In a nonequilibrium plasma, the electrons behave very differently from the heavy species, for example having a much higher temperature. In the systems we study in NGPDL, there may be further forms of nonequilibrium such as the ions being different from the neutral atoms, and all populations having nonequilibrium distribution functions. While plasma modeling is also required in the application areas of Hypersonics and Electric Propulsion, the projects described in this section are more fundamental in nature.