Robert Sievers
Professor Emeritus

Office: Ekeley W281
Lab: Ekeley M332
Fax: 303-492-1414


Ph.D.: University of Illinois, 1960

Areas of Expertise

Environmental Chemistry, Instrument Development, Bioanalytical Chemistry, Aerosols & Clouds

Awards and Honors

  • 2009 Governors Award for Research Impact
  • 2008 ACS Astellas Award
  • 2004 Pinnacle of Inventorship Award, University of Colorado
  • 2003 Robert L. Stearns Faculty Award, University of Colorado Alumni Association
  • 2001 Thomas Jefferson Award, University of Colorado
  • 1992: Keene P. Dimick Award in Chromatography, Pittsburgh Conf. on Analytical Chemistry.
  • 1985: Gold Medal Award, Colorado Section, American Chemical Society.
  • 1981: Tswett Chromatography Medal, Barcelona, Spain.

Analytical, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Chemistry

Professor Sievers is studying analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical science, aerosols, microparticles and nanoparticles, inhalable vaccines and antibiotics, and supercritical fluids.

Fundamental and applied studies of the formation of nanoparticle and microparticle aerosols are underway. Carbon dioxide-assisted nebulization provides superior aerosols for various forms of spectroscopy, such as electro-spray ionization, mass spectrometry and atomic absorption. Sievers' students are collaborating with pharmacists and physicians in the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, to develop new methods for delivery of aerosol particles useful in direct and painless administration of therapeutic drugs and vaccines by inhalation. The drugs are dissolved or suspended in supercritical fluids, and unusually small aerosol particles are formed by rapid decompression to facilitate delivery of the aerosol particles to the most distal alveoli and to allow rapid uptake by the lungs. Formation of fine aerosols is expected to become increasingly important in the treatment or vaccination against measles, HPV, influenza, infections, cystic fibrosis, and asthma.

The simultaneous stabilization, drying, and micronization of vaccines, antibodies, proteins, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals and other products of the biotechnology revolution are under study. Two of the fourteen “Grand Challenges” identified by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the NIH Foundation as critical to world health are being addressed by the Sievers group: needle-free administration of vaccines (by pulmonary or nasal aerosols), and thermal stable vaccines. Collaborations with groups in India and South Africa have been developed.

" Successful Respiratory Immunization With Dry Powder Live-Attenuated Measles Virus Vaccine In Rhesus Macaques,” W-H. Lin, D.E. Griffin, P.A. Rota, M.J. Papania, S.P. Cape, D.J.Bennett, B.P.Quinn, R.E. Sievers, C.D. Shermer, K.G. Powell, R.J. Adams, C.S. Godin and S.E.Winston, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1017334108.

"Dry Powder Measles Vaccine: Particle Deposition, Virus Replication, And Immune Response in Cotton Rats Following Inhalation,” K.O. Kisich, M.P. Higgins, I. Park, S.P. Cape, L. Lindsay, D.J. Bennett, S. Winston, J. Searles, R.E. Sievers, Vaccine, 29, 905-911, 2011.

"Processing of Oligonucleotides into Picroparticles Suitable for Inhalation," P. Pathak, B.P. Quinn, L.G. Rebits, R.E. Sievers, Journal of Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, 22:2, 186, 2009.

"An Inhalation Safety Study of Myo-inositol, A Non-Hygroscopic Stabilizing Excipient in Dispersible Microparticles, D.H. McAdams, S.P. Cape, W.E. Winston, S. Godin, K.G. Powell, C.D. Shermer, L. Chan, P. Pathak, R.E. Sievers, Journal of Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, 22:2, 199, 2009.

"Are Unit-dose Dry Powder Vaccines Intrinsically Safer than Liquid Vaccines, R.E. Sievers, E.L. Sievers, J.A. Searles, S.P. Cape, D.H. McAdams, J.L. Burger, J.R. Manion, D. Griffin, W-H Lin, P. Rota, M. Papania, S. Winston, B.P. Quinn, D.M. Krank, P. Pathak, P.A. Bhagwat, L.G. Rebits, S. Evans, J. Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Supplement 1 A163-164, September 2009.

"Nanomedicine for Respiratory Diseases," H. Swai, B. Semete, L. Kalombo, P. Chelule, K. Kisich, R. Sievers, Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 1, 255-263, 2009.

“Challenges of Developing a Stable Dry Powder Live Viral Vaccine,” R.E. Sievers, S.P. Cape, K.O. Kisich, D.J. Bennett, C.S. Braun, J.L. Burger, J.A. Best, D.H. McAdams, N.A. Wolters, B.P. Quinn, J.A. Searles, D.M. Krank, P. Pathak, P.A. Bhagwat, L.G. Rebits, RDD 2008, Vol. 1, 281-290, 2008.

“The PuffHaler®: a Simple Active DPI with a Pressure Release Valve Dispenser,” D.J. Bennett, R.E. Sievers, S.P. Cape, J.A. Best, A.L. Morin, C.A. Pelzmann, B.P. Quinn, L.G. Rebits, S. Evans, R.D. Threadgill, D.H. McAdams, RDD 2008, Vol. 2, 345-350, 2008.

“CAN-BD Processing of Active and Respirable siRNA particles for Pulmonary Delivery,” P. Pathak, B.P. Quinn, L.G. Rebits, R.E. Sievers, RDD 2008, Vol. 2, 351-354, 2008.

“Stabilizing Formulations for Inhalable Powders of Live-Attenuated Measles Virus Vaccine,” J.L. Burger, S.P. Cape, C.S. Braun, D.H. McAdams, J.A. Best, P. Bhagwat, P. Pathak, L.G. Rebits, R.E. Sievers, Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery21:1, 25-34 (March 2008).

“Preparation of Active Proteins, Vaccines and Pharmaceuticals as Fine Powders using Supercritical or Near-critical Fluids,” S.P. Cape, J.A. Villa, E.T. Huang, T.-H. Yang, J.F. Carpenter, and R.E. Sievers, Pharmaceutical Research 25 (9), 1967-1990 (2008).

Stabilization of Measles Virus for Vaccine Formulation,” J. Kissmann, S.F. Ausar, A. Randolph, C. Braun, S.P. Cape, R.E. Sievers, M.J. Federspiel, and C.R. Middaugh, Human Vaccines4(5), 350-359 (2008).

“Method for Quantifying the Sample Collected by an Andersen Cascade Impactor Using Total Organic Carbon Analysis,” L.G. Rebits, D.J. Bennett, P.A. Bhagwat, A. Morin, R.E. Sievers, Journal of Aerosol Science 38 (12), 1197-1206 (2008).

“Near Critical Fluid Micronization of Stabilized Vaccines, Antibiotics and Anti-virals,” R.E. Sievers, B.P. Quinn, S.P. Cape, J.A. Searles, C.S. Braun, P. Bhagwat, L.G. Rebits, D.H. McAdams, J.L. Burger, J.A. Best, L. Lindsay, M.T. Hernandez, K.O. Kisich, T. Iacovangelo, D. Kristensen, D. Chen, J. Supercritical Fluids 42 (3), Sp. Iss. SI, 385-391 (Oct. 2007).

“Stabilization, Nebulization, and Near-ambient Temperature Drying of Measles Vaccine, IgG Antibody, TB Antibiotics, and Zanamivir,” R.E. Sievers, S.P. Cape, B.P. Quinn, J.A. Searles, J.A. Best, J.L. Burger, D.H. McAdams, and L.G. Rebits. Proceedings of the Respiratory Drug Delivery X, April 23 - 27, Boca Raton, FL (USA), pp. 409-412 (2006).

“Supercritical Fluid-assisted Nebulization and Bubble Drying,” R.E. Sievers, S.P. Sellers, and J.F. Carpenter, Australian Patent 782916, Sept. 8, 2005.

“Synthesis of Composite Microparticles with a Mixing Cross, J.A. Villa, E.T.S. Huang, S.P. Cape, and R.E. Sievers, Aerosol Science and Technology39(6), 473-484 (2005).

“Fine Particle Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Using Dense Carbon Dioxide Mixed with Aqueous or Alcoholic Solutions,” E.T.S. Huang, H-Y Chang, C.D. Liang, and R.E. Sievers, ACS Symp. Ser. 860, 324-338 (2003).

“Micronization of Inhalable Drugs with Liquid Carbon Dioxide at Near Ambient Conditions,” R. Sievers, G. Clark, J. Villa, D. Alargov, L. Rinner, S. Cape, and E. Huang, Journal of Aerosol Medicine16, 213 (2003).

“Micronization of Water-Soluble or Alcohol-Soluble Pharmaceuticals with a Low Temperature Bubble Dryer®,” R.E. Sievers, E.T.S. Huang, J.A. Villa, G. Engling, Journal of Supercritical Fluids26, 9-16 (2003).