IBS Newsletter

October 1996

Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado

IBS on the Web

The IBS home page on the World Wide Web has been evolving under the direction of Richard Cook (Social Science Data Analysis Center). You will find background information on IBS and direction to the home pages of the Natural Hazards Center, the Graduate Training Program in Globalization and Democracy, the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, and the Social Science Data Analysis Center at http://www.colorado.edu/IBS. The IBS Newsletter is available for reading online (beginning with the August 1996 issue), along with current listings of sponsored colloquia to keep you up to date on IBS activities.

Program Activities

Political and Economic Change Program

Keith Maskus attended a conference, organized by the Korea Development Institute, in Maui, Hawaii from August 3-9 on The Multilateral Trading System in a Globalizing World. Maskus discussed two papers on international agreements covering antitrust policy.

James Scarritt and Shaheen Mozaffar (Bridgewater State University) presented a paper at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, in San Francisco, August 9-September 1. The paper, "The Impact of Ethnic Cleavages on the Choice and Consequences of Electoral Systems in Africa," examines the critical role of ethnicity in Africa's emerging democracies through an exploratory quantitative analysis of systematic data on African ethnic groups, state characteristics, and new electoral systems. These analyses suggest that ethnopolitical grievances, regardless of their origins, are clearly overshadowed by the interaction between the patterns of group mobilization and state responses.

Political and Economic Change in Print

Stone, Walter J., Jay McCann, Randall W. Partin, and Ronald B. Rapoport. 1996. "Presidential Nomination Campaigns and Party Mobilization: An Assessment of Spillover Effects." American Journal of Political Science, 40, pp. 756-67. Contrary to scholars who criticize the openness of the contemporary system of selecting presidential nominees, the authors argue that citizen participation in presidential nomination campaigns can have beneficial effects for a political party's subsequent mobilization efforts. Employing panel data from 1988 and 1992, the authors show that involvement in winning and losing presidential nomination campaigns stimulates participation on behalf of the party's candidates in U.S. House elections. Furthermore, such spillover effects are long-term; involvement in a nomination campaign in 1988 is found to increase participation in congressional campaigns four years later.

Scarritt, James R. and Vicky Randall. 1996. "Cautionary Notes on Democratisation: Lessons from India and Zambia." Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, (34)2, pp. 19-45. The authors discuss different ways of defining and measuring democracy and derive a set of questions to apply to political institutions and processes in India and Zambia. They also use the existing literature to generate questions about the possible social conditions favoring successful democratization. Finally, they draw in particular on the Indian experience to ask about the consequences of democratization for the reduction of social and economic inequalities, and, conversely, the consequences of the failure to reduce inequality for sustaining democracy.

Population Program

In September Charles Becker delivered a lecture to faculty and graduate students in the Department of Economics at Uzbekistan Academy for State and Social Development, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, on "Trends in Corrected Infant Mortality Rates across Regions in Kazakstan, 1975-1995." He also lectured to the faculty and students of Belarussian State University, Minsk, Belarus on "Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Rapid Economic Growth: Lessons from Asia and Latin America."

Population Program in Print

Pampel, Fred C. 1996. "Cohort Size and Age-Specific Suicide Rates: A Contingent Relationship." Demography, 33(3), pp. 341-355. Pampel uses aggregate data on 18 high-income nations from 1953 to 1986 to demonstrate that the direction and strength of the relationship between cohort size and suicide depend on age of the cohort, gender, national context, and time period. The results show that large cohort size raises suicide for the young and middle-aged, but reduces it for the elderly. Also, the effects of cohort size prove stronger for men than for women, for nations with less collectivist institutions than for nations with more collectivist institutions, and for the 1950s and 1960s than for the 1970s and 1980s.

Rogers, Richard G., Robert A. Hummer, Charles B. Nam, and Kimberley Peters. 1996. "Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Behavioral Factors Affecting Ethnic Mortality by Cause." Social Forces, 74(4), pp. 1419-1438. This paper examines ethnic differences in total and cause-specific mortality. The authors employ the linked National Health Interview Survey-National Death Index to examine ethnic differences in mortality from a combination of demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristic perspectives. They find that Asian American mortality is low in part because of healthy behaviors and socioeconomic advantages; that Caucasian American mortality is higher partly because of a high prevalence and quantity of cigarette smoking; and that Mexican, Native, and African American mortality is higher partly from socioeconomic disadvantages. These results give added insight into the demographic, social, and health mechanisms that lead us to persevere or to perish.

Environment and Behavior Program

Profile: Anthony Bebbington

Whither Rural Latin America?

Policies and Institutions for Sustainable Development

Anthony (Tony) Bebbington joined IBS's Environment and Behavior Program and the Department of Geography in August 1996. He earned an undergraduate degree in Geography and Land Economy from Cambridge University, and master's and doctoral degrees in Geography from Clark University. Before coming to Boulder, he taught at Cambridge University, was a research fellow at the Overseas Development Institute and at the International Institute for Environment and Development (both in London), and most recently worked at the World Bank in Washington.

My research has focused on rural development issues in Latin America, though over the course of time my particular focus has evolved: from technology, through institutions and policy, and on to broader questions regarding the changing roles of state and civil society in Latin American development.

My earliest work, in Peru and Ecuador, was initially motivated by an interest in the role of technology in rural and agricultural change. I aimed to understand ways in which systems for generating and transferring agricultural technologies could be reorganized in order to deliver more appropriate technology--particularly in high altitude, indigenous communities, and in areas of colonization in the humid lowlands east of the Andes. This quickly led to an interest in understanding the ways in which resource management, organizational, and cultural practices were changing in the Andes, and what this tells us about the different roles that traditional and modern technologies, and traditional and modern institutions, can play in Andean development.

As I was doing this work, the public sector was busily reforming itself around me--in this process, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society more broadly were being expected to assume a range of roles that had previously been considered the preserve of the state. If we were to have any sense of the institutional foundations of rural sustainability, it was important to understand better these institutional transformations. This question led to a large program of policy research into the changing roles of states and NGOs in rural development, and the changing relationships among them. This was a collaborative program in the Andes and Southern Cone linking the Overseas Development Institute, the International Institute for Environment and Development, Latin American NGOs, and public agencies. The research began in 1990 and comes to the end of its second phase in 1997.

Complementing the NGO work were two research projects in Bolivia and Ecuador. Each dealt with the transformations that were occurring in membership organizations in rural areas, and with the implications these changes have for the ways in which organizations link their rural development activities with their political agendas for rural change.

My future research plans maintain this interest in the institutional and policy frameworks for more viable forms of rural development, and here at Boulder we will continue work on these themes in two separate projects, one in Bolivia, the other in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Lurking behind this work, however, is a deeper question to which I hope to give attention--what in fact the future holds for the Andes, for these are difficult times for many mountain peoples, societies and economies.

Environment and Behavior Program Activities

Gilbert White chaired a Quaker-sponsored diplomats colloquium at Glen Cove, New York, on September 7 and 8 devoted to review of the social, political, and environmental issues encountered by the negotiating committee working on procedures for implementing the United Nations Treaty to Combat Desertification. Representatives from 40 nations took part and, as is customary at these colloquia, made no public report. On September 18-20, White chaired a meeting at the Technion, Haifa, Israel, of the Committee on Sustainable Water Supplies in the Middle East. This joint project of the national science academies of the U.S., Israel, Jordan, and Palestine expects to work another year before completing its report. White was in Chicago September 23-24 to take part in the meeting of the International Water Resources Association on New/Emerging Concepts for Rivers, '96. His luncheon address, "The River as a System: A Geographer's View," will be published by the association.

Environment and Behavior in Print

Bebbington, Anthony. 1996. "Movements, Modernizations and Markets: Indigenous Organizations and Agrarian Strategies in Ecuador." Pages 86-109 in R. Peet and M. Watts (eds.), Liberation Ecologies: Environment, Development, Social Movements. London/New York: Routledge. In this chapter, Bebbington explores how federations of indigenous people in highland Ecuador put together strategies for rural social change, and particularly for agricultural development. He relates conceptual discussions of "alternative" development that draw upon concepts of "indigenous technical knowledge," "farmer-first" agricultural development, political ecology, new social movements and civil society. He finds that a commitment to native, traditional, and agro-ecological techniques found in intellectual currents in social science and development activism is often missing among indigenous people's organizations. In its place is a commitment to reforming, adapting, and managing modernization. Yet the principles of local control, democratization, and community-based sustainable development are apparent in these indigenous federations.

Bebbington, Anthony. 1996. "Organizations and Intensifications: Campesino Federations, Rural Livelihoods and Agricultural Technology in the Andes and Amazonia." World Development, 24(7), pp. 1161-1178. This paper analyzes several examples from Bolivia and Ecuador of how campesino and indigenous federations engage in agricultural development and natural resource management activities. Economic stagnation, population growth, land subdivision, cultural modernization, emigration, and continued resource degradation in large parts of the Andes, along with related resource degradation and land and resource conflicts on their eastern slopes and the Amazonian lowlands, point to the urgent need for a sustainable intensification of rural livelihood opportunities in both areas. Intensification will require not only support for technical change, but also ensuring that the rural poor have more secure and expanded rights over resources and improved access to existing and new markets. Relationships that allow the wealth deriving from natural resource-based and agricultural activities to be captured and reinvested in rural areas can create new income and employment opportunities. Bebbington examines the experiences of campesino and indigenous federations and suggests that these organizations could play an integral role in interinstitutional approaches to agricultural development and rural intensification.

Stokowski, Patricia A. 1996. Riches and Regrets: Betting on Gambling in Two Colorado Mountain Towns. Niwot, CO:University Press of Colorado. The long awaited publication of research conducted at IBS by Stokowski who is now at Texas A&M University, traces the development of contemporary Gilpin County gambling from the proposal and campaign stage in 1989-90, through the construction period leading to the opening of casinos in October 1991, and across several years of post-opening impacts. Combining critical historical perspectives with sociological analyses, she documents the economic, social, cultural, and institutional effect of gaming development, concluding that gambling has produced mixed results for the Gilpin County towns. Because gambling is becoming increasingly popular as an economic development strategy in both rural and urban communities across the United States, this study can provide lessons for other communities.

Natural Hazards Center News

David Butler attended the Western States Seismic Policy Council annual conference, September 18-21, in Polson, Montana. He chaired a session on Earthquake Information Providers and the Earthquake Information Network and participated in a session on the Earthquake Community and the World Wide Web.

Sylvia Dane is serving as a member of the Boulder County Mountain Area Advisory Committee, created by the Boulder County Commissioners to examine residential land use and building issues in the mountain areas. On August 13, she spoke on a panel discussing limiting the size of residential structures in the mountains of Boulder County, as part of an open house to inform residents of the committee's activities. Dane pointed out that current high prices for mountain building sites are causing mortgage lenders to require that larger homes (often 4,000-plus square feet) be built in order to satisfy the lender's land-to-structure value ratio. However, with a downturn in the housing market, many of these homes could be illegally converted to multiple dwelling units, creating negative quality-of-life and environmental impacts. Dane noted an additional concern: many of these new homes are being built along ridge tops and away from a water source, making it more difficult for volunteer firefighters to contain structural fires and increasing the risk of wildfire damage.

Natural Hazards in Print

Myers, Mary Fran. 1996. "Midwest Floods Channel Reforms." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 11(3), pp. 88-97. Myers traces the evolution of floodplain management policy in the United States in context with other environmental and disaster management policies. She then describes the changes in national policy that occurred after the 1993 Midwest floods and calls for needed additional changes to further reduce the nation's vulnerability to damage from floods.

Problem Behavior Program

In Print

Dryfoos, J.G., Brindis, C., and Kaplan, D.W. 1996. "Research and Evaluation in School-Based Health Care." Adolescent Medicine, 7(2), pp. 207-220.

Merenstein, G., Kaplan, D.W., Rosenberg, A., and Silver, H. 1966. Handbook of Pediatrics (18th ed.). Norwalk, CT:Appleton & Lange.

Diversity Matters

The National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Planning for Women in Science and Engineering grant program enables women who have not had prior independent federal research support to develop a competitive research project. Funding is $18,000 for an 18-month project. Women with doctoral degrees or equivalent experience who hold faculty or research-related positions and have not previously served as principal investigators may apply. Contact the Behavioral Sciences Directorate at (703) 306-1760, or consult the World Wide Web at: http://www.nsf.gov:80/bio/start.htm. The application deadline is December 15, 1996.

NSF Minority Graduate Fellowships seek candidates who are members of ethnic minority groups that traditionally have been underrepresented in the advanced levels of the nation's science and engineering talent pool. Fellowships are awarded for graduate study leading to research-based master's or doctoral degrees; they are intended for students at or near the beginning of their graduate study. New Minority Graduate Fellows matriculating into their fellowship institutions for the first time as graduate students are also eligible for a Mentoring Assistantship, which provides one to three months of additional stipend support primarily to participate in research during the summer before they begin their fall fellowship tenure.

Applicants for Minority Graduate Fellowships who are also eligible for Graduate Fellowships (see below) are encouraged to apply in both competitions (only one set of application materials is required). Telephone (423) 241-4300, send email to nsfgrfp@orau.gov, or follow application instructions on the World Wide Web at: http://www.fastlane.nsf.gov.

Other Funding Opportunities

NSF Graduate Fellowships, like Minority Graduate Fellowships, are open only to individuals who are, at the time of application, citizens or nationals or permanent resident aliens of the U.S. These three-year fellowships are intended, like the Minority Graduate Fellowships, for students in the early stages of their graduate study. Application instructions are the same as for Minority Graduate Fellowships (see above).

NSF established the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program "because of the critical roles played by faculty members in integrating research and education." There are specific eligibility requirements and application procedures. NSF is looking in particular for tenure-track faculty who have not yet been awarded tenure, however, exceptions are possible. Awards range from $200,000 to $500,000 over four to five years. NSF expects to make approximately 350 new awards in fiscal year 1997. For application materials contact the NSF Forms and Publications Unit, Arlington, VA 22230; email: pubs@nsf.gov. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) regarding CAREER may be consulted on the World Wide Web at: http://www.nsf.gov under "Organization and Staff/Cross-Cutting Activities." Deadline for applications is October 17, 1996.

Research Proposals Funded

Problem Behavior Program

Delbert S. Elliott
"Blueprints" for violence prevention and reduction programs
CO Div of Criminal Justice 05/01/96 - 04/30/97 $49,097 new

Political and Economic Change Program

Walter J. Stone
From movement to third party? The Reform Party in 1996
NSF 10/01/96 - 06/30/98 $5,000 new

James R. Scarritt
Comparative analysis of constitutional design and electoral system
Bridgewater State College 09/01/96 - 08/31/97 $9,185 new

Environment and Behavior Program

Dennis S. Mileti
A clearinghouse on natural hazards research and applications
NSF 09/01/96 - 08/31/97 $600,730 continuation

Research Proposals Submitted

Population Program

Fred C. Pampel
Sex and age difference in violent mortality
DOJ 07/01/97 - 06/30/98 $38,862 new

Andrei Rogers
The indirect estimation of migration
NIH 07/01/97 - 06/30/99 $139,712 new

Andrei Rogers
Third Colorado conference on elderly migration
NIH 06/01/97 - 05/31/98 $20,524 new

Upcoming Colloquia

All Colloquia are held in the conference Room of IBS #3 (1424 Broadway) and are at 12:00 noon. A Web page with colloquia listings is updated regularly.

Sponsored by the Political and Economic Change Program

Thursday, October 10
Democratization and the Risk of War
Presenter: Michael D. Ward (Political Science and IBS)

Thursday, October 24
Boeing and Globalization
Presenter: Edward Greenberg (Political Science and IBS)

Thursday, October 31
Democratization and the Welfare State
Presenter: Fred Pampel (Sociology and IBS)

Sponsored by the Environment and Behavior Program

Monday, October 14
Privatizing Public Assets: Measuring the Benefits and Costs
Presenter: Charles (Chuck) Howe (Economics and IBS)

Monday, October 28
The Impacts of Big Game Hunting in Gilpin county
Presenter: Patricia Stokowski (Department of Recreation and Parks, Texas A&M)

Monday, November 4
Castanhas, Campesinos and Conflicts: Brazil Nuts, NGOs and Sustainable Development in the Peruvian Amazon
Presenter: Denise Bebbington (Visiting Research Associate IBS)

Sponsored by the Population Program

Wednesday, November 6
The Impact of Maternal Schooling on the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children: Evidence from Indonesia
Presenter: Emmanuel Skoufias (Population Program, IBS)

October 1996 IBS Newsletter

Illana Zhenya Gallon, Newsletter Editor

Sugandha Brooks, Assistant Editor

Institute of Behavioral Science

Richard Jessor, Director

Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado at Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309-0483

(303) 492-8147