52. Day, NB; Orear, CR; Velazquez-Albino, A; Good, HJ; Melnyk, A; Rinaldi-Ramos, C; Shields IV, CW.Magnetic cellular backpacks for spatial targeting, imaging, and immunotherapyACS Applied Bio Materials 2023 (accepted). 

51. Raj, RR; Ganguly, A; Becker, C; Shields IV, CW; Gupta, A. “Motion of an active bent-rod with an articulating hinge: Exploring mechanical and chemical modes of swimmingFrontiers in Physics 2023. 11: 1307691.

50. Lee, JG;* Thome, CP;* Cruse, ZA; Ganguly, A; Gupta, A; Shields IV, CW.Magnetically locked Janus particle clusters with orientation-dependent motion in AC electric fieldsNanoscale 2023. 40(15): 16268–16276. #Micro- and Nano-Motors Themed Collection #Emerging Investigator Special Issue

49. Lee, JG;* Raj, RR;* Day, NB;* Shields IV, CW.Microrobots for biomedicine: Unsolved challenges and opportunities for translationACS Nano 2023. 17(15): 14196–14204.

48. Alina, TB; Kirkpatrick, HB; Ausec, TR; Mueller, EN; Shields IV, CW; Cha, JN; Goodwin, AP. “Effect of phospholipid structure on the acoustic cavitation of functionalized silica mesoporous nanoparticlesACS Applied Nano Materials 2023. 6(14): 13720–13729.

47. Shields IV, CW.Biohybrid microrobots for enhancing adoptive cell transfersAccounts of Materials Research 2023. 4(7): 566–569. 

46. Abedini-Nassab, R; Sadeghidelouei, N; Shields IV, CW. “Magnetophoretic circuits: A review of device designs and implementation for precise single-cell manipulationAnalytica Chimica Acta 2023. 1272: 341425. 

45. Lee, JG; Raj, RR; Thome, CP; Day, NB; Martinez, P; Bottenus, N; Gupta, A; Shields IV, CW. “Bubble-based microrobots with rapid circular motions for epithelial pinning and drug deliverySmall 2023. 19(32): 2300409.

44. Liao, X; Gong, G; Dai, M; Xiang, Z; Pan, J; Shang, J; Blocki, AM; Zhao, Z; Shields IV, CW; Guo, J. “Systemic tumor suppression via macrophage-driven automated homing of metal-phenolic-gated nanosponges for metastatic melanomaAdvanced Science 2023. 10(18): 2207488.

43. Thome, CP; Hoertdoerfer, W; Bendorf, J; Lee, JG; Shields IV, CW. “Electrokinetic active particles for motion-based biomolecule detectionNano Letters 2023. 23(6): 2379–2387.

42. Raj, RR; Shields IV, CW; Gupta, A. “Two-dimensional diffusiophoretic colloidal banding: Optimizing the spatial and temporal design of solute sinks and sources Soft Matter 2023. 19: 892–904. 


41. Day, NB; Dalhuisen, R; Loomis, NE; Adzema, SG; Prakash, J; Shields IV, CW.Tissue-adhesive hydrogel for multimodal drug release to immune cells in skin Acta Biomaterialia 2022. 150: 211–220.

40. Tanjeem, N; Minnis, MB; Hayward, RC; Shields IV, CW.Shape-changing particles: From materials design and mechanisms to implementationAdvanced Materials 2022. 34(3): 2105758.


39. Day, NB; Wixson, WC; Shields IV, CW.Magnetic systems for cancer immunotherapyActa Pharmaceutica Sinica B 2021. 11(8): 2172–2196.

38. Sallam, MA; Prakash, S; Kumbhojkar, N; Shields IV, CW; Mitragotri, S. “Formulation-based approaches for dermal delivery of macromolecules: Recent advances and future perspectivesBioengineering & Translational Medicine 2021. 6(3): e10215.

37. Sallam, MA; Shields IV, CW; Prakash, S; Kim, J; Pan, DC; Mitragotri, S. “A dual macrophage polarizer conjugate for synergistic melanoma therapyJournal of Controlled Release 2021. 335: 333–344.


36. Li, L; Shields IV, CW; Huang, J; Zhang, Y; Ohiri, KA; Yellen, BB; Chilkoti, A; López, GP. “Rapid capture of biomolecules from blood via stimuli-responsive elastomeric particles for acoustofluidic separationAnalyst 2020.145(24): 8087–8096. 

35. Shields IV, CW;* Kim, YK;* Han, K; Murphy, AC; Scott, AJ; Abbot, NL; Velev, OD. “Control of the folding dynamics of self-reconfiguring magnetic microbots by using liquid crystallinityAdvanced Intelligent Systems 2020. 2(2): 1900114. (*co-first author; Editor's Choice)

34. Han, K; Shields IV, CW; Bharti, B; Arratia, PE; Velev, OD. “Active swimming of magnetically assembled and actuated “microscallops" in non-Newtonian fluidsLangmuir 2020. 36(25): 7148–7154.33.

33. Zhao, Z; Pan, DC; Qi QM; Kim, J; Kapate, N; Sun, T; Shields IV, CW; Wang, LW; Wu, D; Kwon, CJ; He, W; Guo, J; Mitragotri, S. “Engineering of living cells with polyphenol-functionalized biologically active nanocomplexesAdvanced Materials 2020. 32(49): 2003492.

32. Shields IV, CW; Evans, MA; Wang, LLW; Baugh, N; Iyer, S; Wu, D; Zhao, Z; Pusuluri, A; Ukidve, U; Pan, D; Mitragotri, S. “Cellular backpacks for macrophage immunotherapyScience Advances 2020. 6(18): eaaz6579.

31. Wu, D; Pusuluri, A; Vogus, D; Krishnan, V; Shields IV, CW; Kim, J; Razmi, A; Mitragotri. “Design principles of drug combinations for chemotherapyJournal of Controlled Release 2020. 323: 36–46.

30. Evans, MA; Shields IV, CW; Krishnan, K; Wang, LW; Zhao, Z; Ukidve, A; Lewandowski, M; Gao, Y; Mitragotri, S. “Macrophage‐mediated delivery of hypoxia‐activated prodrug nanoparticlesAdvanced Therapeutics 2020. 3(2): 1900162.

29. Timmermann, M; Lukat, N; Schneider, LP; Shields IV, CW; López, GP; Selhuber-Unkel, C. “Migration of microparticle-containing amoebae through constricted environmentsACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2020. 6(2): 889–897.

28. He, W;* Kapate, N;* Shields IV, CW; Mitragotri, S. “Drug delivery to macrophages: A review of targeting drugs and drug carriers to macrophages for inflammatory diseasesAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews 2020. 165-166: 15–40. (*co-first author)

Before 2020

27. Shields IV, CW; Wang, LW; Evans, MA; Mitragotri, S. “Materials for immunotherapyAdvanced Materials 2019. 32(13): 1901633. (corresponding author)

26. Pusuluri, A; Krishnan, V; Wu, D; Shields IV, CW; Wang, LW; Mitragotri, S. “Role of synergy and immunostimulation in design of chemotherapy combinations: An analysis of doxorubicin and camptothecinBioengineering & Translational Medicine 2019. 4(2): e10129.

25. Ohiri, U; Han, K; Shields IV, CW; Velev, OD; Jokerst, N. “Propulsion and assembly of remotely powered p-type silicon microparticlesAPL Materials 2018. 6(12): 121102.

24. Ohiri, U; Shields IV, CW; Han, K; Tyler, T; Velev, OD; Jokerst, N. “Engineered reconfigurable motile semiconductor microparticlesNature Communications 2018. 9(1): 1791.

23. Shields IV, CW; Han, K; Ma, F; Miloh, T; Yossifon, G; Velev, OD. “Supercolloidal spinners: Complex active particles for electrically powered and switchable rotationAdvanced Functional Materials 2018. 28(35): 1803465.

22. Reyes, C; Fu, L; Suthanthiraraj, PPA; Owens, CE; Shields IV, CW; López, GP; Charbonneau, P; Wiley, B. “The limits of primary radiation force in bulk acoustic standing waves for concentrating nanoparticlesParticle & Particle Systems Characterization 2018. 35(7): 1700470.

21. Shields IV, CW; White, JP; Osta, EG; Patel, J; Rajkumar, S; Kirby, N; Therrien, JP; Zauscher, S. “Encapsulation and controlled release of retinol from silicone particles for topical deliveryJournal of Controlled Release 2018. 278: 37–48. (corresponding author)

20. Han, K; Shields IV, CW; Velev, OD. “Engineering of self-propelling microbots and microdevices powered by magnetic and electric fieldsAdvanced Functional Materials 2018. 28(25): 1705953.

19. Shields IV, CW; Velev, OD. “The evolution of active particles: Towards externally powered self-propelling and self-reconfiguring particle systemsChem 2017. 3(4): 539–559.

18. Han, K; Shields IV, CW; Diwakar, NM; Bharti, B; López, GP; Velev, OD. “Sequence-encoded colloidal origami and microbot assemblies from patchy magnetic cubesScience Advances 2017. 3(8). e1701108.

17. Fu, L; Bian, C; Shields IV, CW; Cruz, D; López, GP; Charbonneau, P. “Assembly of hard spheres in a cylinder: a computational and experimental studySoft Matter 2017. 13(18): 3296–3306.

16. Shields IV, CW; Ohiri, KA; Szott, LM; López, GP. “Translating microfluidics: Cell separation technologies and their barriers to commercializationCytometry Part B 2017. 92(2): 115–125.

15. Ohiri, KA; Evans, BA; Shields IV, CW; Gutiérrez, RA; Carroll, NJ; Yellen, BB; López, GP. “Negative acoustic contrast microparticles with high magnetic susceptibilities for bioanalytical applicationsACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 2016. 8(23): 25030–25035.

14. Shields IV, CW; Wang, JL; Ohiri, KA; Essoyan, ED; Yellen, BB; Armstrong, AJ; López, GP. “Microfluidic device for separating cancer cells from whole blood: acoustically enhanced magnetic sorting and single cell templatingLab on a Chip 2016. 16(19): 3833–3844.

13. Johnson, KA; Vormohr, HR; Doinikov, AA; Bouakaz, A; Shields IV, CW; López, GP; Dayton, PA. “Experimental verification of theoretical equations for acoustic radiation force on compressible spherical particles in traveling wavesPhysical Review E 2016. 93(5): 053109.

12. Shields IV, CW; Cruz, DF; Ohiri, KA; Yellen, BB; López, GP. “Fabrication and operation of acoustofluidic devices supporting bulk acoustic standing waves for sheathless focusing of particlesJournal of Visualized Experiments 2016. (109): e53861.

11. Wang, PY;* Shields IV, CW;* Zhao, T; Jami, H; López, GP; Kingshott, P. “Rapid self-assembly of shaped microtiles into large, close-packed crystalline monolayers on a solid surfaceSmall 2016. 12(2): 1309–1314. (*co-first author)

10. Owens, CE; Shields IV, CW; Cruz, DF; Charbonneau, P; López, GP. “Highly parallel acoustic assembly of microparticles into well-ordered colloidal crystallitesSoft Matter 2016. 12(3): 717–728.

9. Shields IV, CW; Reyes, C.; López, GP. “Microfluidic cell sorting: A review of the advances in the separation of cells from debulking to rare cell isolationLab on a Chip 2015. 15(5): 1230–1249.

8. Gao, L; Shields IV, CW; Johnson, LM; Graves, SW; Yellen, BB; López, GP. “Two-dimensional spatial manipulation of microparticles in continuous flows in acoustofluidic chipsBiomicrofluidics 2015. 9(1): 014105.

7. Shields IV, CW; Livingston, CE; Yellen, BB; López, GP; Murdoch, DM. “Magnetographic array for the capture and enumeration of single cells and cell pairsBiomicrofluidics 2014. 8(4): 041101.

6. Shields IV, CW; Sun, D; Johnson, K; Duval, K; Rodriguez, AV; Gao, L; Dayton, PA; López, GP. “Nucleation and growth synthesis of functional, monodisperse and acoustically programmable particlesAngewandte Chemie International Edition 2014. 53(31): 8070–8073.

5. Shields IV, CW; Johnson, LM; Gao, L; López, GP. “Elastomeric negative acoustic contrast particles for capture, acoustophoretic transport, and confinement of cells in microfluidic systemsLangmuir 2014. 30(14): 3923–3927.

4. Yang, JH; Polanowska-Grabowska, RK; Smith, JS; Shields IV, CW; Saucerman, JJ. “PKA catalytic subunit compartmentation regulates contractile and hypertropic responses to β-adrenergic signalingJournal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 2014. 66 (0): 83–93.

3. Liu, J; Shields IV, CW; Omofoye, O; López, GP. “Programmable anisotropic microparticles for self-assembly applicationsMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 2014. 1622: 1–6.

2. Shields IV, CW; Zhu, S; Yang, Y; Bharti, B; Liu, J; Yellen, BB; Velev, OD; López, GP. “Field-directed assembly of patchy anisotropic microparticles with defined shapeSoft Matter 2013. 9(38): 9219–9229.

1. Johnson, LM; Gao, L; Shields IV, CW; Smith, M; Efimenko, K; Cushing, K; Genzer, J; López, GP. “Elastomeric microparticles for acoustic mediated bioseparationsJournal of Nanobiotechnology 2013. 11(22): 1–19.