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Energy and water are interdependent - water is used in all phases of energy production, and energy is required throughout the cycle of water management
Water scarcity, variability, and uncertainty are becoming more prominent, which leads to vulnerabilities of the energy system
The increased portfolio of renewable energy brings new opportunities for aging water infrastructure transformation.
Optimize the energy efficiency of water management, treatment, distribution, and end use systems.
Optimize the freshwater efficiency of energy production, electricity generation, and end use systems
Enhance the reliability and resilience of energy and water systems.
Increase safe and productive use of nontraditional water sources and synergies among water and energy systems.
Current water industry consumes ~57 TWh/yr (~ 6% of U.S. electricity consumption)
US waste disposal emits 0.75 GT/yr of CO2eq (~ 260 million tonnes of coal burn)
The embedded energy (thermo & chemical) in wastewater is >10 times that needed for treatment
The industry holds a great potential to become energy-positive, carbon-negative, and revenue-positive.
It also solves fresh water shortage and excess renewable energy problems in western states
System level analysis and optimization considering different stakeholders and sectors.