1970-1979

1970 - Nixon’s “Special Message on Indian Affairs."President Richard M. Nixon delivered a speech to Congress which denounced past federal policies, pronounced the end of termination, and called for a new era of self-determination for Indian Peoples.

1970-71 - The occupation and founding of Deganawide-Quetzalcoatl University (D-QU). In 1970, a group of Indian and Chicano activists began discussions with the federal government on acquiring land for an American Indian university on a 647-acre site between Winters and Davis in Northern California. In November, 1970 when it appeared that the land would not be granted, 40 American Indians occupied the site. On April 1, 1971, the federal government formally turned over the title, and with funds from the Ford Foundation and federal grants, classes opened on July 7, 1971.

1972 - Trail of Broken Treaties. Over 800 Indian people traveled across the United States to Washington, DC, where they planned to meet with BIA officials and to deliver a 20-point proposal for revamping the BIA and establishing a government commission to review treaty violations. When guards at the BIA informed the tribal members that Bureau officials would not meet with them and threatened forcible removal from the premises, the Indians began a week-long siege of the BIA building. The BIA finally agreed to review the 20 demands and to provide funds to transport the activists back to their home. Shortly thereafter, the FBI classified AIM as “an extremist organization” and added the names of its leaders to the list of “key extremists” in the US.

1972 - Indian Education Act. This statute authorized funding for special bilingual and bicultural programs, culturally relevant teaching materials, and appropriate training and hiring of counselors. It also created an Office of Indian Education in the US Department of Education.

1973 - Wounded Knee II. At the Pine Ridge Reservation of the Oglala Sioux in South Dakota, trouble had been brewing between the Indian people who supported AIM, and tribal leaders who had the support of the BIA. After a violent confrontation in 1972, tribal President Richard Wilson condemned AIM and banned it from the reservation. In February 1973, AIM leaders and about 200 activists who were supported by some Oglala traditional leaders took over the village of Wounded Knee, announced the creation of the Oglala Sioux Nation, declared themselves independent from the US, and defined their national boundaries as those determined by the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. The siege lasted 71 days, during which time federal marshals, FBI agents, and armored vehicles surrounded the village. AIM members agreed to end their occupation under one condition: that the federal government convene a full investigation into their demands and grievances.

1975 - Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act . This law recognized the obligation of the US to provide for maximum participation by American Indians in federal services to and programs for Indian communities, established a goal to provide education and services permitting Indian children to achieve, and declared a commitment to maintain the federal government’s trust relationship and responsibility to individual Indians and tribes.

1975 - Pine Ridge Reservation Shootout. In June, two FBI agents entered the Pine Ridge Reservation claiming that they were looking for a tribal member on theft and assault charges. Shots were fired under confusing circumstances, resulting in the death of two FBI agents and one AIM member. The violence that ensued was coupled with the criminalization of the AIM movement. AIM activist Leonard Peltier was arrested, tried, and convicted for the deaths of the FBI agents. He remains in federal prison after surviving some 25 years.

1976 - First Annual “Un-Thanksgiving Day.” On Thanksgiving Day, AIM and The International Indian Treaty Council organized this event on Alcatraz to honor the men and women who participated in the occupation of Alcatraz, to keep the spirit of the occupation alive, to honor Indian elders and ancestors who struggled against the European invasion of the Americas, to continue the struggle for justice for Indian people today, and to remind all Americans that there still are Indian warriors fighting against the powers and oppression of the white government.

1978 - Indian Child Welfare Act. This law was approved by President Jimmy Carter and addressed the widespread practice of transferring the care and custody of Indian children to non-Indians. It recognized Indian extended family rights and the authority of tribal courts to hear the adoption and guardianship cases of Indian children and established a strict set of statutory guidelines for those cases heard in state court.

1978 - American Indian Religious Freedom Act. This law promised to “protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise” traditional religions, “including but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonial and traditional rites.” It was the first US policy statement recognizing traditional Indian religious practices and practitioners.

1978 - The Longest Walk. This major national protest event of the Red Power Movement began in San Francisco when a group of American Indians set out for Washington, DC, to symbolize the forced removal and Indians from their ancestral homes and to draw attention to growing governmental and public backlash against efforts to protect Indian treaty rights and Native Peoples.

1978 - Tribally-Controlled Community College Assistance Act. This law provided for federal grants to tribally controlled community colleges. By the 1990s, 29 tribally-controlled colleges were located throughout Indian Country, each of which offers curricula based on the needs of the college’s tribal population of all ages.

1979 - Treaty Fishing Rights decision of the US Supreme Court. The Court upheld an Appeals Court decision in a matter popularly known as the Boldt case. It reaffirmed treaties in the northwest governing tribal fishing and allocated 50% of the fish in their “usual and accustomed places” to tribes for subsistence, commericial, and cultural purposes.

 

 

 

info from - http:/www.humboldt.edu/~go1/kellogg/