The following table lists representative single-crystal materials we have synthesized using either flux or floating-zone technique. We have provided single-crystal samples to more than 60 research groups in the US and around the world.




Exemplary Phenomena

Layered Perovskite

Iridates (Ir4+, 5d5):

Sr2IrO4, Sr3Ir2O7

Doped Srn+1IrnO3n+1

Dopants on the Sr site: Ca, Ba, Pb, K, and RE;

Dopants at the Ir site: 3d and 4d ions and Tb4+;

Ruthenates (Ru4+, 4d4): 


 Srn+1RunO3n+1 (n=1,2,3,infinite)


Dopants at the Ru site: 3d, 4d and 5d ions

Iridates: Jeff  = 1/2 insulator; Hidden non-dipolar magnetic order, Lattice-driven magnetoresistance, Giant magnetoelectric effect, Non-Ohmic behavior, Unusual Hall effect, Insulating state highly resistant to high pressures, etc. 


Ruthenates: Orbitally-driven CMR, Bulk spin-valve effect, Orbital order, Oscillatory magnetoresistance periodic in both 1/B and B, Metamagnetism, AFM metallic state, Colossal negative thermal expansion via orbital/magnetic orders, Structurally-driven MIT, AFM, FM, Magnetization reversal, Coexistence of Mott state and quantum oscillations, High sensitivity to modest pressure and electrical-current, etc.



Iridates (Ir4+, 5d5):

Na2IrO3, (Li, Na, K)2IrO3, 


Doped Na2IrO3: Dopants: RE, Ca, Sr, 3d and 4d ions

Ruthenates (Ru4+, 4d4):

Li2RuO3, Na2RuO3

Iridates: Zigzag magnetic order, Unusual magnetoelectric effect, Highly frustrated state, etc.


Ruthenates: Lattice-tuned magnetic order. 

Hexagonal peroviskite

Iridates (Ir4+, 5d5):

BaIrO3, SrIrO3, (Ba,Sr)IrO3

Ca5Ir3O12, Ca4IrO6

Doped BaIrO3 and SrIrO3

Dopants at the Ir sites: 3d and 4d ions

Ruthenates (Ru4+, 4d4): 

BaRuO3, Doped BaRuO3, 

Rhodates(Rh3.5+, 4d5, 4d6): 

Sr5Rh4O12, Ba9Rh8O24

Manganites (Mn4+, 3d3): 

BaMnO3, doped BaMnO3

Iridates: Jeff = 1/2 insulator; AFM, Positive and unsaturated magnetoresistivity, Large magnetic coercivity, Non-Ohmic behavior, Magnetic frustration, Quantum critical point, MIT, etc. 


Ruthenates: MITQuantum oscillations, etc. 


Rhodates: Spin chains, Partial AFM, low-temperature magnetic order.


Manganites: High-temperature giant magnetoelectric effect coexisting with AFM state.


Iridates (Ir4+, 5d5):

Bi2Ir2O7, Pb2Ir2O7

Doped Bi2Ir2O7

Ruthenates (Ru4+, 4d4):

Bi2Ru2O7, Pb2Ru2O7

Iridates: Metallic States; Strong Magnetic Instability, Unusual Field Dependence of Heat Capacity, Unusually Large Wilson Ratio, etc.

Ruthenates: Unusual Metallic States.

Dimer/Trimer Lattice

Iridates (Ir4+, Ir5+, Ir6+): Ba5AlIr2O11, Ba4Ir3O10, Ba7Ir6O19, Ba13Ir6O30

New type quantum liquid, AFM insulator, Charge-order-dictated magnetic order.

Double Perovskite

Iridates (Ir5+, 5d4):

Sr2YIrO6, Ba2YIrOSr2GdIrO6, Sr2CoIrO6, Sr2FeIrO6

Ruthenates (Ru5+, 4d3):


Iridates: Novel magnetism, AFM metallic state. 


Ruthenates: AFM insulator.