1980-1989

 

1981 - Camp Yellow Thunder. The six-year occupation of the Black Hills at Camp Yellow Thunder began after the US Supreme Court affirmed a series of lower court rulings acknowledging that the Black Hills had never been legally ceded to the US by Native Peoples. Instead of returning the land, the federal government offered the Sioux tribes money which they refused. The occupation ended in 1987, leaving the question of the ownership of the Black Hills unresolved.

1982 - Indian Mineral Development Act. This statute encouraged Indian tribes to mine their lands in a manner that would help them become economically self-sufficient.

1982 - Seminole Tribe v. Butterworth Supreme Court decision. The Court ruled that tribes have the right to create gambling enterprises on their land, even if such facilities are prohibited by the state. The ruling enabled reservations to establish casinos and gave reservations greater authority for tribal governments to levy taxes, own assets, and create judiciaries.

1983 - Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This law required either the President or the Secretary of the Interior to notify the governing body of any Indian tribe where it is proposed that a high-level radioactive waste or a spent nuclear fuel repository be located. Various studies show that a network of 280 facilities at some 20 weapons-making sites near Indian Country have produced mass quantities of highly radioactive waste which is transported through and near some 150 tribes’ land. Because the facilities were contracted by the federal government and protected from regulation due to national security, much of the dangerous material was stored or buried or is being transported in ways that posed threats to human life.

1987 - California v. Cabazon Supreme Court decision. The Cabazon Tribe in Southern California operated a high stakes bingo game and card club on reservation lands. The State claimed it had the legal authority to prohibit such activities on Indian lands if such activities were prohibited elsewhere in the State. The Supreme Court found that tribes could operate gambling businesses on tribal lands and that states which permitted any form of gambling could not prohibit Indians from operating gambling facilities.

1988 - Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Association Supreme Court decision. The Yurok Indians and several other Northern California tribes argued that the construction of a 6-mile, two-lane paved road between the towns of Gasquet and Orleans (the G-O Road and the implementation of a timber management plan would interfere with traditional tribal religions. The Court held that construction of the road did note violate their freedom of religion. Thus far, the road has not been built due to an administrative decision.

1988 - Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA). This statute affirmed the right of tribes to conduct gaming on Indian lands, but made it subject to tribal/state compact negotiations for some types of gaming. • Class I includes social games solely for prizes of minimal value or traditional forms of Indian gaming engaged in by individuals. These are under the sole jurisdiction of tribes. • Class II includes all forms of bingo and other similar games, provided such games are played in the same location as bingo games; non-banking games that are either expressly allowed or not expressly prohibited by state law; and banking card games existing in certain states on or before May 1, 1988. • Class III includes all forms of gaming not mentioned in Class I or II and makes them lawful on Indian lands only if authorized by a tribal ordinance approved by the chairperson of the NIGC, and if such gaming is permitted by the state for any purpose by any person, organization, or entity, and if the tribe has entered a tribal-state compact.

1989 - National Museum of the America Act. This law was signed by President George Bush and established the museum within the Smithsonian Institution; nationalized a private trust’s one million Native artworks and objects; authorized three facilities in New York City, Maryland, and on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.; and mandated the return of requested Native remains, sacred objects, and cultural patrimony.

 

 

 

info from - http:/www.humboldt.edu/~go1/kellogg/