Authors: David Rapetti, Keith Tauscher, Jordan Mirocha, Jack O. Burns
Abstract: We present the completion of a data analysis pipeline that self-consistently separates global 21-cm signals from large systematics using a pattern recognition technique. In the first paper of this series, we obtain optimal basis vectors from signal and foreground training sets to linearly fit both components with the minimal number of terms that best extracts the signal given its overlap with the foreground. In this second paper, we utilize the spectral constraints derived in the first paper to calculate the full posterior probability distribution of any signal parameter space of choice. The spectral fit provides the starting point for a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) engine that samples the signal without traversing the foreground parameter space. At each MCMC step, we marginalize over the weights of all linear foreground modes and suppress those with unimportant variations by applying priors gleaned from the training set. This method drastically reduces the number of MCMC parameters, augmenting the efficiency of exploration, circumvents the need for selecting a minimal number of foreground modes, and allows the complexity of the foreground model to be greatly increased to simultaneously describe many observed spectra without requiring extra MCMC parameters. Using two nonlinear signal models, one based on EDGES observations and the other on phenomenological frequencies and temperatures of theoretically expected extrema, we demonstrate the success of this methodology by recovering the input parameters from multiple randomly simulated signals at low radio frequencies (10-200 MHz), while rigorously accounting for realistically modeled beam-weighted foregrounds. Read more via arXiv.