Provisionalia

Index Librorum Scholasticorum

Robert Pasnau

Provisionalia is a guide and repository for texts and translations of scholastic philosophy and theology. The site aspires to list every scholastic author whose works have been the subject of scholarly attention, and to provide the following information:

The core of this site are the Biographies in Appendix B of the new Cambridge History of Medieval Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 2009), from which I have deleted Islamic, Jewish, and non-scholastic Christian authors. Since that list did not extend into the Renaissance, coverage of later figures remains a work-in-progress.

The site as a whole will, perpetually, be a work in progress, and I do not mean to do this entirely by myself. For this site to be a success, it will require serious help from other scholars. Please send me any information, corrections, or texts that you have. Thanks for help so far to

 

Last updated August 14, 2014


Gaetano, see Cajetan
John Quidort, see John of Paris
John Venator, see John Huntman
Meister Eckhart see Eckhart

Gualterus, see Walter
Guillelmus, see William
Jacob, Jacques, see James
Jean, Johannes see John


Adam of Buckfield
Adam Wodeham
Albert The Great
Albert of Orlamünde
Albert of Saxony
Alexander of Alexandria
Alexander of Hales
Alexander Langeley
Alphonsus Vargas of Toledo
Andrew of Cornwall
Andrew of Neufchâteau
Angelo of Fossombrone
Anselm of Como
Antonius Andreae
Antonius de Carlenis de Neapoli
Armand of Bellevue
Arnold of Strelley
Aubry of Rheims
Augustine of Ancona
Bartholomaeus Anglicus
Bartholomew of Bologna
Bartholomew of Bruges
Bernard of Auvergne
Bernard Lombardi
Bernard of Trilia
Berthold of Moosburg
Blasius of Parma
Boethius of Dacia
Bombolognus of Bologna
Bonaventure
Cajetan
Cajetan of Thiene
Cambiolus of Bologna
David of Dinant
Denys The Carthusian
Dietrich of Freiberg
Durand of Saint-Pourçain
Durandellus
Eckhart of Hochheim
Edward Upton
Ferrandus of Spain
Ferrarius the Catalan
Francis of Marchia
Francis of Meyronnes
Francis of Prato
Gabriel Biel
Geoffrey of Aspall
Gerald of Odo
Gerard of Abbeville
Gerard of Bologna
Gerard of Siena
Gilbert of Stratton
Gilbert of Tournai
Giles of Lessines
Giles of Orleans
Giles of Rome
Godfrey of Fontaines
Gonsalvo of Spain
Gosvin of Marbais
Gratiadeus Aesculanus
Gregory of Rimini
Guerric of Saint-Quentin
Guy Terrena
Guy Vernani of Rimini
Henry Bate of Malines
Henry of Friemar
Henry of Ghent
Henry of Harclay
Henry Hopton
Henry of Langenstein
Henry of Lübeck
Henry Ruyn of Rostock
Henry Totting of Oyta


Hervaeus Brito
Hervaeus Natalis
Heymeric de Campo
Himbert of Garda
Hugh of Lawton
Hugh of Novo Castro
Hugh Ripelin of Strasbourg
Hugh of Saint-Cher
Hugolin of Orvieto
Humbert of Preuilly
James of Ascoli
James of Douai
James of Lausanne
James of Metz
James of Piacenza
James of Thérines
James of Viterbo
John Aurifaber
John Baconthorpe
John of Bassolis
John Blund
John Bode
John Buridan
John the Canon
John Capreolus
John Chilmark
John of Dacia
John Dorp
John Dumbleton
John Duns Scotus
John of Erfurt
John Hiltalingen of Basel
John of Holland
John Huntman
John of Jandun
John of La Rochelle
John Lesage
John of Mechlinia
John of Mirecourt
John of Murro
John of Naples
John of Nova Domo
John le Page
John of Paris
John Pecham
John Picardi of Lichtenberg
John of Pouilly
John of Reading
John Rigaud
John of Ripa
John Rodington
John of Saint-German
John Sharpe
John of Sterngassen
John Tarteys
John Versor
John Went
John of Wesel
John Wyclif
Lambert
Landulph Caracciolo
Ludolph Meistermann of Lübeck
Marsilius of Inghen
Martin of Alnwick
Martin of Dacia
Martinus Anglicus
Matthew of Aquasparta
Matthew of Bologna
Matthew of Gubbio
Matthew of Orleans
Michael of Marbais
Michael of Massa


Monachus Niger
Nicholas of Amiens
Nicholas of Amsterdam
Nicholas of Autrecourt
Nicholas Byard
Nicholas Bonet
Nicholas of Cusa
Nicholas Drukken of Dacia
Nicholas of Normandy
Nicholas of Ockham
Nicholas of Paris
Nicholas of Strasbourg
Nicholas Trivet
Nicole Oresme
Odo Rigaldus
Oliver Brito
Paul of Gelria
Paul of Pergula
Paul of Perugia
Paul of Taranto
Paul of Venice
Peter of Abano
Peter of Ailly
Peter of Aquila
Peter Auriol
Peter of Auvergne
Peter of Candia
Peter Ceffons
Peter of Falco
Peter of Ireland
Peter of John Olivi
Peter of Mantua
Peter of Navarre
Peter of Palude
Peter Plaoul
Peter of Spain
Peter of Spain (Portugal)
Peter Sutton
Peter of Tarentaise
Petrus Thomae
Peter of Trabes
Philip The Chancellor
Pierre Roger
Prosper of Reggio Emilia
Radulphus Brito
Ralph Strode
Rambert de' Primadizzi of Bologna
Raymond Lull
Remigio de' Girolami
Richard Billingham
Richard Brinkley
Richard of Bromwich
Richard of Campsall
Richard of Clive
Richard of Conington
Richard of Ferrybridge
Richard Fishacre
Richard Fitzralph
Richard Kilvington
Richard Knapwell
Richard Lavenham
Richard of Middleton
Richard Rufus of Cornwall
Richard the Sophister
Richard Swineshead
Robert Alyngton
Robert Bacon
Robert Cowton
Robert Fland
Robert Graystanes
Robert Grosseteste


Robert of Halifax
Robert Holcot
Robert Kilwardby
Robert Orford
Robert Walsingham
Robertus Anglicus
Roger Bacon
Roger Marston
Roger Nottingham
Roger Roseth
Roger Swineshead
Roger Whelpdale
Roland of Cremona
Servais of Mont-Saint-Eloi
Servasanto of Faenza
Siger of Brabant
Siger of Courtrai
Simon of Dacia
Simon of Faversham
Simon of Hinton
Stephen of Rieti
Thaddeus of Parma
Themon Judaeus
Thomas Aquinas
Thomas of Bailly
Thomas Bradwardine
Thomas Buckingham
Thomas of Cantimpré
Thomas of Cleves
Thomas of Erfurt
Thomas Manlevelt
Thomas of Strasbourg
Thomas of Sutton
Thomas Waleys
Thomas Wylton
Thomas of York
Thuo of Viborg
Ulrich of Strasbourg
Vincent of Beauvais
Vincent Ferrer
Vital Du Four
Walter of Ailly
Walter of Bruges
Walter Burley
Walter Chatton
William of Alnwick
William of Auvergne
William of Auxerre
William of Bonkes
William Buser
William of Clifford
William Crathorn
William of Durham
William of Falegar
William Heytesbury
William Hothum
William de la Mare
William of Lewes
William of Macclesfield
William of Middleton
William Milverley
William of Nottingham
William of Ockham
William Penbygull
William of Peter Godin
William of Rubio
William of Saint-Amour
William of Sherwood
William of Ware
Witelo
 


[top]

Adam of Buckfield (Bockenfield, Bocfeld) b. Northumberland, ca. 1220; d. 1279/92

Oxford arts master. Commentaries on a large number of Aristotelian works extant in many manuscripts, often in multiple redactions (mostly unedited), including


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Adam Wodeham (Wodham, Wodam, Godam) b. ca 1298; d. 1358

Franciscan friar and theologian. Principal surviving philosophical work is his Sentences commentary, in multiple redactions.

Two works on the continuum:


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Albert The Great (Albertus Magnus, Albert of Cologne) b. ca 1200; d. 1280

Dominican philosopher and theologian

A series of commentaries on nearly all of Aristotle's corpus, mostly in the form of paraphrases

Commentaries on many other works

Two comparable older versions of Albert's Opera omnia are available (ed. Jammy 1651, 21 vols.; ed. Borgnet 1890-99, 38 vols. [now available online]). A critical edition is in progress, but less than half complete (ed. Geyer et al. [Cologne] 1951-, 40 vols. projected).

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Albert of Orlamünde fl. late 13 th c.

Dominican friar, teacher in Thüringen.


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Albert of Saxony (Albert of Rickmersdorf, Albertus Parvus, Albertutius) b. ca 1316; d. 1390

Arts master at Paris from 1351-1361. Logical works:

Commentaries on

Several short mathematical texts, most notably the Tractatus proportionum [ca. 1353] (ed. Busard 1971).

No theological writings survive.

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Alexander of Alexandria (Bonini) b. Alessandria [Piedmont], ca. 1268; d. Rome, 1314

Franciscan theologian. Commentaries on

Theological works:

Several treatises concerning the Franciscan spiritualist controversy, which he took a strong role in combatting:

Also extant is


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Alexander of Hales b. Gloucestershire, ca. 1185; d. Paris, 1245

First Franciscan at Paris to hold a chair in theology.


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Alexander Langeley fl. 1330s

Franciscan theologian, Oxford.


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Alphonsus Vargas of Toledo d. 1366

Augustinian friar and theologian, Paris.


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Andrew of Cornwall b. Cornwall, fl. late 13 th c.

Master of arts in Paris.


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Andrew of Neufchâteau (Andreas de Novo Castro) b. Lorraine; d. ca. 1400

Franciscan theologian at Paris.


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Angelo of Fossombrone fl. 1395-1402

Italian Arts master and logician.


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Anselm of Como fl. 1335-44

Master of arts at Bologna.


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Antonius Andreae b. Aragon, ca. 1280; d. Catalonia, ca. 1320/25

Influential disciple of Scotus.


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Antonius de Carlenis de Neapoli b. Monte Aquilo [Cassino], 1386; d. 1460

Philosopher and Dominican theologian.


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Armand of Bellevue (de Belvézer) b. Provence; d. after 1348

Dominican theologian.


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Arnold of Strelley b. near Nottingham; d. 1349

Dominican theologian.


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Aubry of Rheims (Albericus) fl. 1260s-70s

Arts master at Paris.


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Augustine of Ancona (Augustinus Triumphus, Agostino Trionfo) b. Ancona, ca. 1270/73; d. Naples, 1328

Augustinian friar; lecturer in theology in Padua (1297, 1302-1304); master in theology in Paris 1313-1315.


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Bartholomaeus Anglicus b. England before 1203; d. 1272

Encyclopedist. A Franciscan friar.


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Bartholomew of Bologna b. Bologna; d. after 1294

Franciscan theologian.


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Bartholomew of Bruges b. ca. 1286; d. 1356

Arts master and physician.


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Bernard of Auvergne b. Gannat [Auvergne]; d. after 1307

Dominican theologian.


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Bernard Lombardi fl. 1323-32

Dominican theologian.


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Bernard of Trilia b. Nimes, ca. 1240; d. Avignon, 1292

Thomistic theologian.


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Berthold of Moosburg b. ca 1300; d. after 1361

German Dominican.


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Blasius of Parma (Pelacanus, de Pelacanis, Biagio Pelacanbii) b. Parma, ca. 1345; d. Parma, 1416

Heterodox Italian philosopher.


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Boethius of Dacia (Dacus) b. Denmark, ca. 1240; d. after 1277

A leading arts master at Paris. The complete works are available in a modern edition (ed. J. Pinborg et al. 1969-).

Wielockx (2009) edits questions on De anima I-II and argues for Boethius's authorship.

 

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Bombolognus of Bologna

Dominican theologian, probably never taught in Paris.


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Bonaventure (John of Fidanza) b. near Orvieto, ca. 1217; d. Lyon, 1274

Franciscan theologian. The complete works are available in a modern edition (ed. 1882-1902).


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Cajetan (Thomas de Vio) b. 1469; d. 1534.

Leading Thomist.


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Cajetan of Thiene (Gaetano, Caietanus) b. Gaeta, 1387; d. Padua, 1465

Italian natural philosopher.


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Cambiolus of Bologna fl. 1330s

Arts master at the University of Bologna.


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David of Dinant b. Dinant [Belgium]; d. ca. 1214

Physician and philosopher, censured for his interpretation of Aristotle.


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Denys The Carthusian (Dionysius, de Leeuwis) b. Rijkel [Belgium], 1402/3; d. 1472

Encyclopedic scholar and leading Albertist.


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Dietrich of Freiberg (Theodoric, Thierry, Theodoricus Teutonicus, of Saxony) b. Freiberg, ca. 1250; d. after 1310

Dominican scholar, active in natural philosophy, metaphysics, and theology.

Vrin is publishing a four-part bilingual series of Oeuvres Choisies.


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Durand of Saint-Pourçain b. 1270/75; d. Meaux, 1334

Controversial Dominican theologian.


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Durandellus (Nicholas Medensis) fl. 1320s

Thomistic critique of Durand of Saint-Pourçain


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Eckhart of Hochheim (Meister Eckhart) b. Hochheim [Thuringia] ca. 1260; d. prob. Avignon, 1328

Controversial scholastic philosopher, theologian, and mystic.

For extensive information about texts see http://www.eckhart.de/.

[top]

Edward Upton b. Winchester; d. 1418/19

Logician.


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Eustachius of Arras (Atrebatensis, Eustace) b. Arras [N France] ca. 1225; d. 1291

Franciscan theologian.


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Ferrandus of Spain (de Hispania) fl. 1290s

Master of arts at Paris, known as Averroist.


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Ferrarius the Catalan (Ferrer, Catalanus) fl. 1265-75

Dominican theologian.


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Francis of Marchia (de Appignano, de Esculo, de Ascoli, Franciscus Rubeus) b. Appignano del Tronto, ca. 1285-90; d. after 1344

Strikingly original Franciscan theologian and natural philosopher.


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Francis of Meyronnes (de Mayronis) b. Provence, ca. 1288; d. Piancenza, 1328

Franciscan theologian.


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Francis of Prato b. Prato [Tuscany], fl. 1340s

Dominican philosopher, advocate of metaphysical realism.


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Gabriel Biel b. Speyer [Rhineland], before 1425; d. Einsiedel [Thuringia], 1495

Eclectic theologian


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Gentilis da Cingulo b. Cingoli [Marche]; d. before 1334

Arts master; prominent modist grammarian.


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Geoffrey of Aspall (Galfridus de Hasphall) b. Suffolk; d. Gascony, 1287

Arts master at Oxford


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Gerald of Odo (Gerardus Odonis, Guiral Ot, Odon, Eudes) b. Camboulit [S France], ca. 1285/90; d. Sicily, 1349

Franciscan theologian


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Gerard of Abbeville b. Abbeville [Picardy], ca. 1225; d. 1272

Paris theologian and leading critic of the mendicant orders at Paris.


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Gerard of Bologna b. Bologna, 1240s; d. Avignon, 1317

Carmelite theologian.


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Gerard of Siena b. Tuscany; d. 1336

Augustinian theologian.


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Gilbert of Stratton d. ca. 1294

Oxford theologian.


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Gilbert of Tournai (Guibert, van Doornik, de Tornaco) b. Tournai, 1200/10; d. Tournai, 1284/88

Franciscan theologian.


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Giles of Lessines b. Lessines [SW Belgium], ca. 1230; d. ca. 1304

Dominican theologian and early Thomist.


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Giles of Orleans (Aegidius Aurelianensis) fl. 2 nd half of 13 th c.d. after 1277

Paris arts master


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Giles of Rome (Aegidius Romanus, Egidius Colonna) b. prob. Rome, ca. 1243/47; d. Avignon, 1316

Innovative theologian and philosopher with Thomistic leanings

Many Renaissance editions have been reprinted by Minerva (1966-70).
A critical edition in the early stages of progress.

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Godfrey of Fontaines (Godefridus de Fontibus) b. Liège, ca 1250; d. 1306/9

Paris theologian and philosopher.


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Gonsalvo of Spain (Gonsalvus Hispanus, Gonsalvus of Balboa) b. Galicia, ca. 1255; d. ca. 1313

Franciscan philosopher and theologian.


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Gosvin of Marbais b. Marbais [Belgium]; fl. 1270s

Parisian grammarian.


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Gratiadeus Aesculanus (Giovanni Graziadei of Ascoli) fl. first half of 14 th c.

Dominican philosopher.


[top]

Gregory of Rimini (Gregorius Ariminensis, de Arimino) b. Rimini, ca. 1300; d. Vienna, 1358

Prominent Paris theology master; the last great scholastic theologian of the Middle Ages.


[top]

Guerric of Saint-Quentin b. Picardy; d. 1245

Arts master and Dominican theologian.


[top]

Guy Terrena (Guido Terreni) b. Perpignan, ca. 1260-70; d. Avignon, 1342

Carmelite theologian. Works unedited except as indicated.


[top]

Guy Vernani of Rimini b. Vergnano [near Rimini]; d. ca. 1345

Dominican friar


[top]

Henry Bate of Malines (Henricus Batenus) b. Mechelen [Belgium], 1246; d. Tongerloo (?), after 1310

Encyclopedist and astronomer.


[top]

Henry of Friemar b. Friemar [Thuringia], ca. 1245; d. Erfurt, 1340

Augustinian friar and theologian.


[top]

Henry of Ghent (Henricus Gandavensis, de Gandavo) b. Ghent, ca 1217; d. 1293

Leading Paris theologian

A critical edition is well underway (Opera omnia 1979-); parts of the Quodlibeta and Quaest. ordinariae not yet edited are accessible in reliable Renaissance editions (ed. 1518|1961 and 1520|1953]).
A growing number of translations are available: on political philosophy (tr. CTMPT 2); divine illumination (CTMPT 3); free will (tr. Teske 1993); God's existence and essence (tr. Decorte and Teske 2005); God's unity and simplicity (tr. Teske 2006).

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Henry of Harclay b. ca. 1270; d. Avignon, 1317

English theologian.


[top]

Henry Hopton fl. 1350s-60s

Oxford arts master.


[top]

Henry of Langenstein (Henry Heimbuch, of Hesse) b. near Marburg, 1325; d. Vienna, 1397

Secular theologian.


[top]

Henry of Lübeck fl. 1312-36

Dominican theologian.


[top]

Henry Ruyn of Rostock (of Runen) fl. 1430s-40s

Erfurt master


[top]

Henry Totting of Oyta b. Oyta [Lower Saxony]; d. 1397

Arts master and theologian. See Preben-Hansen for details.


[top]

Hervaeus Brito d. 1276 (?)

Master of arts at Paris. Perhaps to be identified with Hervaeus Sophista.


[top]

Hervaeus Natalis (Hervé, Harvey Nedellec) b. Brittany, ca 1250/60; d. Narbonne, 1323

Dominican theologian and champion of Aquinas.


[top]

Heymeric de Campo (van de Velde) b. near Eindhoven [Low Countries], ca. 1395; d. Leuven, 1460

Theologian and leading reviver of Albertism. Author of around fifty works ranging over philosophy, theology, and ecclesiastic politics.

A first volume of selected works has recently been published (ed. Imbach and Ladner 2001-).
[top]

Himbertus de Garda

Franciscan theologian. Likely studied at Paris around 1320. A Sentences commentary, based largely on Francis of Meyronnes, survives in 3 mss [2nd redaction no earlier than 1330] (unedited; see Duba and Schabel in SIEPM Bulletin n. 53 (2011)).

[top]

Hugh of Lawton (Lanton) fl. 1320s

Dominican theologian at Oxford.


[top]

Hugh of Novo Castro b. ca. 1280; d. after 1322

Franciscan theologian at Paris, a disciple of Scotus.


[top]

Hugh Ripelin of Strasbourg b. Alsace, ca. 1200/10; d. 1268

Dominican theologian.


[top]

Hugh of Saint-Cher b. near Vienne, ca. 1190; d. Orvieto, 1263

Early Dominican theologian.


[top]

Hugolin of Orvieto (de Urbe Veteri) b. Orvieto, ca. 1300; d. Acquapendente [Viterbo], 1373

Theologian and philosopher. An Augustinian Hermit, sent to study at Paris ca. 1334-36. Lectured on the Sentencesat Paris in 1348-49, becoming master of theology in 1352. In 1357 he directed the Augustinian studiumin Perugia, and in 1364 he co-founded the theology faculty in Bologna, subsequently teaching there. Appointed general of the Augustianian Hermits in 1368 and patriarch of Constantinople in 1371. Principal work is his Sentences commentary (ed. Eckermann 1980-88). A commentary on the Physicsis also extant [1352] (part. ed. Eckermann, in Physikkommentar 1972), as is a treatise De Deo trino [1372] (ed. Stegmüller, in "Tractatus" 1954) and various sermons (unedited).

 

[top]

Humbert of Preuilly b. Gendrey (near Dijon); d. 1298

Cistercian. Studied at the College of St. Bernard in Paris (ca. 1289).


[top]

James of Ascoli (Jacobus de Aesculo) fl. 1310s

Franciscan theologian and follower of Scotus.


[top]

James of Douai (Jacobus de Duaco) fl. 1275

Master of arts in Paris.


[top]

James of Lausanne d. 1322

Dominican theologian.


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James of Metz (Jacobus Mettensis) fl. ca. 1300

Dominican theologian.

James's views would later be the subject of a short polemical treatise by Hervaeus Natalis (unedited).

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James of Piacenza (Jacobus de Placentia, Jacques de Plaisance) fl. 1340s

Arts master at Bologna. Regarded as a proponent of radical Averroism.


[top]

James of Thérines b. Thérines [Picardy]; d. 1321

Cistercian theologian.


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James of Viterbo (Jacobus Capocci) b. Viterbo, ca 1255; d. 1307/8

Parisian master of theology. Augustinian Hermit.


[top]

John Aurifaber ca. 1295-1333

Arts master and critic of modist grammar.

A distinct John Aurifaber served as master of arts at Paris in 1397; his only extant work is a few questions on the Physics (unedited).
[top]

John Baconthorpe (Baco, Bacconis) b. Norfolk, ca. 1290; d. 1345/52

Carmelite theologian.


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John of Bassolis d. 1333

Franciscan theologian


[top]

John Blund b. ca. 1175; d. 1248

Early lecturer on the new Aristotle.


[top]

John Bode (Bodi) fl. 1357

Benedictine monk and doctor of theology at Oxford.

The John Bode listed as a fellow of Merton College in 1338 is probably a different man.


[top]

John Buridan b. Picardy, 1295/1300; d. 1358/61

Parisian arts master.

A bibliography of primary and secondary sources has been posted by Fabienne Pironet.


[top]

John the Canon (Mambres, Marbres) b. Catalonia; fl. 1320s/30s

Master of arts at Toulouse.


His identity with John Mambres is supposed, but not certain.

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John Capreolus (Jean Cabrol) b. Rouergue [France], 1380; d. Rodez [S France], 1444

Key figure in the Thomist movement.


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John Chilmark d. ca. 1396

Mathematician and philosopher.


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John of Dacia (Johannes Dacus) fl. 1280s

Master of arts at Paris.


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John Dorp b. near Leyden; fl. 1393-1418

Logician, traditionally numbered among the nominalists.


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John Dumbleton b. Gloucestershire, ca. 1310; d. ca. 1349

Natural philosopher; one of the Oxford Calculators.


[top]

John Duns Scotus b. Duns [Scotland], 1265/66; d. Cologne, 1308

Franciscan theologian and philosopher.

At present, the Vatican critical edition (ed. Balic et al . 1950-) has completed the Lectura and is partway through the Ordinatio. For the Paris lectures, one must still consult the old Opera omnia (ed. Wadding 1639; ed. Vivès 1891-95), although a version of Bk. I is newly available (ed. and tr. Wolter and Bychkov 2004-).

Most of Scotus's work has never been translated, although useful collections are available on will and morality (ed. and tr. Wolter 1986; ed. and tr. [German] Hoffmann 2012); universals (tr. Spade, in Five Texts 1994); contingency and freedom (ed. and tr. Vos 1994), individuation (ed. and tr. Wolter 2005), as well as a general Philosophical Writings (ed. and tr. Wolter 1962|1987).
Extensive links to texts and translations are available at The Franciscan Archive.
Peter King has posted extensive translations of Scotus's views on individuation (OrdinatioII.3.2.1-6).
Cross has published a useful summary of the overall textual situation in Journal of the History of Philosophy July 2011.

[top]

John of Erfurt (Erfurdensis, Alemannus, of Saxony) b. Saxony, ca. 1255; d. ca. 1320/40

Franciscan canon lawyer and perhaps theologian.


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John Hiltalingen of Basel b. Basel, ca. 1315; d. Freiburg, 1392

Augustinian friar and theologian.


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John of Holland b. near Amsterdam; d. after 1371

Prague arts master.


[top]

John Huntman (Hunter, Johannes Venator) fl. 2 nd half of 14 th c.

English logician.


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John of Jandun b. near Rheims, 1280s; d. Todi [Umbria], 1328

Averroist master of arts


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John of La Rochelle (de Rupella) b. La Rochelle, 1190/1200; d. 1245

Early Franciscan philosopher and theologian.


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John Lesage (Johannes Sapiens) b. Belgium; fl. 1300-11

Secular theologian.


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John of Mechlinia (Hulshot, de Malines) b. Malines [Antwerp], 1405; d. 1475

Albertist theologian and philosopher.


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John of Mirecourt (de Mercuria, Monachus Albus) fl. 1344-47

Cistercian theologian


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John of Murro (Johannes Minus de Murrovalle) b. Marche; d. Avignon, 1312

Franciscan theologian.


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John of Naples d. after 1336

Dominican theologian.


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John of Nova Domo (Maisonneuve) d. 1418

Flemish arts master; taught in Paris.


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John le Page (Pagus, Pago) fl. 1230s-40s

Early University of Paris master of arts and theology.


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John of Paris (John Quidort) b. Paris; d. Bordeaux, 1306

Dominican theologian and early Thomist.


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John Pecham (Peckham) b. Patcham [Sussex], ca. 1230; d. 1292

Conservative Franciscan champion of Augustinianism.


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John Picardi of Lichtenberg d. after 1313

Dominican theologian.


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John of Pouilly (de Polliaco) b. prob. near Laon; d. ca. 1328

Paris theologian.


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John of Reading b. ca. 1270; d. Avignon, 1346

Franciscan theologian.


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John Rigaud (Rigaldus) b. Limoges; d. Avignon, 1323

Franciscan moral theologian.


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John of Ripa (de la Marche) b. ca. 1325

Innovative Franciscan theologian.


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John Rodington b. ca. 1290; d. Bedford, 1348

Franciscan theologian.


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John of Saint-German b. Saint-Germain [Cornwall]; fl. 1298-1320

Benedictine theologian.


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John Sharpe (Scharpe) b. near Münster, ca. 1360; d. after 1414

Oxford theologian and philosopher.


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John of Sterngassen d. before 1327

Dominican theologian.


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John Tarteys fl. ca. 1400

Oxford arts master; realist follower of John Wyclif.


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John Versor d. after 1482

Arts master and theologian.


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John Wenck b. Herrenberg [SW Germany], ca. 1396; d. Heidelberg, 1459

Albertist philosopher and opponent of Nicholas of Cusa.


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John Went d. 1348

Franciscan theologian.


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John of Wesel (Vessalia) fl. mid-14 th c.

Parisian arts master.


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John Wyclif (Wycliffe) b. Wycliffe [Yorkshire], ca 1325; d. Lutterworth, 1384

Heterodox and influential philosopher and theologian; a leading advocate of metaphysical realism.

Wyclif's very extensive writings, in both Latin and English, have not yet been completely edited. Many of the Latin writings have been edited by the Wyclif Society (1883-1922, in 36 vols).

Wyclif organized many of these shorter treatises - and other works yet to be edited - into a Summa de ente, whose structure scholars have had to piece together.

Beginning ca. 1373, Wyclif turned his attention increasingly to theological and ecclesiastical issues, including

In addition to these academic Latin treatises, there are

For later English Wycliffite texts, see Hudson, Selections 1997.

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Lambert fl. 1250s


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Landulph Caracciolo (de Mazoriis) b. Naples; d. 1351

Franciscan theologian.


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Ludolph Meistermann of Lübeck fl. 1390s

Logician, active at the universities of Prague and Vienna.


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Marsilius of Inghen b. Nijmegen, ca. 1340; d. Heidelberg, 1396

Influential master of arts.


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Martin of Alnwick (Martinus Anglicus) b. Northumberland; d. Newcastle, 1336

Franciscan theologian.

The logical treatises of "Martinus Anglicus" are now thought to be the work of a different, later author (see below).
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Martin of Dacia (Dacus) b. Denmark; d. Paris, 1304

Philosopher and grammarian.


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Martinus Anglicus fl. 1335/70

English logician.

His identification with Martin of Alnwick is now generally rejected.

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Matthew of Aquasparta b. near Todi [Umbria], ca. 1238; d. 1302

Franciscan theologian.


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Matthew of Bologna fl. 1270s

Master of arts, perhaps at Bologna.


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Matthew of Gubbio fl. ca. 1333-47

Arts master at Bologna.


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Matthew of Orleans fl. 1220s

Logician.


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Michael of Marbais b. Brabant; fl. ca. 1300

Master of arts at Paris.


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Michael of Massa b. Siena; d. prob. Paris, 1337

Theologian.


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Monachus Niger fl. 1330s-40s

Benedictine theologian whose proper name is uncertain.

Perhaps to be identified with the Benedictine Johannes Normanus.


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Nicholas of Amiens fl. later 12 th c.

French theologian.


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Nicholas of Amsterdam (Nicholaus Theoderici) b. ca. 1388; d. Greifswald, ca. 1437

German arts master.


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Nicholas of Autrecourt (Ultricuria) b. Autrécourt [Lorraine], ca. 1298; d. Metz, 1369

Radical critic of Aristotelianism, condemned in Avignon and Paris.

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Nicholas Byard d. 1261

Famous preacher and moral theologian, variously described as a Franciscan or a Dominican.


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Nicholas Bonet (Bonetus) b. ca. 1280, Touraine; d. 1343

Franciscan philosopher and theologian.


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Nicholas of Cusa (Cusanus, Cues, Krebs) b. Kues [Rhineland], 1401; d. Todi [Umbria], 1464

Innovative philosopher and theologian

Other philosophically interesting treatises are also extant (see the translations of Hopkins 1994, 1997-2000), as are many sermons and mathematical writings. The modern edition of Cusa's Opera omniais now virtually complete (Heidelberg Academy 1932-, in 22 vols.).

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Nicholas Drukken of Dacia d. ca. 1357

Paris logician.


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Nicholas of Normandy fl. ca. 1270

Paris arts master.


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Nicholas of Ockham b. ca. 1245; d. 1320

Franciscan theologian.


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Nicholas of Paris fl. ca. 1240

Arts master at Paris


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Nicholas of Strasbourg fl. ca. 1323-29

Dominican theologian and mystic.


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Nicholas Trivet (Trevet) b. Somerset, 1257/65; d. ca. 1335

Dominican theologian, historian, and classical scholar.


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Nicole Oresme b. near Caen [Normandy], ca. 1320; d. 1382

Leading natural philosopher of the later Middle Ages.


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Odo Rigaldus (Eudes of Rouen, Odon Rigaud, Rigaldi, Rigauld) b. Brie-Comte-Robert [Île-de-France], ca. 1205; d. Gaillon [Normandy], 1275

Early Franciscan theologian.


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Oliver Brito fl. ca. 1250-60

Paris arts master.


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Paul of Gelria (Paul Fabri) b. Saxony, ca. 1352; d. Cologne, 1404

German arts master and theologian.


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Paul of Pergula b. ca. 1400; d. Venice, 1455

Logician.


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Paul of Perugia d. Paris, ca. 1346

Carmelite theologian.


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Paul of Taranto (Tarento) b. Taranto [S Italy]; fl. ca. 1260/1300

Franciscan alchemist.


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Paul of Venice (Paolo Nicoletti Veneto) b. Udine, ca. 1369; d. Padua, 1429

Eminent logician and natural philosopher.


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Peter of Abano (de Apono, Aponensis) b. Abano [Veneto], ca. 1250; d. 1315

Physician, philosopher, translator.


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Peter of Ailly (Petrus de Alliaco) b. Compiègne [Picardy], 1350; d. Avignon, 1420

Progressive philosopher and theologian, associated with nominalism.

Various treatises and sermons were collected in a Renaissance edition (1490|1971). A polemic against the modi significandi (ed. Kaczmarek 1980, 1994) has been wrongly ascribed to him.

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Peter of Aquila b. ca. 1275; d. Agnone [Molise], 1361

Franciscan theologian, a follower of Scotus, for which he became known as the Scotellusor "Little Scotus."


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Peter Auriol (Aureol, Aureoli, Oriel) b. near Cahors [ S France ], ca 1280; d. 1322

Innovative Franciscan theologian. Probably joined the Franciscan order before 1300 and subsequently studied in Paris. Lectured at Franciscan studiain Bologna in 1312 and Toulouse in 1314-16 before returning to Paris to study theology in 1316. Regent master from 1318 to 1320. Elected provincial minister of Aquitaine in 1320 and archbishop of Aix-en-Provence in 1321. Auriol's philosophical thought is extremely original but dense and difficult. His views were often discussed by subsequent authors, but almost always critically. His principal work is his


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Peter of Auvergne (de Alvernia) b. Crocq [Auvergne]; d. Clermont-Ferrand, 1304

Parisian arts master and theologian.


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Peter of Candia (Petros Philargis; Pope Alexander V) b. Crete, ca. 1340; d. Bologna, 1410

Franciscan theologian.


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Peter Ceffons fl. 1350

Cistercian theologian.


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Peter of Falco fl. 1280s

Paris theology master, a Franciscan.


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Peter of Ireland fl. 1250s

Arts master at Naples in the 1250s. Traditionally identified as Aquinas's teacher at Naples in the 1240s, a thesis that is now in doubt.


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Peter of John Olivi (Olieu) b. Sérignan [Languedoc], 1247/48; d. Narbonne, 1298

Controversial, iconoclastic theologian.


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Peter of Mantua (de Alboinis) d. 1400

Logician.


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Peter of Navarre (de Atarrabia) b. Spain; d. 1347

Franciscan theologian.


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Peter of Palude b. Bresse [E France], ca. 1275; d. Paris, 1342

Dominican theologian.


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Peter Plaoul b. Liege, 1352/3; d. 1415

Theologian educated at Paris. A Sentences commentary [1392-93] survives in multiple manuscripts (electronic ed. in progress by Witt).


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Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus) fl. 1230s-40s

Renowned logician. Traditionally identified as the future Pope John XXI (see below), but now generally thought to be a Dominican friar. His precise identity remains in dispute.


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Peter of Spain (Petrus Juliani; Pope John XXI; Petrus Hispanus Portugalensis) b. Lisbon, ca. 1205; d. Viterbo, 1277

Scholar and pope. His authorship of various works is contested: perhaps the author of


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Peter Sutton b. England; fl. 1310

Franciscan theologian.


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Peter of Tarentaise (Pope Innocentius V) b. Isère [Fr Alps], ca. 1224; d. Rome, 1276

Dominican theologian, later pope.


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Petrus Thomae b. Catalonia, ca. 1280; d. ca. 1340

Franciscan philosopher.

For information on manuscripts see Garrett Smith in SIEPM Bulletin n. 52.


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Peter of Trabes fl. 1290s

Franciscan theologian, probably Italian.


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Philip the Chancellor b. Paris, ca. 1160s; d. 1236

Influential early theologian at the University of Paris.


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Pierre Roger (Pope Clement VI) b. Maumont [Corrèze], 1291; d. 1352

Benedictine theologian


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Prosper of Reggio Emilia b. 1270s; d. 1332/33

Augustinian Hermit and Paris theologian.


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Radulphus Brito (Ralph the Breton, Raoul de Hotot, Raoul Lebreton) b. ca 1270; d. ca. 1320

Prominent philosopher and logician, a leading figure among the modistae.


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Ralph Strode d. 1387

Logician.


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Rambert de' Primadizzi of Bologna b. Bologna; d. Venice, 1308

Dominican theologian.


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Raymond Lull (Llull) b. Majorca, 1232/3; d. Tunis, 1316

Idiosyncratic philosopher, theologian, mystic. Some 240 works are extant in Catalan and Latin (still more writings, in Arabic, have not survived).


A critical edition of the Latin works is ongoing ( Opera Latina 1959-), although the older Opera omnia remains useful (ed. Salzinger 1721-40|1965). Many of the Catalan works are collected in Obres (ed. Obrador y Benassar et al. 1906-50), with a Nova edició de les obres in progress (ed. 1990-).
Extensive information about electronic texts can be found at the Ramon Llull Database.

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Remigio de' Girolami (Remi of Florence) b. Florence, 1235; d. Florence, 1319

Dominican theologian, political theorist, and influential preacher. Most prominent works:


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Richard Billingham fl. 1340s-50s

English logician and theologian.


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Richard Brinkley fl. 1350-73

English logician and theologian, a Franciscan.


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Richard of Bromwich fl. 1300s

Benedictine theologian.


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Richard of Campsall b. Campsall [Yorkshire], 1280/85; d. ca. 1330

Theologian.

The anti-Ockhamist Logica is now credited to an unknown pseudo-Campsall (ed. Synan 1982).

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Richard of Clive fl. 1276-1306

Oxford theologian.


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Richard of Conington d. Cambridge, 1330

Franciscan theologian.

No record of his Sentences commentary has been found.

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Richard of Ferrybridge (Feribrigge) fl. 1350s-60s

Logician and natural philosopher.


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Richard Fishacre b. Exeter, ca 1205; d. Oxford, 1248

Early Dominican theologian.


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Richard Fitzralph (Armachanus, Hibernicus) b. Dundalk [Ireland], 1295/1300; d. Avignon, 1360

Theologian

The FitzRalph Society.
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Richard Kilvington b. Yorkshire, 1302/5; d. London, 1361

Philosopher and theologian, one of the Oxford Calculators.


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Richard Knapwell d. Bologna, 1289

Early English Thomist.


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Richard Lavenham b. Lavenham [Suffolk]; fl. 1399-ca. 1403

Logician, natural philosopher, and theologian. Credited with over 60 works, many of which are still extant but mostly unedited.


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Richard of Middleton (de Mediavilla, Menneville) b. ca 1249; d. Rheims, 1302/3

Franciscan theologian in the Augustinian tradition.


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Richard Rufus of Cornwall (Cornubiensis) b. Cornwall; d. after 1259

Franciscan theologian and philosopher.

A critical edition of the whole corpus is in progress, with provisional texts and information available at Rega Wood's website.

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Richard the Sophister (Ricardus Sophista, Magister Abstractionum)

Logician.

Various attempts to identify the author - most prominently, as Richard Rufus of Cornwall - have been met with skepticism.


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Richard Swineshead (Calculator, Suisseth) b. Swineshead [Lincolnshire]; fl. ca. 1340-54

Leading Mertonian natural philosopher.


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Robert Alyngton d. Leicestershire, 1398

Oxford philosopher and theologian, a proponent of metaphysical realism.


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Robert Bacon b. 1170s/80s; d. Oxford, 1248

Early Dominican theologian at Oxford.


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Robert Cowton b. Cowton [Yorkshire]; fl. 1300-15

Franciscan theologian.


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Robert Fland fl. mid-14 th c.

Logician.


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Robert Graystanes (Greystones) b. Durham, before 1290; d. Durham, 1334

Oxford theologian and Benedictine monk.


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Robert Grosseteste (Lincolniensis) b. Suffolk, ca. 1170; d. Buckden [Cambridgeshire], 1253

Natural philosopher, translator, theologian, and influential bishop.

Amazingly, there is an Electronic Grosseteste, with many texts and other resources.

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Robert of Halifax b. Yorkshire, ca. 1300; d. after 1350

Franciscan theologian.


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Robert Holcot (Holkot) b. Holcot [Northamptonshire], ca 1290; d. Northampton, 1349

Influential Dominican theologian and popular author.


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Robert Kilwardby b. Leicester, ca. 1200; d. Viterbo, 1279

Dominican philosopher and theologian, archbishop of Canterbury. Studied the arts at Paris ca. 1231-37. Served as arts master until ca. 1245, then joined the Dominican order, probably in England, and began studying theology at Oxford.


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Robert Orford (Erfort, Oxford) b. ca. 1250; d. after 1293 / prob. before 1300

Early English Thomist and Dominican friar.


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Robert Walsingham b. prob. Norfolk; d. after 1312

Carmelite theologian.


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Robertus Anglicus

Many 13 th -c. texts are attributed to a "Robert the Englishman," and it is often difficult to distinguish the different authors.

There is also an astronomer by this name [fl. ca. 1271] (see ODNB [Pedersen]), and moreover Robert Kilwardy is often so-called (see Lewry, "Robertus Anglicus" 1982).

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Roger Bacon b. Somerset, ca. 1214/20; d. England, ca. 1292

Natural philosopher.


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Roger Marston b. England, ca. 1235; d. Norwich, 1303

Franciscan theologian in the Augustinian tradition


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Roger Nottingham d. after 1358

Franciscan theologian


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Roger Roseth (Rosetus) fl. 1330s

English Franciscan theologian.


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Roger Swineshead (Swyneshed, Suisseth) b. Swineshead [Lincolnshire]; d. ca. 1365

Natural philosopher in the Mertonian tradition.


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Roger Whelpdale d. London, 1423

Oxford philosopher, a proponent of metaphysical realism.


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Roland of Cremona b. 1178; d. Bologna, 1259

Early Dominican theologian.


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Servais of Mont-Saint-Eloi (Gervais) d. 1313/4

Theologian.


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Servasanto of Faenza b. near Faenza, 1220/30; d. Florence, ca. 1300

Preacher and moral theologian.


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Siger of Brabant b. Low Countries, ca. 1240; d. Orvieto, 1282/4

Controversial arts master, a leading figure among the so-called Latin Averroists.

A bibliography and other information has been posted by Fabienne Pironet.
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Siger of Courtrai b. ca. 1280; d. 1341

Logician and grammarian.


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Simon of Dacia fl . 1260s

Modist grammarian, seemingly a member of the arts faculty at Paris


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Simon of Faversham (Simon Anglicus) b. Kent, prob. 1240s; d. Avignon, 1306

Philosopher and theologian.

John Longeway has posted a large number of English translations.


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Simon of Hinton fl. 1248-62

Oxford Dominican theologian.


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Stephen of Rieti (de Reate) fl. 1340s

Dominican philosopher, advocate of metaphysical realism.


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Thaddeus of Parma d. 1341

Master of arts at Bologna and Siena


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Themon Judaeus b. Münster; fl. 1349-60

Paris arts master, in the circle of John Buridan.


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Thomas Aquinas (d'Aquino) b. Roccasecca [Italy], 1224/5; d. Fossanova, 1274

Philosopher and theologian.

Except where noted, all are available in the critical Leonine edition (ed. 1882-), and all are available in searchable form, along with much else, at the Corpus Thomisticum.
Except where noted, they have been translated into English (see Thérèse Bonin's bibliography).
For a comprehensive English-Latin publishing venture, see the Aquinas Institute.

 

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Thomas of Bailly b. Bailly [near Versailles]; d. 1328

Secular master of theology at Paris.


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Thomas Bradwardine b. England, ca. 1300; d. Canterbury, 1349

Influential philosopher, theologian, and mathematician.


A treatise on consequences seems unlikely to be his (ed. Green-Pedersen, in "Bradwardine (?)" 1982)

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Thomas Buckingham b. prob. Buckinghamshire; d. 1349

English theologian.


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Thomas of Cantimpré (Brabantinus, van Belleghem, Cantimpratensis) b. near Brussels, ca. 1201; d. 1270/72

Encyclopedist, hagiographer.


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Thomas of Cleves (Thomas Zeghenans, de Berca, de Clivis) b. Kleve [Saxony], ca. 1340; d. Kleve, 1412

Philosopher in the tradition of John Buridan and Albert of Saxony.


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Thomas of Erfurt (de Erfordia) fl. early 1300s

Logician and grammarian.


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Thomas Manlevelt (Manlefelt, Maulfelt, Maulefelth, Maulevelt) fl. 1320s-30s

English logician, associated with nominalism.


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Thomas of Strasbourg (Strassburg, de Argentina) b. Haguenau [Alsace]; d. Vienna, 1357

Theologian. Augustinian hermit.


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Thomas of Sutton (Thomas Anglicus) b. Yorkshire, ca. 1250; d. after 1315

Early Thomist.

Probably not by Sutton is the Liber propugnatorius super primum Sententiarum contra Johannem Scotum [1311/23] (ed. 1523|1966; part. ed. Schmaus 1930).

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Thomas Waleys fl. 1318-40

English Dominican theologian.


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Thomas Wylton (Wilton) fl. ca. 1288-1322

Philosopher, theologian.


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Thomas of York (de Eboraco) b. ca. 1220; d. before 1269

Franciscan theologian.


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Thuo of Viborg (Thuo Nicholai de Vibergia) b. Dacia; d. Lund, 1472

Master of arts and theology at Erfurt.


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Ulrich of Strasbourg (de Argentina) b. Strasbourg, ca. 1220; d. Paris, 1277

Dominican theologian and philosopher, heavily influenced by Neoplatonism.


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Vincent of Beauvais (Bellovacensis) b. Beauvais [Picardy], ca. 1190; d. near Beauvais, ca. 1264

Encyclopedist. Among the first generation of Dominican friars.


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Vincent Ferrer b. Valencia, 1350; d. Vannes [Brittany], 1419

Dominican philosopher and preacher.


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Vital Du Four (Vitalis de Furno) b. Bazas [Aquitaine], ca 1260; d. Avignon, 1327

Franciscan philosopher and theologian. Became


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Walter of Ailly (Gualterus de Alliaco) fl. 13 th c.


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Walter of Bruges b. Zande [W Flanders], ca. 1225; d. Poitiers, 1307

Franciscan theologian.


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Walter Burley (Burleigh) b. England, 1274/75; d. 1344/45

Philosopher and logician, an influential advocate of metaphysical realism. See Conti's Companion to Walter Burley (2013) for exhaustive details.


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Walter Chatton (Catton) b. Chatton [Northumbria], 1285/90; d. Avignon, 1343/44

Theologian and philosopher, an important influence on Ockham. Entered the Franciscan order as a boy, probably at Carlisle, where he would have received his early education. Studied theology at Oxford ca. 1317-19. Lectured on the Sentences, either in London or Oxford, in 1321-23 and again in 1323-24, engaging in extensive disputations with Ockham. Regent master of theology in 1329-30. In Avignon from 1333. His principal works are


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William of Alnwick b. Northumberland, ca. 1275; d. Avignon, 1333 (pronounced ANick)

Franciscan philosopher and theologian.

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William of Arnaud (Arnaldi) fl. ca. 1270s

Logician. Not an arts master at Toulouse from the 1230s/40s, as de Rijk argued.


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William of Auvergne (William of Paris, Guillelmus Alvernus) b. Aurillace [Auvergne], 1180/90; d. 1249

Theologian and bishop.

Works not available in a modern edition can be found in his Opera omnia (ed. Le Feron 1674|1963 etc.).

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William of Auxerre (Guillelmus Altissiodorensis) b. Auxerre, ca. 1150; d. Rome, 1231

Influential early university theologian.


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William of Bonkes fl. 1290s

Oxford philosopher.


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William Buser b. Heusden [Brabant], before 1339; d. after 1413

Logician.


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William of Clifford d. 1306

Arts master at Oxford by 1265.


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William Crathorn b. N England; fl. 1330s

Eccentric Dominican theologian and philosopher.


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William of Durham d. Rouen, 1249

Paris theologian.


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William of Falegar (Falgar, Falagar) d. 1297/98

Franciscan theologian.

Not to be identified with Peter of Falco, as has been suggested.

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William Heytesbury b. prob. Wiltshire, before 1313; d. 1372/73

Logician and natural philosopher; leading Oxford Calculator.


A bibliography of primary and secondary sources has been posted by Fabienne Pironet.


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William Hothum b. Yorkshire, ca. 1245; d. Dijon, 1298

Early English Thomist.

 

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William of Leus (de Levibus) b. near Toulouse; d. after 1313

Dominican theologian.

Also assorted theological works.


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William de la Mare (de Mara) b. England; fl. 1270s

Franciscan theologian, known for his early opposition to Thomism.


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William of Macclesfield b. prob. near Chester; d. Canterbury, 1303

Early English Thomist.


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William of Middleton (Milton, de Militonia, de Meliton) d. ca. 1257/60

Franciscan theologian.

Involved in completing Alexander of Hale's Summa, from 1255, but died before it was finished.

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William Milverley fl. ca. 1400

English logician.


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William of Nottingham b. ca. 1282; d. 1336

Franciscan theologian.

To be distinguished from an earlier William of Nottingham, also a Franciscan, and also English minister provincial [1240-54]

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William of Ockham (Occam) b. Ockham [Surrey], ca. 1287; d. Munich, 1347

Brilliantly innovative theologian and philosopher, the inceptor of late-medieval nominalism.

Peter King has posted extensive translations from Ockham's discussion of universals (Ordinatio I.2.4-8).

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William Penbygull (Penbegyll) b. Exeter; d. Oxford, 1420

Oxford follower of John Wyclif's controversial realism.


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William of Peter Godin b. Bayonne [Gascony], ca. 1260; d. Avignon, 1336

Early French Thomist.


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William of Rubio b. Spain, ca. 1290

Franciscan theologian.


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William of Saint-Amour b. Burgundy, ca. 1200; d. Burgundy, 1272

Paris theologian and leading controversialist against the mendicant orders.

William seems not to be the author of extant commentaries on the Prior and Posterior Analytics (unedited) once ascribed to him. The anti-mendicant Liber de Antichristo (ed. Martène and Durand 1724-33|1968) should be ascribed to his student, Nicholas of Lisieux.

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William of Sherwood b. Nottinghamshire, 1200/5; d. 1266/72

Influential logician.


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William of Ware b. Hertfordshire; fl. 1290-1305

Franciscan theologian


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Witelo b. Silesia, ca. 1230; d. ca. 1290

Theologian and philosopher, best known for his work in optics.