Our immune system is the barrier that keeps pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, from replicating in our bodies and causing disease. Virtually all organisms have some sort of immune system. Bacteria have an immune system that stops bacterial viruses (phages). Interestingly, the immune systems of humans and bacteria use similar “molecular machines” to recognize and respond to invading threats. Our lab studies these machines and the interplay between hosts and their pathogens in both humans and bacteria. The ultimate goal of our work is to better understand infectious diseases to enable development the next generation of therapeutics.