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For a word cloud of paper titles since 2016, click here!

Books

Physical Oceanography and Climate, First Edition, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-108-42386-1 (Hardback), ISBN 978-1-108-52959-4 (eBook), 2020.

Climate Modeling for Health Impacts (Chapter 13), in Global Climate Change and Human Health: From Science to Practice, Second Edition (Luber et al., eds), John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-119-66795-7 (Paperback), 2021.

Peer–reviewed articles, published or in press

Amaya, D. J., M. G. Jacox, J. Dias, M. A. Alexander, K. B. Karnauskas, J. D. Scott, and M. Gehne, 2022: Subseasonal-to-seasonal forecast skill in the California Current System and its connection to coastal Kelvin waves. J. Geophys. Res.–Oceans, doi: 10.1029/2021JC017892.

Karnauskas, K. B., 2022: A simple coupled model of the wind-evaporation-SST feedback with a role for stability. J. Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0895.1.

Amaya, D. J., A. M. Seltzer, K. B. Karnauskas, J. M. Lora, X. Zhang, and P. N. DiNezio, 2022: Air-sea coupling shapes North American hydroclimate response to ice sheets. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 578, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2021.117271.

Zhang, L., W. Han, K. B. Karnauskas, Y. Li, and T. Tozuka, 2022: Eastward Shift of Interannual Climate Variability in the South Indian Ocean since 1950. J. Climate, 35(2), 561–575, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0356.1.

Goodkin, N. F., D. Samanta, A. Bolton, M. R. M. Ong, P. K. Hoang, S. T. Vo, K. B. Karnauskas, and K. A. Hughen, 2021: Natural and Anthropogenic Forcing of Multi-decadal to Centennial Scale Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in the South China Sea. Paleoceanogr. Paleoclimatol., 36(10), e2021PA004233, doi: 10.1029/2021PA004233.

Sanchez, S. C., and K. B. Karnauskas, 2021: Diversity in the persistence of El Niño events over the last millennium. Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(18), e2021GL093698, doi: 10.1029/2021GL093698.

Samanta, D., N. F. Goodkin, and K. B. Karnauskas, 2021: Volume and heat transport in the South China Sea and Maritime Continent at present and the end of the 21st century. J. Geophys. Res.–Oceans, 126(9), e2020JC016901, doi: 10.1029/2020JC016901.

Gadeken, K. R., M. B. Joseph, J. McGlinchy, K. B. Karnauskas, and C. C. Wall, 2021: Predicting subsurface sonar observations with satellite-derived ocean surface data in the California Current Ecosystem. PLoS One, 16(8), e0248297, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248297.

Wei, H.–H., A. C. Subramanian, K. B. Karnauskas, C. A. DeMott, M. R. Mazloff, and M. A. Balmaseda, 2021: Tropical Pacific Air-sea Interaction Processes and Biases in CESM2 and their Relation to El Niño Development. J. Geophys. Res.–Oceans, 126(6), e2020JC016967, doi: 10.1029/2020JC016967.

Karnauskas, K. B., L. Zhang, and K. Emanuel, 2021: The feedback of cold wakes on tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(7), e2020GL091676, doi: 10.1029/2020GL091676.

Harp, R. D., J. M. Colborn, B. Candrinho, K. L. Colborn, L. Zhang, and K. B. Karnauskas, 2021: Interannual Climate Variability and Malaria in Mozambique. GeoHealth, 5(2), e2020GH000322, doi: 10.1029/2020GH000322.

Amaya, D. J., M. A. Alexander, A. Capotondi, C. Deser, K. B. Karnauskas, A. J. Miller, and N. J. Mantua, 2021: Are Long-Term Changes in Mixed Layer Depth Influencing North Pacific Marine Heatwaves? [in “Explaining Extremes of 2019 from a Climate Perspective”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 102(1), S59–S66, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0144.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., L. Zhang, and D. J. Amaya, 2021: The Atmospheric Response to North Atlantic SST Trends, 1870–2019. Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(2), e2020GL090677, doi: 10.1029/2020GL090677.

Rudnick, D. L., W. B. Owens, T. M. S. Johnston, K. B. Karnauskas, J. Jakoboski, and R. E. Todd, 2021: The equatorial current system west of the Galápagos Islands during the 2014–2016 El Niño as observed by underwater gliders. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51(1), 3–17, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-20-0064.1.

Bramante, J., M. Ford, P. Kench, A. Ashton, M. Toomey, R. Sullivan, K. B. Karnauskas, C. C. Ummenhofer, and J. P. Donnelly, 2020: Increased typhoon activity in the Pacific deep tropics driven by Little Ice Age circulation changes. Nature Geoscience, 13, 806–811, doi: 10.1038/s41561-020-00656-2.

Karnauskas, K. B., J. Jakoboski, T. M. S. Johnston, W. B. Owens, D. L. Rudnick, and R. E. Todd, 2020: The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent in Three Generations of Global Climate Models and Glider Observations. J. Geophys. Res.–Oceans, 125(11), e2020JC016609, doi: 10.1029/2020JC016609.

Karnauskas, K. B., 2020: Physical Diagnosis of the 2016 Great Barrier Reef Bleaching Event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47(11), e2019GL086177, doi: 10.1029/2019GL086177.

Gao, C., R.–H. Zhang, K. B. Karnauskas, L. Zhang, and F. Tian, 2020: Separating freshwater flux effects on ENSO in a hybrid coupled model of the tropical Pacific. Clim. Dyn., 54, 4605–4626, doi: 10.1007/s00382-020-05245-y.

Karnauskas, K. B., S. L. Miller, and A. C. Schapiro, 2020: Fossil fuel combustion is driving indoor CO2 toward levels harmful to human cognition. GeoHealth, 4(5), e2019GH000237, doi: 10.1029/2019GH000237.

Staten, P. W., K. M. Grise, S. M. Davis, K. B. Karnauskas, D. W. Waugh, A. Maycock, Q. Fu, K. Cook, O. Adam, I. R. Simpson, R. J. Allen, K. Rosenlof, G. Chen, C. C. Ummenhofer, X.–W. Quan, J. P. Kossin, N. A. Davis, and S.–W. Soon, 2020: Tropical widening: From global variations to regional impacts. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 101, E897–E904, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0047.1.

Jakoboski, J. K., R. E. Todd, W. B. Owens, K. B. Karnauskas, and D. L. Rudnick, 2020: Bifurcation and Upwelling of the Equatorial Undercurrent West of the Galápagos Archipelago. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 50, 887–905, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-19-0110.1.

Samanta, D., B. Rajagopalan, K. B. Karnauskas, L. Zhang, and N. F. Goodkin, 2020: La Niña's Diminishing Fingerprint on the Central Indian Summer Monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47(2), e2019GL086237, doi: 10.1029/2019GL086237.

Harp, R. D., and K. B. Karnauskas, 2020: Global Warming to Increase Violent Crime in the United States. Environ. Res. Lett., 15(3), 034039, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab6b37.

Zhang, L., W. Han, K. B. Karnauskas, G. A. Meehl, A. Hu, N. Rosenbloom, and T. Shinoda, 2019: Indian Ocean Warming Trend Reduces Pacific Warming Response to Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases: An Interbasin Thermostat Mechanism. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 10882–10890, doi: 10.1029/2019GL084088.

Staten, P. W., K. M. Grise, S. M. Davis, N. A. Davis, and K. B. Karnauskas, 2019: Regional widening of tropical overturning–forced change, natural variability, and recent trends. J. Geophys. Res.–Atmospheres, 124, 6104–6119, doi: 10.1029/2018JD030100.

Lemmon, D. E., and K. B. Karnauskas, 2019: A metric for quantifying El Niño pattern diversity with implications for ENSO–mean state interaction. Clim. Dyn., 52, 7511–7523, doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4194-3.

Goodkin, N. F., A. Bolton, K. A. Hughen, K. B. Karnauskas, S. Griffin, K. H. Phan, S. T. Vo, M. R. Ong, and E. R. M. Druffel, 2019: East Asian Monsoon Variability since the 16th Century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 4790–4798, doi: 10.1029/2019GL081939.

Bryan, S. P., K. A. Hughen, K. B. Karnauskas, and J. T. Farrar, 2019: Two Hundred Fifty Years of Reconstructed South Asian Summer Monsoon Intensity and Decadal–Scale Variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 3927–3935, doi: 10.1029/2018GL081593.

Hamlington, B. D., S. H. Cheon, C. G. Piecuch, K. B. Karnauskas, P. R. Thompson, K.–Y. Kim, J. T. Reager, F. W. Landerer, and T. Frederiske, 2019: The dominant global modes of recent internal sea level variability. J. Geophys. Res.–Oceans, 124, 2750–2768, doi: 10.1029/2018JC014635.

Zhang, L., D.–Z. Sun and K. B. Karnauskas, 2019: The Role of the Indian Ocean in Determining the Tropical Pacific SST Response to Radiative Forcing in an Idealized Model. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 86, 1–9, doi: 10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2019.02.003.

Samanta, D., K. B. Karnauskas, and N. F. Goodkin, 2019: Tropical Pacific SST and ITCZ Biases in Climate Models: Double Trouble for Future Rainfall Projections? Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 2242–2252, doi: 10.1029/2018GL081363.

Grise, K. M., S. M. Davis, I. R. Simpson, D. W. Waugh, Q. Fu, R. J. Allen, K. H. Rosenlof, C. C. Ummenhofer, K. B. Karnauskas, A. C. Maycock, X. Quan, T. Birner, and P. W. Staten, 2019: Recent Tropical Expansion: Natural Variability or Forced Response? J. Climate, 32, 1551–1571, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0444.1.

Harp, R. D., and K. B. Karnauskas, 2018: The Influence of Interannual Climate Variability on Regional Violent Crime Rates in the United States. GeoHealth, 2, 356–369, doi: 10.1029/2018GH000152.

Samanta, D., K. B. Karnauskas, N. F. Goodkin, S. Coats, J. E. Smerdon, and L. Zhang, 2018: Coupled model biases breed spurious low–frequency variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 10609–10618, doi: 10.1029/2018GL079455.

Maroon, E. A., J. E. Kay, and K. B. Karnauskas, 2018: Influence of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on the Northern Hemisphere surface temperature response to radiative forcing. J. Climate, 31, 9207–9224, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0900.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., and B. H. Jones, 2018: The interannual variability of sea surface temperature in the Red Sea from 35 years of satellite and in situ observations. J. Geophys. Res.–Oceans, 123, 5824–5841, doi: 10.1029/2017JC013320.

Karnauskas, K. B., C.–F. Schleussner, J. P. Donnelly, and K. J. Anchukaitis, 2018: Freshwater Stress on Small Island Developing States: Population Projections and Aridity Changes at 1.5°C and 2°C. Reg. Environ. Change, 18, 2273–2282, doi: 10.1007/s10113-018-1331-9.

Coats, S., and K. B. Karnauskas, 2018: A role for the Equatorial Undercurrent in the ocean dynamical thermostat. J. Climate, 31, 6245–6261, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0513.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., J. K. Lundquist, and L. Zhang, 2018: Southward shift of the global wind energy resource under high carbon dioxide emissions. Nature Geoscience, 11, 38–43, doi: 10.1038/s41561-017-0029-9.

Zhang, L., K. B. Karnauskas, J. B. Weiss, and L. M. Polvani, 2018: Observational Evidence of the Downstream Impact on Tropical Rainfall from Stratospheric Kelvin Waves. Clim. Dyn., 50, 3775–3782, doi: 10.1007/s00382-017-3844-1.

Coats, S., and K. B. Karnauskas, 2017: Are simulated and observed 20th century tropical Pacific sea surface temperature trends significant relative to internal variability? Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 9928–9937, doi: 10.1002/2017GL074622.

Zhang, L., T. Rechtman, K. B. Karnauskas, L. Li, J. P. Donnelly, and J. P. Kossin, 2017: Longwave Emission Trends over Africa and Implications for Atlantic Hurricanes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 9075–9083, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073869.

Hamlington, B. D., J. T. Reager, M.–H. Lo, K. B. Karnauskas, and R. R. Leben, 2017: Separating decadal global water cycle variability from sea level rise. Scientific Reports, 7, 995, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-00875-5.

Zhang, L., K. B.  Karnauskas, J. P. Donnelly, and K. Emanuel, 2017: Response of the North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Climatology to Global Warming: Application of Dynamical Downscaling to CMIP5 Models. J. Climate, 30(4), 1233–1243, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0496.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., E. Mittelstaedt, and R. Murtugudde, 2017: Paleoceanography of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 4 million years and the geologic origins of modern Galápagos upwelling. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 460, 22–28, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.005.

Zhang, L., and K. B.  Karnauskas, 2017: The Role of Tropical Interbasin SST Gradients in Forcing Walker Circulation Trends. J. Climate, 30(2), 499–508, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0349.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., G. C. Johnson, and R. Murtugudde, 2017: On the climate impacts of atolls in the central equatorial Pacific. Int. J. Climatol., 37(1), 197–203, doi: 10.1002/joc.4697.

Coats, S., J. E. Smerdon, Karnauskas, K. B., and R. Seager, 2016: The improbable but unexceptional occurrence of megadrought clustering in the American West during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Environ. Res. Lett., 11, 074025, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/7/074025.

Karnauskas, K. B., and L. Li, 2016: Predicting Atlantic seasonal hurricane activity using outgoing longwave radiation over Africa. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(13), 7152–7159, doi: 10.1002/2016GL069792.

Li, L., R. W. Schmitt, C. C. Ummenhofer, and K. B. Karnauskas, 2016: North Atlantic salinity as a predictor of Sahel rainfall. Science Advances, 2(5), e1501588, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1501588.

Karnauskas, K. B., J. P. Donnelly, and K. J. Anchukaitis, 2016: Future Freshwater Stress for Island Populations. Nature Climate Change, 6, 720–725, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2987.

Li, L., R. W. Schmitt, C. C. Ummenhofer, and K. B. Karnauskas, 2016: Implications of North Atlantic Sea Surface Salinity for Summer Precipitation over the US Midwest: Mechanisms and Predictive Value. J. Climate, 29(9), 3143–3159, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0520.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., A. L. Cohen, and J. M. Gove, 2016: Mitigation of Coral Reef Warming Across the Central Pacific by the Equatorial Undercurrent: A Past and Future Divide. Scientific Reports, 6, 21213, doi: 10.1038/srep21213.

Kendall, M. S., M. Poti, and K. B. Karnauskas, 2016: Climate change and larval–transport in the ocean: Fractional effects from physical and physiological factors. Glob. Chang. Biol., 22, 1532–1547, doi: 10.1111/gcb.13159.

Trusel, L. D., K. E. Frey, S. B. Das, K. B. Karnauskas, P. K. Munneke, E. van Meijgaard, and M. R. van den Broeke, 2015: Divergent trajectories of Antarctic surface melt under two twenty–first–century climate scenarios. Nature Geoscience, 8, 927–932, doi: 10.1038/ngeo2563.

Karnauskas, K. B., J. P. Donnelly, H. C. Barkley, and J. E. Martin, 2015: Coupling between Air Travel and Climate. Nature Climate Change, 5, 1068–1073, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2715.

Karnauskas, K. B., S. Jenouvrier, C. W. Brown, and R. Murtugudde, 2015: Strong sea surface cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and implications for Galápagos Penguin conservation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(15), 6432–6437, doi: 10.1002/2015GL064456.

Capotondi, A., A. T. Wittenberg, M. Newman, E. Di Lorenzo, J.–Y. Yu, P. Braconnot, J. Cole, B. Dewitte, B. Giese, E. Guilyardi, F.–F. Jin, K. Karnauskas, B. Kirtman, T. Lee, N. Schneider, Y. Xue, and S.–W. Yeh, 2015: Understanding ENSO diversity. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96(6), 921–938, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00117.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., A. L. Cohen, and E. J. Drenkard, 2015: Comment on “Equatorial Pacific coral geochemical records show recent weakening of the Walker Circulation” by J. Carilli et al. Paleoceanography, 30(5), 570–574, doi: 10.1002/2014PA002753.

DeCarlo, T. M., K. B. Karnauskas, K. A. Davis, and G. T. F. Wong, 2015: Climate modulates internal wave activity in the Northern South China Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(3), 831–838, doi: 10.1002/2014GL062522.

Karnauskas, K. B., R. Murtugudde, and W. B. Owens, 2014: Climate and the Global Reach of the Galápagos Archipelago: State of the Knowledge, in The Galápagos: A Natural Laboratory for the Earth Sciences (eds K. S. Harpp, E. Mittelstaedt, N. d'Ozouville and D. W. Graham), John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey, doi: 10.1002/9781118852538.ch11.

Leslie, W. R., K. B. Karnauskas, and J. H. Witting, 2014: The Equatorial Undercurrent and TAO sampling bias from a decade at SEA. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31(9), 2015–2025, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00262.1 (paper), 10.1575/1912/6746 (data), 10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00187.1 (corrigendum).

Newby, P. E., B. N. Shuman, J. P. Donnelly, K. B. Karnauskas, and J. Marsicek, 2014: Centennial–to–Millennial Hydrologic Trends and Variability along the North Atlantic Coast, U.S.A., during the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41(12), 4300–4307, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060183.

Karnauskas, K. B., and C. C. Ummenhofer, 2014: On the dynamics of the Hadley circulation and subtropical drying. Clim. Dyn., 42(9–10), 2259–2269, doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2129-1.

Drenkard, E. J., and K. B. Karnauskas, 2014: Strengthening of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent in the SODA ocean reanalysis: Mechanisms, ocean dynamics, and implications. J. Climate, 27(6), 2405–2416, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00359.1.

Maloney, E., and Coauthors, 2014: North American climate in CMIP5 experiments: Part III: Assessment of Twenty–First Century projections. J. Climate, 27(6), 2230–2270, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00273.1.

Criscitiello, A. S., S. B. Das, K. B. Karnauskas, M. J. Evans, K. E. Frey, I. Joughin, E. J. Steig, J. R. McConnell, and B. Medley, 2014: Tropical Pacific influence on source and transport of marine aerosols to West Antarctica. J. Climate, 27(3), 1343–1363, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00148.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., 2014: Arctic forcing of decadal variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean in a high–resolution global coupled GCM. Clim. Dyn., 42(11–12), 3375–3388, doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1836-3.

Gierach, M. M., M. Messié, T. Lee, K. B. Karnauskas, and M.–H. Radenac, 2013: Biophysical Responses near Equatorial Islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Niño/La Niña Transitions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40(20), 5473–5479, doi: 10.1002/2013GL057828.

Sheffield, J., and Coauthors, 2013: North American climate in CMIP5 experiments. Part II: Evaluation of historical simulations of intraseasonal to decadal variability. J. Climate, 26(23), 9247–9290, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00593.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., 2013: Can we distinguish canonical El Niño from Modoki? Geophys. Res. Lett., 40(19), 5246–5251, doi: 10.1002/grl.51007.

Karnauskas, K. B., A. Giannini, R. Seager, and A. J. Busalacchi, 2013: A simple mechanism for the climatological midsummer drought along the Pacific coast of Central America. Atmósfera, 26(2), 261–281, doi: 10.1016/S0187-6236(13)71075-0.

Karnauskas, K. B., J. E. Smerdon, R. Seager, and J. F. Gonzalez–Rouco, 2012: A Pacific centennial oscillation predicted by coupled GCMs. J. Climate, 25(17), 5943–5961, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00421.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., and A. L. Cohen, 2012: Equatorial refuge amid tropical warming. Nature Climate Change, 2(7), 530–534, doi: 10.1038/nclimate1499.

Karnauskas, K. B., G. C. Johnson, and R. Murtugudde, 2012: An equatorial ocean bottleneck in global climate models. J. Climate, 25(1), 343–349, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00059.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., R. Murtugudde, and A. J. Busalacchi, 2010: Observing the Galápagos–EUC interaction: Insights and challenges. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40(12), 2768–2777, doi: 10.1175/2010JPO4461.1.

Cantin, N. E., A. L. Cohen, K. B. Karnauskas, A. M. Tarrant, and D. C. McCorkle, 2010: Ocean warming slows coral growth in the central Red Sea. Science, 329(5989), 322–325, doi: 10.1126/science.1190182.

Karnauskas, K. B., R. Seager, A. Kaplan, Y. Kushnir, and M. A. Cane, 2009: Observed strengthening of the zonal sea surface temperature gradient across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 22(16), 4316–4321, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2936.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., and A. J. Busalacchi, 2009: The role of SST in the east Pacific warm pool in the interannual variability of Central American rainfall. J. Climate, 22(10), 2605–2623, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2468.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., and A. J. Busalacchi, 2009: Mechanisms for the interannual variability of SST in the east Pacific warm pool. J. Climate, 22(6), 1375–1392, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2467.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., R. Murtugudde, and A. J. Busalacchi, 2008: The effect of the Galápagos Islands on ENSO in forced ocean and hybrid coupled models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38(11), 2519–2534, doi: 10.1175/2008JPO3848.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., A. J. Busalacchi, and R. Murtugudde, 2008: Low–frequency variability and remote forcing of gap winds over the east Pacific warm pool. J. Climate, 21(19), 4901–4918, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI1771.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., A. Ruiz–Barradas, S. Nigam, and A. J. Busalacchi, 2008: North American droughts in ERA–40 global and NCEP North American regional reanalyses: A Palmer Drought Severity Index perspective. J. Climate, 21(10), 2102–2123, doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI1837.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., R. Murtugudde, and A. J. Busalacchi, 2007: The effect of the Galápagos Islands on the equatorial Pacific cold tongue. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37(5), 1266–1281, doi: 10.1175/JPO3048.1.

Karnauskas, K. B., 2006: The African meridional OLR contrast as a diagnostic for Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and implications for predictability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(6), L06809, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024865.