Publications in Refereed Journals (in reverse chronological order):

63. "Experience Goods and Consumer Search", (with Zhuozheng Li and Tianle Zhang), Revised and Accepted in 2020, American Economic Journals: Microeconomics, forthcoming.

62. “Competitive Differential Pricing” (with Jianpei Li and Marius Schwartz), Revised and Accepted in 2020, RAND Journal of Economics, forthcoming, 

61. "Improving Market Performance in the Digital Economy",,Nl9Y3zBt, China Economic Review, 2020.

60. “Mergers and Product Quality: Evidence from the Airline Industry” (with Philip Gayle), International Journal of Industrial Organization, 2019.

59“Discount Pricing” (with Mark Armstrong), Economic Inquiry,, 2019.

58. “An Optimal Rule for Patent Damages under Sequential Innovation” (with David Sappington), RAND Journal of Economics, 2018.

57. "Bundled Procurement” (with Jianpei Li), Journal of Public Economics, 2018.

56. “Patentability, R&D Direction, and Cumulative Innovation” (with Shiyuan Pan and Tianle Zhang), International Economic Review, 2018.

55. “Selling Your Product through Competitors' Outlets: Channel Strategy When Consumers Comparison Shop” (with S. Moorthy and S. S. Tehrani), Marketing Science, 2018.

54. “Intermediaries and Consumer Search” (with Tianle Zhang), based on an invited talk at EARIE 2016 (Lisbon), International Journal of Industrial Organization (EARIE Special Issue), , 2017.

53.Competition, Product Safety, and Product Liability” (with Xinyu Hua), Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 33: 237-267, 2017.

52. “Rating deflation versus inflation: On procyclical credit ratings” (with Yao, Zhiyong and Dingwei Gu), Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, 41: 46-64, 2017.

51.Entry and Welfare in Search Markets” (with Tianle Zhang), Economic Journal, DOI: 10.1111/ecoj.12412, 2017.

50.Churn vs. Diversion in Antitrust: An Illustrative Model” (with M. Schwartz), Economica, 83: 545-767, 2016.

49.Differential Pricing When Costs Differ: A Welfare Analysis” (with Marius Schwartz), RAND Journal of Economics, 46: 442-460, 2015.

Earlier version: Beyond Price Discrimination: Welfare under Differential Pricing when Costs Also Differ”.

48. “Interpersonal Bundling” (with Tianle Zhang), Management Science, 61: 1456-1471, 2015.  Earlier Version: Group Coupons: Interpersonal Bundling on the Internet

47. “Prices, Profits, and Preference Dependence” (with Michael Riordan), Journal of Industrial Economics, 63: 549-568, 2015.

46. “Consumer uncertainty and price discrimination through online coupons: an empirical study of restaurants in Shanghai (with Scott Savage and Jie Zhang), Information Economics and Policy, 33: 43-55, 2015

45. “Refusal to Deal, Intellectual Property Rights, and Antitrust”, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 2014.

44. “(When) Do Stronger Patents Increase Continual Innovation?” (with Shiyuan Pan and Tianle Zhang), Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2014.

43. “Profitability of Product Bundling” (with Michael Riordan), International Economic Review, Vol. 54(1), 35-57, 2013.

42. “Product Innovation Incentives: Monopoly vs. Competition” (with Marius Schwartz), Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Vol. 22, 513-528, 2013.

41. “Ex ante Investment, Ex post Remedy, and Product Liability” (with Xinyu Hua), International Economic Review, Vol. 53, 845-866, 2012.

40.Physical Capital, Knowledge Capital and the Choice between FDI and Outsourcing” (with Ig Horstmann and James Markusen), NBER Working Paper 14515Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 45, 1-15, 2012.

39“Paid-Placement: Advertising and Search on the Internet” (with Chuan He), Economic Journal, Vol. 121, F309-F328, 2011.

38. “Equilibrium Price Dispersion with Heterogeneous Searchers” (with Tianle Zhang), International Journal of Industrial Organization, 29, 645-654, 2011.

37. “Exclusive Contracts, Innovation, and Welfare” (with David Sappington), American Economic Journals: MicroeconomicsVol. 3, 194–220, 2011.

36. “The Effects of Competition on the Price for Cable Modem Internet Access” (with Scott Savage), NET Institute working paper, 07-13, 2007, Review of Economics and StatisticsVol. 93, pp. 201-217, 2011.

35. “Dynamic Pricing: When to Entice Brand Switching and When to Reward Consumer Loyalty” (with Jason Pearcy), RAND Journal of Economics, 41, 674-685, 2010.

34. “Innovation in Vertically Related Markets” (with David Sappington), Journal of Industrial Economics, 58, 373-401, 2010.

33. “Inattentive Consumers and Product Quality” (with Mark Armstrong), Journal of the European Economic Association, Vol. 7, pp. 411-422, 2009.

32. “Designing Input Prices to Motivate Innovation” (with David Sappington), International Journal of Industrial Organization, Vol. 27, pp. 390-402, 2009.

31. "Price-Increasing Competition" (with Michael Riordan), RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 39, pp. 1042-1058, 2008.

30. “Ownership, Location and Prices in Chinese Electronic Commerce Markets”, (with Zhao, Dongmei and Scott Savage),  Information Economics and Policy, Vol. 20, pp. 192-207, 2008.

29. "Buyer Investment, Export Variety, and Intrafirm Trade" (with Robert Feenstra), NBER Working Paper # 11752, European Economic Review, Vol. 52, pp. 1313-1337, 2008.

28.Dynamic Price Discrimination with Asymmetric Firms”, Journal of Industrial Economics, Vol. 56, pp. 729-751, 2008.

27.Vertical Contracting Between Airlines: An Equilibrium Analysis of Codeshare Alliances” (with Philip Gayle), International Journal of Industrial Organization, 2007.

26. "Price and Variety in the Spokes Model" (with Michael Riordan), The Economic Journal, Vol. 117, pp. 897-921, 2007.

25"Vertical Integration, Exclusive Dealing, and ex post Cartelization" (with Michael Riordan), RAND Journal of Economics, Vo. 38, pp. 1-21, 2007. Web Appendix

24. "Market Design with Correlated Valuations" (with Ruqu Wang), Economica, Vol. 73, pp. 659-672, 2006.

23. "Marketing Innovation", Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Vol. 15, 101-123, 2006.

22. "Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in Developing Countries" (with T. Puttitanun), Journal of Development Economics, 78, 474-493, 2005.

21. "Vertical Pricing and Parallel Imports" (with Keith Maskus), Journal of International Trade and Development, Vol. 14, No.1, pp. 1-18, 2005.

20. "Do Economics Departments Search Optimally in Faculty Recruiting?" (with Terra Mckinnish), Economic Inquiry, Vol. 43, pp. 676-688, 2005.

19. "Vertical Disintegration", Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Vol. 14, pp. 209-229, 2005.

18. "Equilibrium Selling Mechanisms" (with R. Wang), Annals of Economics and Finance, Vol. 5, pp. 335-355, 2004.

17. "Trade Liberalization and Strategic Outsourcing" (with Jota Ishikawa and Zhihao Yu), Journal of International Economics, Vol. 63, pp. 419-436, 2004.

16. "Vertical Price Control and Parallel Imports: Theory and Evidence" (with K. Maskus), Review of International Economics, Vol. 12, pp. 551-570, 2004.

15. "A Model of Competing Selling Mechanisms" (with R. Wang), Economic Letters. Vol. 85, pp. 151-155, 2004.

14. "Parallel Imports in a Model of Vertical Distribution: Theory, Evidence, and Policy" (with K. Maskus), Pacific Economic Review, Vol. 7, pp.319-334, 2002.

13. "On Vertical Mergers and Their Competitive Effects", RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 32, pp. 667-685, 2001. Reprinted in: George Norman (eds), Recent Developments in Monopoly and Competition PolicyThe International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, Volume 217, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2008.

12. "Equilibrium Cost Overruns" (with Ron Smith), Annals of Economics and Finance, Vol. 2, pp. 401-414, 2001.

11. "Strategic Bidding by Potential Competitors: Will Monopoly Persist?Journal of Industrial Economics, Vol. XLVIII, pp. 161-175, 2000.

10. "Promises, Trust, and Contracts", Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Vol. 16, pp. 209-232, 2000.

9. "Oligopoly Price Discrimination and Resale Price Maintenance", RAND Journal of Economics, 30, 441-455, 1999.

8. "Learning Buyers’ Valuation Distribution in Posted-Price Selling" (with Ruqu Wang), Economic Theory, 14, 417-428, 1999.

7. "Paying Customers to Switch", Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 6, 877-897, 1997.

6. "Multidimensional Signaling and Diversification", RAND Journal of Economics, 28, 168-187, 1997.

5. "Equilibrium Product Bundling", Journal of Business, 70, 85-103, 1997.

4. "On the Use of Ceiling-Price Commitments by Monopolists" (with Robert Rosenthal), RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 27, 207-220, 1996.

3. "Dynamic Duopoly with Slowly Changing Customer Loyalties" (with Robert Rosenthal), International Journal of Industrial Organization, 14, 269-296, 1996.

2. "Asking Prices as Commitment Devices" (with Robert Rosenthal), International Economic Review, 37, 129-155, 1996.

1. "Conflicting Interests in Information Disclosure and Short-term Orientation of Firms", International Journal of Industrial Organization, 12, 211-225, 1994.


Working Papers

  • "Consumer Search with Repeat Purchases" (with Zhuozheng Li and Tianle Zhang), working paper, 2019.
  • Efficient Liability in Expert Markets” (with Jianpei Li and Jin Zhang), working paper, new version 2020.
  • "International Protection of Consumer Data" (with Xinyu Hua and Keith Maskus), working paper, 2020.
  • “Connectivity and Security” (with Mike Riordan and Tianle Zhang), work in progress, 2019