Healy CM, Ahmed AA (2024) Physical Effort Pre-Crastination Determines Preference in an Isometric Task. bioRxiv. 


Shadmehr R, Ahmed AA (2020) Vigor: Neuroeconomics of Movement ControlMIT Press


Constantinidis C, Ahmed AA, Wallis JD, Batista AP (2023) Common mechanisms of learning in motor and cognitive systems. Journal of Neuroscience, 43, 7523-7529.

Shadmehr R, Ahmed AA (2021) Movement control, decision-making, and the building of Roman roads to link them. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 44. 

Sukumar S, Ahmed AA (2021) Walking: How visual exploration informs step choiceCurrent Biology, 31: R376–R378.

Shadmehr R, Ahmed AA (2020) Precis of Vigor: Neuroeconomics of movement controlBehavioral and Brain Sciences, 1–10. 

Courter RJ, Ahmed AA (2019) To break a habit, timing’s everything. Nature Human Behaviour, 3, 1244–1245.

Shadmehr R, Reppert TR, Summerside EM, Yoon T, Ahmed AA (2019) Movement vigor as a reflection of subjective economic utility.Trends in Neurosciences, 42, 323–336

Journal Articles

Bruening G, Sukumar S, Courter R, O'Brien MK, Ahmed AA (2024) Disentangling the effects of metabolic costs and accuracy on movement vigor. PLoS Computational Biology, (in press).

Summerside EM, Courter RJ, Shadmehr R, Ahmed AA (2024) Slowing of movement in healthy aging as a rational economic response to an elevated effort landscape. Journal of Neuroscience, 44, e1596232024.

Sukumar S, Shadmehr R, Ahmed AA (2023) Effects of reward history on decision-making and movement vigor. Journal of Neurophsyiology.

Courter R, Alvarez E, Enoka RM, Ahmed AA (2023) Metabolic costs of walking and arm reaching in persons with mild multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurophysiology. 

Healy CM, Berniker M, Ahmed AA (2023) Learning vs. minding: How subjective costs can mask motor learning. PLoS One.

Korbisch CC, Apuan DR, Shadmehr R, Ahmed AA (2022) Saccade vigor during deliberation reflects rise of decision variables. Current Biology.

Pienciak-Siewert A, Ahmed AA (2021) Whole body adaptation to novel dynamics does not transfer between effectorsJournal of neurophysiology 126, 1345–1360. 

Summerside, EM, Ahmed AA (2021) Using metabolic energy to quantify the subjective value of physical effortJournal of the Royal Society Interface, 18, 20210387. 

Yoon T, Jaleel A, Ahmed AA, Shadmehr R (2020) Saccade vigor and the subjective economic value of visual stimuli. Journal of Neurophyisology, 123: 2161-2172. 

Pienciak-Siewert, A, Horan, DP, Ahmed, AA (2020) Role of muscle coactivation in adaptation of standing posture during arm reachingJournal of Neurophysiology, 123, 529–547 

O’Brien MK, Ahmed AA (2019) Asymmetric valuation of gains and losses in effort-based decision making. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0223268.

Hamilton LD, Mazzo MR,Petrigna L, Ahmed AA, Enoka RM (2019) Poor estimates of motor variability are associated with longer grooved pegboard times for middle-aged and older adults. Journal of Neurophysiology 121: 588-601.

Yoon T, Geary RB, Ahmed AA, Shadmehr R (2018) Control of movement vigor and decision making during foraging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 15: E10476-E10485.

Summerside EM, Kram R, Ahmed AA (2018) Contributions of metabolic and temporal costs to human gait selectionJournal of the Royal Society Interface 15: 20180197.

Summerside EM, Shadmehr R, Ahmed AA (2018) Vigor of reaching movements: reward discounts the cost of effortJournal of Neurophysiology 119: 2347-2357.

Pienciak-Siewert AP, Horan DP, Ahmed AA (2016). Trial-to-trial adaptation in control of arm reaching and standing posture. Journal of Neurophysiology 116:2936-2949.

Shadmehr R, Huang HJ, Ahmed AA (2016). A representation of effort in decision-making and motor control. Current Biology 26, 1-6. [Commentary]

O’Brien MK, Ahmed AA (2016). Rationality in human movement. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 44:20-28. 

O’Brien MK, Ahmed AA (2015). Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9:150. 

Nikooyan, AA, Ahmed, AA (2015). Reward feedback accelerates motor learning. Journal of Neurophysiology 113:633-646. 

O’Brien MK, Ahmed AA (2014). Take a stand on your decisions, or take a sit: posture does not affect risk preferences in an economic task. PeerJ 2:e475. 

Huang HJ, Ahmed AA (2014). Reductions in muscle activity and metabolic cost during visuomotor adaptation. Journal of Neurophysiology 112:2264-2274.

Pienciak-Siewert AP, Barletta AJ, Ahmed, AA (2014). Transfer of postural adaptation depends on context of prior exposure. Journal of Neurophysiology 111:1466-1478.

Huang HJ, Ahmed AA (2014). Older adults learn less, but still reduce metabolic cost during motor adaptation. Journal of Neurophysiology 111:135-144.

Trent MC, Ahmed AA (2013). Learning from the value of your mistakes: evidence for a risk-sensitive process in movement adaptation. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 7:118. 

Wilder MH, Jones M, Ahmed AA, Curran T, Mozer MC (2013). The persistent impact of incidental experience. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review.

O'Brien MK, Ahmed AA (2013). Does risk-sensitivity transfer across movements? Journal of Neurophysiology 109:1866-1875.

Berniker M, O'Brien MK, Kording KP, Ahmed AA (2013). An examination of the generalizability of motor costs. PLoS ONE 8(1): e53759.

Manista GC, Ahmed AA (2012). Stability limits modulate whole-body motor learning. Journal of Neurophysiology 107:1952-1961.

Huang HJ, Kram R, Ahmed AA (2012). Reduction of metabolic cost during motor learning of arm reaching dynamics. Journal of Neuroscience 32(6): 2182-2190.

Huang HJ, Ahmed AA (2011). Tradeoff between stability and maneuverability during whole-body movements. PLoS ONE 6(7): e21815.
Featured image of the week in the PLoS ONE Community Blog

Ahmed AA, Wolpert DM (2009). Transfer of dynamics learning across postures. Journal of Neurophysiology 102:2816-2824.

Ahmed AA, Wolpert DM, Flanagan JR (2008). Flexible representations of dynamics are used in object manipulation. Current Biology 18:763-768. [commentary]

Ahmed AA, Ashton-Miller JA (2007). On use of a nominal internal model to detect a loss of balance in a maximal forward reach. Journal of Neurophysiology 97:2439-24447.

Ahmed AA, Ashton-Miller JA (2005). Effect of age on detecting a loss of balance in a seated, whole-body balancing task. Clinical Biomechanics 20:767-775. (ASB Clinical Biomechanics Award Paper 2003)

Ahmed AA, Ashton-Miller JA (2004). Is a loss of balance a control error signal anomaly? Evidence for three-sigma failure detection in young adults. Gait and Posture 19:252-262.