PNAS. 2020 Nov 3;117(44):27502-27508. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2015919117
Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are secondary messengers used by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In mammalian cells, cytosolic CDNs bind STING (stimulator of IFN gene), resulting in the production of type I IFN. Extracellular CDNs can enter the cytosol through several pathways but how CDNs work from outside eukaryotic cells remains poorly understood. Here, we elucidate a mechanism of action on intestinal epithelial cells for extracellular CDNs. We found that CDNs containing adenosine induced a robust CFTR-mediated chloride secretory response together with cAMP-mediated inhibition of Poly I:C-stimulated IFNβ expression. Signal transduction was strictly polarized to the serosal side of the epithelium, dependent on the extracellular and sequential hydrolysis of CDNs to adenosine by the ectonucleosidases ENPP1 and CD73, and occurred via activation of A2B adenosine receptors. These studies highlight a pathway by which microbial and host produced extracellular CDNs can regulate the innate immune response of barrier epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces.
adenosine; cyclic dinucleotide; epithelial; intestine