* denotes corresponding author, # denotes equal contribution


  • Velasco Abadia A, Herbert KM, Matavulj VM, White TJ, Schwartz DK, Kaar JL*. Chemically Triggered Changes in Mechanical Properties of Responsive Liquid Crystal Polymer Networks with Immobilized Urease. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2021, 143(40), 16740-16749. 10.1021/jacs.1c08216
  • Sánchez-Morán H, Weltz JS, Schwartz DK*, Kaar JL*. Understanding Design Rules for Optimizing the Interface between Immobilized Enzymes and Random Copolymer Brushes. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2021, 13(23), 26694-26703. 10.1021/acsami.1c02443
  • Chaparro Sosa AF, Bednar RM, Mehl RA*, Schwartz DK*, Kaar JL*. Faster Surface Ligation Reactions Improve Immobilized Enzyme Structure and Activity. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2021, 143(18), 7154-7163. 10.1021/jacs.1c02375


  • Plaks JG, Brewer JA, Jacobsen NK, McKenna M, Uzarski JR, Lawton TJ, Filocamo SF, Kaar JL*. Rosetta-Enabled Structual Prediction of Permissive Loop Insertion Sites in Proteins. Biochemistry. 2020, 59(41), 3993-4002. 10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00533
  • Chaparro Sosa AF, Da Silva SMO, Morgan GP, Schwartz DK*,  Kaar JL*. Mixed Phospholipid Vesicles Catalytically Inhibit and Reverse Amyloid Fibril Formation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2020, 11(17), 7417-7422. 10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02074
  • Summers S, Kraft C, Alamdari S, Pfaendtner J, Kaar JL*. Enhanced Activity and Stability of Acidothermus cellulolyticus Endoglucanase 1 in Ionic Liquids via Engineering Active Site Residues and Non-Native Disulfide Bridges. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2020, 8(30), 11299-11307. 10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c03242
  • Chaparro Sosa AF, Black KJ, Kienle DF,  Kaar JL*, Schwartz DK*. Engineering the Composition of Heterogeneous Lipid Bilayers to Stabilize Tethered Enzymes. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 2020. 7(17). 10.1002/admi.202000533
  • Kienle DF, Chaparro Sosa AF, Kaar JL, Schwartz DK*. Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Enhance the Dry Storage and pH Stability of Physically Entrapped Enzymes. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2020, 12(20), 22640-22649. 10.1021/acsami.0c04964
  • Choudhury A, Fankhauser RG, Freed EF, Oh EJ, Morgenthaler AB, Bassalo MC, Copley SD, Kaar JL, Gill RT*. Determinantes for Efficient Editing with Cas9-Mediated Recombineering in Escherichia coli. ACS Synthetic Biology, 2020, 9(5), 1083-1099. 10.1021/acssynbio.9b00440
  • Choudhury A, Fenster JA, Fankhauser RG, Kaar JL, Tenaillon O, Gill RT*. CRISPR/Cas9 recombineering-mediated deep mutational scanning of essential genes in Escherichia coli. Molecular Systems Biology, 2020, 16, e9265. 10.15252/msb.20199265
  • Weltz JS, Kienle DF, Schwartz DK*, Kaar JL*. Reduced Enzyme Dynamics upon Multipoint Covalent Immobilization Leads to Stability-Activity Tradeoff. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2020, 142(7), 3463-3471. 10.1021/jacs.9b11707
  •  Hedayati M, Faulón Marruecos D, Krapf D, Kaar JL, Kipper MJ*. Protein adsorption measurements on low fouling and ultralow fouling surfaces: A critical comparison of surface characterization techniques. Acta Biomaterialia, 2020, 102, 169-180. 10.1016/j.actbio.2019.11.019


  • Faulón Marruecos D, Saleh, LS, Kim HH, Bryant SJ, Schwartz DK*, Kaar JL*. Stabilization of Fibronectin by Random Copolymer Brushes Inhibits Macrophage Activation. ACS Applied Bio Materials, 2019, 2(11), 4698-4702. 10.1021/acsabm.9b00815
  •  Bull DS, Kienle DF, Chaparro Sosa AF, Nelson N, Roy S, Cha JN, Schwartz DK, Kaar JL, Goodwin AP*. Surface-Templated Nanobubbles Protect Proteins from Surface-Mediated Denaturation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2019, 10(11), 2641-2647. 10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b00806
  •  Weltz JS, Kienle DF, Schwartz DK*, Kaar JL*. Dramatic increase in catalytic performance of immobilized lipases by their stabilization on polymer brush supports. ACS Catalysis, 2019, 9(6), 4992-5001. 10.1021/acscatal.9b01176
  •  Plaks, JG, Kaar JL*. Lipoic Acid Ligase-Promoted Bioorthogonal Protein Modification and Immobilization. Enzyme-Mediated Ligation Methods, 279-297. 10.1007/978-1-4939-9546-2_14


  • Chado GR, Holland EN, Tice AK, Stoykovich MP*, Kaar JL*. Exploiting the benefits of homogeneous and heterogeneous biocatalysis: tuning the molecular interaction of enzymes with solvents via polimer modification. ACS Catalysis 2018;8(12):11679-11588. 10.1021/acscatal.8b03779.
  • Faulón Marruecos D, Schwartz DK*, Kaar JL*. Impact of surface interactions on protein conformation. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2018;38:45-55. 10.1016/j.cocis.2018.08.002
  • Kienle DF, Falatach RM, Kaar JL*, Schwartz DK*. Correlating structural and functional heterogeneity of immobilized enzymes. ACS Nano 2018;12(8):8091-8103. 10.1021/acsnano.8b02956
  • Russell AJ*, Baker SL, Colina CM, Figg CA, Kaar JL, Matyjaszewski K, Simakova A, Summerlin BS. Next generation protein-polymer conjugates. AIChE J 2018;64(8):3230-3246. 10.1002/aic.16338
  • Chado GR, Holland EN, Tice AK, Stoykovich MP*, Kaar JL*. Modification of lipase with the poly(4-acryloylmorpholine) for enhanced solubility and transesterification activity in anhydrous ionic liquids. Biomacromolecules 2018;19(4):1324-1332. 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b00176
  • Chaparro Sosa AF, Kienle DF, Falatach RM, Flanagan J, Kaar JL*, Schwartz DK*. Stabilization of immobilized enzymes via the chaperone-like activity of mixed lipid bilayers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018;10(23):19504-19513. 10.1021/acsami.8b05523
  • Faulón Marruecos D, Kienle DF, Kaar JL*, Schwartz DK*. Grafting density impacts local nanoscale hydrophobicity in poly(ethylene glycol) brushes. ACS Macro Lett 2018;7(4):498-503.10.1021/acsmacrolett.8b00004.


  • Summers SR, Sprenger KG, Pfaendtner J, Marchant J, Summers MF, Kaar JL*. Mechanism of competitive inhibition and destabilization of Acidothermus Cellulolyticus Endoglucanase 1 by ionic liquids. J Phys Chem B 2017; 121(48):10793-10803. 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b08435
  • Sprenger KG, Plaks JG, Kaar JL, Pfaendtner J*. Elucidating sequence and solvent specific design targets to protect and stabilize enzymes for biocatalysis in ionic liquids. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2017; 19(26):17426-17433. 10.1039/C7CP03013D
  • Jung S, Kaar JL*, Stoykovich MP*. Enhanced optical sensitivity in thermoresponsive photonic crystal hydrogels by operating near the phase transition. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017; 9(33):27927-27935. 10.1021/acsami.7b07179
  • Kastantin M#, Faulón Marruecos D#, Grover N, McLoughlin SY, Schwartz DK*, Kaar JL*. Connecting protein conformation and dynamics with ligand-receptor binding using three-color FRET tracking. J Am Chem Soc 2017; 139(29):9937-9948. 10.1021/jacs.7b03978
  • Kaar JL*. Lipase activation and stabilization in room temperature ionic liquids. Methods Mol Biol 2017; 1504:25-35. This edition is an updated version of the previously published version of this manuscript. 10.1007/978-1-4939-6499-4_4


  • Jung S, Kaar JL*, Stoykovich MP*. Design and functionalization of photonic crystal-containing hydrogels for biosensing. Mol Sys Des Eng 2016; 1(3):225-241. 10.1039/C6ME00031B
  • Grover N, Plaks JG, Summers SR, Chado GR, Schurr MJ, Kaar JL*. Acylase-containing polyurethane coatings with anti-biofilm activity. Biotechnol Bioeng 2016; 113(12):2535-2543. 10.1002/bit.26019
  • Chado GR, Stoykovich MP*, Kaar JL*. Role of dimension and spatial arrangement on the activity of biocatalytic cascade reactions on scaffolds. ACS Catal 2016; 6:5161-5169. (selected for cover image) 10.1021/acscatal.6b01302

  • Sprenger KG, Choudhury A, Kaar JL, Pfaendtner J*. The lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases ScLPMO10B and ScLPMO10C are stable in ionic liquids as determined by molecular simulations. J Phys Chem B 2016; 120(16):3863-3872. 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b01688
  • Faulón Marruecos D, Kastantin M, Schwartz DK*, Kaar JL*. Dense poly(ethylene glycol) brushes reduce adsorption and stabilize the unfolded conformation of fibronectin. Biomacromolecules 2016; 17(3):1017-1025. 10.1021/acs.biomac.5b01657
  • Weltz JS, Schwartz DK*, Kaar JL*. Surface-mediated protein unfolding as a search process for denaturing sites. ACS Nano 2016; 10(1):730-738. 10.1021/acsnano.5b05787


  • Nordwald EM#, Plaks JG#, Snell JR, Sousa MC, Kaar JL*. Crystallographic investigation of imidazolium ionic liquid effects on enzyme structure. ChemBioChem 2015; 16(17):2456-2459. 10.1002/cbic.201500398
  • MacConaghy KI, Chadly DM, Stoykovich MP*, Kaar JL*. Label-free dection of missense mutations and methylation differences in the p53 gene using optically diffracting hydrogels. Analyst 2015; 140(18):6354-6362. 10.1039/C5AN01191D
  • Plaks JG, Falatach R, Kastantin M, Berberich JA, Kaar JL*. Multi-site clickable modification of proteins using lipoic acid ligase. Bioconjug Chem 2015; 26(6):1104-1112. 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.5b00161
  • MacConaghy KI, Chadly DM, Stoykovich MP*, Kaar JL*. Optically diffracting hydrogels for screening kinase activity: impact of material and solution properties. Anal Chem 2015; 87(6):3467-3475. 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00442
  • Burney PR, Nordwald EM, Hickman K, Kaar JL, Pfaendtner J*. Molecular dynamics investigation of the ionic liquid/enzyme interface: application to engineering enzyme surface charge. Proteins: Struct Funct Bioinf 2015; 83(4):670-680. 10.1002/prot.24757
  • Swartzlander MD, Barnes CA, Blakney AK, Kaar JL, Kyriakides TR, Bryant SJ*. Linking the foreign body response and protein adsorption to PEG-based hydrogels using proteomics. Biomaterials 2015; 41:26-36. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.11.026


  • Nordwald EM, Armstrong GS, Kaar JL*. NMR-guided rational engineering of an ionic liquid tolerant lipase. ACS Catal 2014; 4(11):4057-4064. 10.1021/cs500978x
  • MacConaghy KI, Geary CI, Kaar JL*, Stoykovich MP*. Photonic crystal kinase biosensor. J Am Chem Soc 2014; 136(19):6896-6899. 10.1021/ja5031062
  • Nordwald EM, Brunecky R, Himmel ME, Beckham GT, Kaar JL*. Charge engineering of cellulases improves ionic liquid tolerance and reduces lignin inhibition. Biotechnol Bioeng 2014; 111(8):1541-1549. 10.1002/bit.25216


  • McLoughlin SY#, Kastantin M#, Schwartz DK, Kaar JL*. Single Molecule resolution of protein structure and interfacial dynamics on biomaterial surfaces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013; 110(48):19396-19401. 10.1073/pnas.1311761110
  • Nordwald EM, Kaar JL*. Mediating electrostatic binding of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride to enzyme surfaces improves conformational stability. J Phys Chem B 2013; 117(30):8977-8986. 10.1021/jp404760w
  • Nordwald EM, Kaar JL*. Stabilization of enzymes in ionic liquids via modification of enzyme charge. Biotechnol Bioeng 2013; 110(9):2352-2360. 10.1002/bit.24910
  • Nordwald EM, Garst A, Gill, RT, Kaar JL*. Accelerated protein engineering for chemical biotechnology via homologous recombination. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2013; 24(6):1017-1022. 10.1016/j.copbio.2013.03.003



  • Kaar JL*. Lipase activation and stabilization in room temperature ionic liquids. Methods Mol Biol 2011; 679:25-35. 10.1007/978-1-60761-895-9_4


  • Kaar JL, Basse N, Joerger AC, Stephens E, Rutherford TJ, Fersht AR*. Stabilization of mutant p53 via alkylation of cysteines and effects on DNA binding. Protein Sci 2010; 19(12):2267-2278. 10.1002/pro.507
  • Basse N#, Kaar JL#, Joerger AC, Rutherford TJ, Fersht AR*. Towards the rational design of p53 stabilizing drugs: probing the surface of the oncogenic Y220C mutant. Chem Biol 2010; 17(1):46-56. 10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.12.011


  • Chen CZC, Peng YX, Wang ZB, Fish PV, Kaar JL, Koepsel RR, Russell AJ, Lareu RR, Raghunath M*. The scar-in-a-jar: studying antifibrotic lead compounds from the epigenetic to extracellular level in a single well. Br J Pharmacol 2009; 158(5):1196-1209. 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00387.x


  • Kaar JL, Li Y, Blair HC, Asche G, Koepsel RR, Huard J, Russell AJ*. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 treatment of muscle fibrosis. Acta Biomater 2008; 4(5):1411-1420. 10.1016/j.actbio.2008.03.010
  • Depp V, Kaar JL, Russell AJ, Lele BS*. Enzyme sheathing enables nanoscale solubilization of biocatalyst and dramatically increases activity in organic solvent. Biomacromolecules 2008; 9(4):1348-1351. 10.1021/bm701281x


  • Kaar JL#, Oh H#, Russell AJ, Federspiel WJ*. Towards improved artificial lungs through biocatalysis. Biomaterials 2007; 28(20):3131-3139. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.03.021
  • Bedair H, Liu TT, Kaar JL, Badlani S, Russell AJ, Li Y*, Huard J. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 therapy improves muscle healing. J Appl Physiol 2007; 102(6):2338-2345. 10.1152/japplphysiol.00670.2006


  • Xu H, Kaar JL, Russell AJ, Wagner WR*. Characterizing the modification of surface proteins with poly(ethylene glycol) to interrupt platelet adhesion. Biomaterials 2006; 27(16):3125-3135. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.01.012
  • Sharma NK, Tickell MD, Anderson JL, Kaar J, Pino V, Wicker BF, Armstrong DW*, Davis JH Jr*, Russell AJ*. Do ion tethered functional groups affect solvent properties? The case of sulfoxides and sulfones. Chem Commun 2006; 6:646-648. 10.1039/b514832d


  • Russell AJ*, Kaar JL, Berberich JA. Using biotechnology to detect and counteract chemical weapons. The Bridge 2003; 33(4):19-24. Invited peerreviewed article published by the National Academy of Engineering.
  • Berberich JA, Kaar JL, Russell AJ*. Use of salt hydrate pairs to control water activity for enzyme catalysis in ionic liquids. Biotechnol Prog 2003; 19(3):1029-1032. 10.1021/bp034001h
  • Kaar JL, Jesionowski AM, Berberich JA, Moulton R, Russell AJ*. Impact of ionic liquid physical properties on lipase activity and stability. J Am Chem Soc 2003; 125(14):4125-4131. 10.1021/ja028557x


  • Russell AJ*, Erbeldinger M, DeFrank JJ, Kaar J, Drevon G. Catalytic buffers enable positive-response inhibition-based sensing of nerve agents. Biotechnol Bioeng 2002; 77(3):352-357. 10.1002/bit.10152