by Canéla A. Jaramillo, Ph.D.




1. William Strachey, The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania, eds. Wright and Freund. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1953. No original date given. Cited in Margaret Holmes Williamson, "Pocahontas and Captain John Smith: Examining an Historical Myth," History and Anthropology, Vol. 5, No. 3-4, pp. 365-402, 1992. Quote on page 370.

2. Quoted in Peter Rudnytsky's "Introductory Essay" to Rank's reprinted text of The Incest Theme in Literature and Legend, 1912; rep. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991. Quote on p. xx.

3. Rank here relies on the "exhaustive collection" of legends compiled by Freidrich von der Hagen in 1850, Gesamtabenteuer [Collected Tales]; especially in 2:59 and 3:154.

4. Rank finds this version of the Cinderella story in an 1890 collection of Gaelic tales compiled by John Campbell, Popular Tales of the West Highlands; reprinted 1893. London: Gardner.

5. An example of this legend is collected in Karl Simrock's 1864 Auserlesene Deutsche Volksbücher [Collected German folktales], 10:51.

6. Renato Rosaldo. 1989. "Fables of the Fallen Guy," reprinted in Criticism in the Borderland: Studies in Chicano Literature, Culture, and Ideology, eds. Héctor Calderón and José David Saldívar. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991. Originally published in Rosaldo's Culture and Truth: The Remaking of Social Analysis. Boston: Beacon Press, 1989.

7. See also the earlier discussion of Rosaldo's use of the "Warrior Hero" figure, in Chapter Two, pp. 90-91.

8. From the biographical essay preceding the play in On New Ground: Contemporary Hispanic-American Plays, ed. M. Elizabeth Osborn. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1987. Quote on page 247.

9. Herman, Judith Lewis, M.D., Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence -- From Domestic Abuse to Political Terror. NY: Harper Collins/Basic Books, 1992.

10. Semiotician Umberto Eco notes that, "To divide the animal world into human beings and animals is also a matter of the form of the content: it happens that in the English language the form of the expression mirrors this difference, by reserving he and she to human beings and it to animals (leaving a strange enclave of child abuse, as far as I know)...," in "On Levels of Literary Form," Yale Italian Studies 1:3 (Summer, 1977), p. 272.

11. Sherley Anne Williams, "The Lawd Don't Like Ugly," originally published in New Letters, December 1974; reprinted in Between Mothers & Daughters: Stories Across a Generation, ed. Susan Koppelman. NY: The Feminist Press, City University of New York, 1985. Citations from reprinted edition.

12. Dael Orlandosmith, "She's Come Undone," in Aloud: Voices From the Nuyorican Poets Cafe, op cit., 1994.

13. R. Mollica, "The Trauma Story: The Psychiatric Care of Refugee Survivors of Violence and Torture," in Post-Traumatic Therapy and Victims of Violence, ed. F. Ochberg (NY: Brunner/Mazel, 1988), 312. [Author's note.]

14. Gallen Book's "tipsheet" for contemporary romances, Radway, n. 40, p. 250.

15. Samantha Coerbell, "The Romanticization," in Aloud: Voices from the Nuyorican Cafe, op cit., 1994.

15a. Stepan, Nancy Leys and Sander L. Gilman. 1991. "Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism," in The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance, ed. Dominick la Capra. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univeristy Press. Modes of cultural resistance to what scholars Nancy Stepan and Sander Gilman term "the axioms of racial science" are examined closely in this important scholarly work. The four strategies Stepan and Gilman find most prevalent in countering scientific discourse are: 1) internalization; 2) transvaluation; 3) recontextualization; and 4) formation of alternative ideologies. The authors' third category of resistance, recontextualization, is divided into two differing aspects: scientific methods, throughout the late-19th and early-20th centuries, could be appropriated to disprove erroneous data; or the reasoning of the discourse could be interrogated, to generate new conclusions on the data. One of the stronger methods of resistance, recontextualization functioned to disrupt the meaning of the dominant discourse.

16. P. Gan, "Taking," in Standards, 2:1 (Spring, 1991), pp. 26-27

17. Lucha Corpi, "Dark Romance," trans. Catherine Rodriguez-Nieto, first appeared in San Jose Studies, IV:1, 1978; reprinted in The Woman That I Am Citations from reprinted edition.

18. Barbara Neely, "Spilled Salt," in Breaking Ice: An Anthology of Contemporary African-American Fiction, ed. Terry MacMillan. NY: Viking/Penguin, 1990.

19. Shirley Geok-lin Lim, "Pantoun for Chinese Women," in The Forbidden Stitch, pp. 204-205. In English, pantoum is the translation of the Malayan pantun, an oral and written poetic form pre-dating the 15th century (see, for example, The Handbook of Poetic Forms, ed. Ron Padgett. NY: Teachers & Writers Collective, 1987.) Lim's spelling is a hybrid of these two words.

21. Ntozake Shange, For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/When the Rainbow is Enuf. NY: Collier Books/Macmillan Publishing Company, 1975, 1977. This scene is titled "a nite with beau willie brown" in the table of contents, but is undifferentiated in the body of the text.

21. Statistically, most battered women and/or their family members are murdered after they have successfully left the battering relationship.

22. Sandra Cisneros, "South Sangamon," from My Wicked Wicked Ways, p. 6.

23. Pat Mora, "Perfume," in Communion, pages 43-44.

24. Pat Mora, "Emergency Room," from Communion, all citations, page 45.

25. The importance of the accouterment of sexual violation is examined in more detail in an earlier section of this chapter, "The Iconography of the Female Child in Sexual Seduction.

26. Shange, Ntozake. "With No Immediate Cause." Heresies: Violence Against Women.

27. Efforts at reclamation of censured experiences through the stylizations inherent in the genre of persona literature are irregular, however. More commonly, the device of perspective is employed to obscure the experience of trauma. For further analysis, cf. the short fictions by popular contemporary writers Robert Coover ("The Babysitter"); Charles Bukowski ("The Most Beautiful Woman in Town"); and George Chambers ("The Trial"). Each author treats of the issues of physical or sexual abuse through filtered, episodic narrative strategies; in each, the stylistic experimentations of the text serve to mystify, rather than elucidate, the subjective nature of trauma.

28. Ai. 1986. "The Prisoner," "Émigré," "The Priest's Confession," "The Good Shepherd: Atlanta, 1981," and "The Mother's Tale," from Sin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin & Co.

29. Wendy Rose, "Truganinny," in Harper's Anthology of 20th Century Native American Poetry, ed. Duane Niatum. SF: Harper Collins, 1988.

30. Data on Julia Pastrana from Rose's biographical note in The Woman That I Am, in which her poem appears on pages 127-28.

31. Wendy Rose, in A Gathering of Spirit: A Collection by North American Indian Women, ed. Beth Brant. Ithaca, NY: Firebrand Books, 1984, 1988.

32. Audre Lorde, "Power," originally published in her collection The Black Unicorn, NY: W.W. Norton; reprinted in Lesbian Poetry: An Anthology, eds. Bulkin and Larkin. Watertown, MA: Persephone Press, 1981. Citations from reprinted edition.

33. Audre Lorde, "Need: A Choral for Black Women's Voices" first appeared in Heresies, Vol. 2, No. 4, Issue 8, "Third World Women: The Politics of Being Other" (1979); reprinted in Lesbian Poetry, op cit. Citations from reprinted edition.

34. Patricia Smith, "Skin Head," in Aloud: Voices from the Nuyorican Poets Cafe, eds. Algarín and Holman. NY: Henry Holt, 1994.

35. Sapphire, 1994. "Wild Thing," in Aloud: Voices from the Nuyorican Poets Cafe, op cit., pp. 266-274.

36. Gloria Anzaldúa, "We Call Them Greasers," from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. SF: Aunt Lute Books, 1987. Pages 134-135.




"Reading Hurt: Endnotes" © 1997 by Canéla Analucinda Jaramillo

 Review Sections of this Work:

The Iconography of the Female Child in Sexual Seduction

Codes of Distress and the Lexicon of Survival

Coding Coercion

The Rape Scene in Literature

Moving Targets

Persona Literature




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