There are a few differences between the two types of application documents when applying for positions after your graduate work. Use the below resources to straighten out your queries as well as understand when you are likely to use which document.
A resume is a written compilation of your education, work experience, credentials, and accomplishments. Most positions in industry require applicants to submit a resume and cover letter as part of the application process. Sentences should not exceed 20 words and exclude the use of first-person pronouns (I, me, my) and articles (the, an, a). Your resume should not exceed one page.
A CV or curriculum vitae is used when applying to academic instructional or research positions, private- and public-sector research roles, and some higher education administration positions. A CV is a comprehensive record of your research and/or teaching experience including your education and relevant employment history, publications and conference activity, awards and achievements, and successful grant applications.