Clare 106 and 111
phone: 303-492-0926 
fax: 303-492-4009

Research Interests

  • The biomechanics and energetics of walking, running, and bicycling.


  • DirectorRodger Kram, Ph.D.
  • Post-doctoral Researcher: Ross Wilkinson, Ph.D.
  • M.S. Student: Jackson Brill
  • Undergraduate Students: Clarissa Whiting, Kyle Sterns, James Wilson, Alexandria Hanley.
  • Collaborators:
    • Wouter Hoogkamer, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, Amherst
    • Todd Carver, M.S., Specialized Bicycle Components
    • Simone Debortoli, M.S., University of Udine, Italy
    • Scott Delp, Stanford University
    • Jesse Frank, M.S., Specialized Bicycle Components
    • Nicola Giovanelli, Ph.D., University of Udine, Italy
    • Alena Grabowski, Ph.D., Applied Biomechanics Lab, University of Colorado Boulder
    • Mike Hahn, Ph.D., University of Oregon
    • Shalaya Kipp, M.S., University of British Columbia
    • Jill McNitt-Gray, University of Southern California
    • Edson Soares da Silva, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • Krissy Snyder, Ph.D., Stryd Inc., Boulder CO
    • Paolo Taboga, Ph.D., Sacramento State University

Current Research Projects

  • Running - We are investigating: stress fractures in collegiate distance runners (Hahn, McNitt-Gray, Delp and Grabowski); steep uphill mountain running (Brill, Giovanelli, Whiting); uphill running economy (Whiting, Hoogkamer); how shoes, turns and aerodynamic forces affect running economy and marathon performance (Arellano, Hoogkamer, Taboga, Whiting) and the biomechanics and energetics of running with leg prostheses (Grabowski, Beck, Taboga).
  • Bicycling - We are investigating: mountain bike suspension systems (Wilkinson, Carver, Frank); how cycling shoes affect mechanical power output (Hurt, Wilkinson, Sterns, Carver); the accuracy of on-board power meters (Wilkinson); the mechanical power losses in drivetrain components (Wilkinson) and how a better bike can be designed for extremely obese riders (Wilkinson, Hanley).
  • Walking - We are investigating how the people of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico transported 200,000 very large timbers 80km without using wheels or animal power (~850 -1250 AD) (Wilson).

Opportunities for Undergraduates

  • Professor Kram is in the process of retiring and is no longer taking on new undergraduates.

Opportunities for Other Trainees

  • Dr. Kram is Associate Professor Emeritus and is no longer accepting graduate students or post-docs.

Recent Publications

  • N. Giovanelli, M. Sulli, R. Kram, S. Lazzer. Do poles save energy during steep uphill walking? European J. Applied Physiology 119:1557-1563, 2019.
  • J.E. Peterman, K.L. Morris, R. Kram, and W.C. Byrnes, W. C. Cardiometabolic effects of a workplace cycling intervention." J. Physical Activity and Health 16:547-555, 2019.
  • P. Taboga and R. Kram. Modelling the effect of curves on distance running performance. Peer J (2019) 7:e8222
  • K. Gast, R. Kram, and R. Riemer. Preferred walking speed on rough terrain: is it all about energetics? J. Experimental Biology (2019) 222 doi: 10.1242/jeb.185447 
  • S. Kipp, R. Kram and W. Hoogkamer. Extrapolating metabolic savings in running: implications for performance predictions. Frontiers Physiology (2019) 10:79. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00079
  • W. Hoogkamer, S.Kipp, and R. Kram. The biomechanics of competitive male runners in three marathon racing shoes: a randomized crossover design. Sports Medicine (2019), 49:133-143.
  • T.J. Breiner, A.L.R. Ortiz, and R. Kram. Level, uphill and downhill running economy values are strongly inter-correlated. European J. Applied Physiology. 119:257-264, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s00421-018-4021-x