties of hydrogels and their experimental determination. Biomaterials 17 , 1647-1657 (1996).
  3. Anseth, K. S. et al. The influence of comonomer composition on dimethacrylate resin properties for dental composites. Journal of Dental Research 75 , 1607-1612 (1996).
  4. Kannurpatti, A. R., Lu, S. X., Bunker, G. M. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of iniferter photopolymerizations. Macromolecules 29 , 7310-7315 (1996).
  5. Yamaguchi, T., Baertsch, C., Koval, C. A., Noble, R. D. & Bowman, C. N. Olefin separation using silver impregnated ion-exchange membranes and silver salt/polymer blend membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 117 , 151-161 (1996).
  6. Yamaguchi, T., Koval, C. A., Noble, R. D. & Bowman, C. N. Transport mechanism of carbon dioxide through perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes containing an amine carrier. Chemical Engineering Science 51 , 4781-4789 (1996).
  7. C. A. Guymon, L.A. Dougan, E.N. Hoggan, and C.N. Bowman*, “Polymerization Effects on the Electro-Optic Properties of a Polymer Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal,” MRS Symposia Proceedings425, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, p. 197 (1996).
  8. A.R. Kannurpatti, R.W. Peiffer, C.A. Guymon, and C.N. Bowman*, “Photochemistry of Polymers: Photopolymerization Fundamentals and Applications,” in Polymers in Optics: Physics, Chemistry and Applications, R.A. Lessard and W.A. Frank, Editors, Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, CR63, p 136, 1996.


  1. Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetic Gelation Predictions of Species Aggregation in Tetrafunctional Monomer Polymerizations. Journal of Polymer Science Part B-Polymer Physics 33 , 1769-1780 (1995).
  2. Anseth, K. S., Decker, C. & Bowman, C. N. Real-Time Infrared Characterization of Reaction-Diffusion during Multifunctional Monomer Polymerizations. Macromolecules 28 , 4040-4043 (1995).
  3. Anseth, K. S., Kline, L. M., Walker, T. A., Anderson, K. J. & Bowman, C. N. Reaction-Kinetics and Volume Relaxation during Polymerizations of Multiethylene Glycol Dimethacrylates. Macromolecules 28 , 2491-2499 (1995).
  4. Anseth, K. S., Newman, S. M. & Bowman, C. N. in Biopolymers Ii 177-217 (Springer-Verlag Berlin, Berlin 33, 1995).
  5. Deascentiis, A., Degrazia, J. L., Bowman, C. N., Colombo, P. & Peppas, N. A. Mucoadhesion of Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate) Is Improved When Linear Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Chains Are Added to the Polymer Network. Journal of Controlled Release 33 , 197-201 (1995).
  6. Degrazia, J. L. & Bowman, C. N. Settling Characteristics of Microparticles Modified by Hydrophilic Semiinterpenetrating Polymer Networks. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 55 , 793-805 (1995).
  7. Guymon, C. A., Hoggan, E. N., Walba, D. M., Clark, N. A. & Bowman, C. N. Phase-Behavior and Electrooptic Characteristics of a Polymer Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystal. Liquid Crystals 19 , 719-727 (1995).
  8. Nelson, E. W., Jacobs, J. L., Scranton, A. B., Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Photo-Differential Scanning Calorimetry Studies of Cationic Polymerizations of Divinyl Ethers. Polymer 36 , 4651-4656 (1995).
  9. Smith, B. M., Todd, P. & Bowman, C. N. Boron removal by polymer-assisted ultrafiltration. Separation Science and Technology 30 , 3849-3859 (1995).
  10. Yamaguchi, T., Boetje, L. M., Koval, C. A., Noble, R. D. & Bowman, C. N. Transport-Properties of Carbon-Dioxide through Amine Functionalized Carrier Membranes. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 34 , 4071-4077 (1995).
  11. K.S. Anseth, T.A. Walker, and C.N. Bowman*, "UV-Vis Spectroscopy To Determine Free Volume Distributions During Multifunctional Monomer Polymerizations," in Multidimensional Spectroscopy of Polymers, M.W. Urban and T. Provder, Eds., American Chemical Society Symposium Series, 598, ACS Press, Washington, D.C. 166 (1995).
  12. T. Yamaguchi, L.M. Boetje, C.A. Koval, R.D. Noble*, and C.N. Bowman, "Transport Properties of Carbon Dioxide Through Amine Functionalized Carrier Membranes," I.E.C. Research, 34, 4071 (1995).
  13. K.S. Anseth and C.N. Bowman*, "Structural Evolution of Highly Crosslinked Polymer Networks," in “Evolution of Thin Film and Surface Structure and Morphology," MRS Symposium Proceedings, 355, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 65 (1995).


  1. Anseth, K. S. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetic Gelation Model Predictions of Cross-Linked Polymer Network Microstructure. Chemical Engineering Science 49 , 2207-2217 (1994).
  2. Anseth, K. S., Bowman, C. N. & Peppas, N. A. Polymerization Kinetics and Volume Relaxation Behavior of Photopolymerized Multifunctional Monomers Producing Highly Cross-Linked Networks. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 32 , 139-147 (1994).
  3. Anseth, K. S., Rothenberg, M. D. & Bowman, C. N. A Photochromic Technique to Study Polymer Network Volume Distributions and Microstructure during Photopolymerizations. Macromolecules 27 , 2890-2892 (1994).
  4. Anseth, K. S., Wang, C. M. & Bowman, C. N. Reaction Behavior and Kinetic Constants for Photopolymerizations of Multi(Meth)Acrylate Monomers. Polymer 35 , 3243-3250 (1994).
  5. Anseth, K. S., Wang, C. M. & Bowman, C. N. Kinetic Evidence of Reaction-Diffusion during the Polymerization of Multi(Meth)Acrylate Monomers. Macromolecules 27 , 650-655 (1994).
  6. Kasic, J. F., Kannurpatti, A. R. & Bowman, C. N. In-Situ Poling and Polymerization of Multifunctional Monomers for 2nd-Harmonic Generation. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 195 , 3759-3772 (1994).
  7. C.N. Bowman*, "A New Faculty Member's Perspective on Teaching in the First Few Years," Chemical Engineering Education28, 280 (1994).


  1. Anseth, K. S., and Bowman, C. N., Reaction Diffusion Enhanced Termination in Polymerizations of Multifunctional Monomers, Polymer Reaction Engineering1, 499 (1993).
  2. Anseth, K. S., Bowman, C. N. & Peppas, N. A. Dynamic-Mechanical Studies of the Glass-Transition Temperature of Photopolymerized Multifunctional Acrylates. Polymer Bulletin 31 , 229-233 (1993).


  1. Bowman, C. N. & Peppas, N. A. A Kinetic Gelation Method for the Simulation of Free-Radical Polymerizations. Chemical Engineering Science 47 , 1411-1419 (1992).
  2. Scranton, A. B., Bowman, C. N., Klier, J. & Peppas, N. A. Polymerization Reaction Dynamics of Ethylene-Glycol Methacrylates and Dimethacrylates by Calorimetry. Polymer 33 , 1683-1689 (1992).


  1. Bowman, C. N. & Peppas, N. A. Initiation and Termination Mechanisms in Kinetic Gelation Simulations. Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Polymer Chemistry 29 , 1575-1583 (1991).
  2. Bowman, C. N. & Peppas, N. A. Coupling of Kinetics and Volume Relaxation during Polymerizations of Multiacrylates and Multimethacrylates. Macromolecules 24 , 1914-1920 (1991).
  3. Bowman, C. N. & Peppas, N. A. Polymers for Information-Storage Systems .2. Polymerization Kinetics for Preparation of Highly Cross-Linked Polydimethacrylates. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 42 , 2013-2018 (1991).
  4. C.N. Bowman and N.A. Peppas*, "Effects of Physical Aging on Polymerization Kinetics," in "Structure, Relaxation and Physical Aging of Glassy Polymers," R. Joon Roe and James M. O'Reilly, Editors, MRS Symposia Proceedings 213, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1991, p. 43. 


  1. Bowman, C. N., Carver, A. L., Kennett, S. N., Williams, M. M. & Peppas, N. A. Polymers for Information-Storage Systems .3. Crosslinked Structure of Polydimethacrylates. Polymer31 , 135-139 (1990).


  1. Bowman, C. N., Carver, A. L., Kennett, S. L., Williams, M. M. & Peppas, N. A. Polymers for Information-Storage Systems .1. Preparation and Properties of Highly Crosslinked Polydimethacrylates. Polymer Bulletin20 , 329-333 (1988).