IBS Newsletter

October 2000

Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado


Congratulations to Andrei Rogers, Director of the Population Processes Program and Professor of Geography, who will be presented the Walter Isard Award for Scholarship by the North American Regional Science Council during the North American meetings of the Regional Science Association International on November 9-12 in Chicago.

Program Activities

Environment and Behavior Program

Lori M. Hunter attended the American Sociological Association meetings from August 12-16 in Washington, DC, where she presented her paper "The Values Associated with Wildlife and Biodiversity by Rural Western Residents." She was invited to join the International Advisory Board of the Population Environment Research Network, recently launched by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population in conjunction with the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change. The MacArthur Foundation is funding the network, and its objective is to promote more rigorous research on human population and environment dynamics.

In Print

Hunter, Lori. M. 2000. "A Comparison of Environmental Attitudes, Concern, and Behaviors of Native-Born and Foreign-Born U.S. Residents." Population and Environment, 21(6), pp. 565-580. This research offers an examination of environmental attitudes, concern, and behaviors among individuals presently living within the context producing contemporary American environmental awareness, but who originated from contexts socially, environmentally, and economically distinct. Results suggest that immigrants living in the United States do, indeed, express similar attitudes toward environmental issues as compared to native-born residents. However, shorter-term immigrants (those residing abroad at age 16) in particular express significantly higher levels of concern with regard to environmental problems as compared to native-born residents. In addition, shorter-term immigrants are more likely to engage in "environmentally-friendly" behaviors as compared to native-born residents, although they appear less likely to have signed an environmentally-oriented petition.

Hunter, Lori M.. 2000. "The Spatial Association between U.S. Immigrant Residential Concentration and Environmental Hazards." International Migration Review, 34, pp. 460-488. Several studies undertaken over the past decade suggest that minority and lower-income communities are disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards relative to the rest of the U.S. population, resulting in an issue of "environmental equity." This research examines the equity issue in relation to the foreign-born in the United States making use of a county-level, nationwide, data set reflecting sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of several environmental risk factors (toxic releases, hazardous waste generators, and Superfund sites). The results suggest that counties with higher proportions of immigrants and non-English speaking households are characterized by greater numbers of large quantity hazardous waste generators and proposed Superfund sites, two of the three incorporated measures of environmental risk. The latter measure demonstrates the strongest relationship with immigrant presence.

Political and Economic Change Program

James R. Scarritt presented "The Reconstruction of Ethnopolitical Identities and the Competition for Power in the Twenty-First Century," during the Comparative Interdisciplinary Studies Section/International Studies Association Millennium Series, Second International Conference in Washington, DC, on August 29-30. Except for unreconstructed primordialists, almost all scholars recognize that ethnopolitical identities can change significantly in the process of political competition with significant consequences for that process. But as Norval says, "…to emphasize the contingency of socially inscribed identities does not mean that they are fungible, that they may be picked and chosen as if from a supermarket shelf. To the contrary, it directs attention to the historical, social, and political processes through which images for identification are constructed and sustained, contested and negotiated." This paper attempts to explain relationships between those processes and identity more systematically than has been done previously. Although the author cannot rigorously test the hypothesis that is formulated here, he illustrates it by means of case studies of ethnopolitics and the competition for power in Kenya and Zambia. In the conclusion the author speculates about the long-term trends that are likely to emerge from these changes in the first decades of the twenty-first century.

Scarritt and Shaheen Mozaffar presented "Why Are There So Few Ethnic Parties in Africa?" for the Research Committee on Politics and Ethnicity Panel #3, "Ethnic Mobilization and Ethnic Parties," at the 18th World Congress of the International Political Science Association held in Quebec City, Canada, on August 1-5. Ethnopolitical cleavages predominate in electoral politics in Africa south of the Sahara, but there are few ethnic parties in African countries. In this paper the authors stress the historically mediated interaction of political institutions and group morphology in (a) structuring the choice of ethnic identities as strategic resources for organizing group behavior, (b) fostering multiethnic parties as the principal mode of aggregating interests, and hence (c) mitigating against the emergence and sustainability of strong ethnic parties. First, they review definitions of ethnic parties and problems of operationalizing the distinction among ethnic, multiethnic and nonethnic parties, and select the most analytically useful definition and measurement criteria. Second, they examine the complex morphology of African ethnopolitical groups and cleavages, using a data set that they have recently created, and the obstacles it places on the stability of ethnic parties. Third, they analyze the role of political institutions in structuring the relationship between ethnopolitical morphology and short-term electoral outcomes and long-term party systems. Fourth, they present comparative data from the recent democratic elections and a case study from Zambia that provide tentative confirmation of their central argument.

Political and Economic Change Program

In Print

Scarritt, James R. 2000. "Globalization, Democratization, NGOs, and Social Movements: A Neo-Parsonian Perspective." Pages 47-69 in Sai Felicia Krishna-Hensel (Ed.) The New Millennium: Challenges and Strategies. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. As we approach the new millennium, scholars and citizens are thinking more seriously than ever about strategies for dealing with the challenges of the globalizing world. Prominent among these challenges is controlling corporate globalization without severely reducing productivity; sustaining and consolidating newly established, fragile democracies; and facilitating attainment of the goals of the many non-governmental organizations and social movements that have recently arisen in response to or as parts of globalization and democratization, while managing the conflicts that they have generated. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework that can be used to develop and test hypotheses about the interrelations among these phenomena in a manner that will lead to the formulation of strategies to deal with the multiple challenges of globalization in the new millennium. The paper is a "think piece" that attempts to begin the ambitious task of addressing some of the major issues of the new millennium in a new and different way.

Scarritt, James R. and Susan McMillan. 2000. "Protest, Democratization, and Human Rights in Africa." Pages 195-216 in Christian Davenport (Ed.) Paths to State Repression: Human Rights Violations and Contentious Politics. Boulder: Rowman & Littlefield. The authors conduct an exploratory analysis to discover the extent to which various forms of protest and prior regime characteristics explain variations in levels and trends in human rights protection in unconsolidated African democracies during the recent period of democratic transition, as one step in predicting the consolidation potential of these new democracies. The authors want to know whether factors that are useful in explaining stability and human rights in authoritarian regimes and the probability of democratic transitions are also useful in explaining human rights provision after transition. The authors utilize human rights measures developed by Hadenius and by Poe and Tate, data on ethnic mobilization from the Minorities at Risk project, data on democracy and its components in the postindependence period from the Polity III project, data on demonstrations and riots from the Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive, and the data on protests and democratic transitions.

Scarritt, James R., Solomon N. Nkiwane, and Henrik Sommer. 2000. "A Process Tracing Plausibility Probe of Uneven Democratization's Effects on Cooperative Dyads: The Case of Zambia and Zimbabwe 1980-1993." International Interactions, 26(1), pp. 55-90. In this article the authors conduct a plausibility probe of the hypothesis that uneven democratization decreases cooperation within primarily cooperative dyads. In addition to overall, bilateral and regional interactions between Zambia and Zimbabwe, the authors examine relations in the political, economic, strategic, and physical environment issue areas. Methodologically, they combine time series analysis of events coded in the COPDAB format and interviews with policy makers. They find that, although net cooperation between the two countries remained positive during the entire 1980-1993 period, it decreased significantly overall and in economic issues after the beginning of the Zambian democratic transition in June 1990. Their data allow them to trace the process involved in this decline in net cooperation, ruling out some alternative explanations but not concurrent Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs), and showing how even slightly uneven democratization was an important cause because it decreased similarity and trust, while not decreasing transparency, and increased uncertainty and thus nationalist responses. The authors conclude that this plausibility probe justifies further systematic research on the effects of uneven democratization on cooperative dyads to test their hypothesis on cases with and without SAPs, and suggest the utility of further probes of the effects of different types of uneven change on various types of dyads.

Problem Behavior Program

In Print

Belknap, Joanne and Jennifer L. Hartman. 2000. "Police Responses to Woman Battering: Victim Advocates' Reports." International Review of Victimology, 7(1-3), pp. 159-177. Most of the research on police responses to battered women has been conducted by surveying or observing the police or by using forms completed by the police. This study takes a unique approach by using data collected by advocates for battered women in two agencies in a large metropolitan area of the United States. Forms were specifically designed to assess the reasons why the police were called and what was their response. Two hundred and fifty nine forms were completed and provide the data base. The study found that the police responses (both positive and negative) differed according to which victim advocacy agency was involved, whether the responding department was the major urban department (which had a pro-arrest policy) or one of the surrounding smaller departments (without pro-arrest policies), whether a threat of violence was a reason why the police were called, and whether a weapon was involved. The remaining three reasons why the police were called rarely impacted on their responses; that is, whether a reason the police were called included a sexual assault, property damage, or a violated TPO/TRO. Notably, whether a (non-sexual) physical assault was a reason the police were called was never related to any of the police responses.

Menard, Scott. 2000. "The `Normality' of Repeat Victimization from Adolescence through Early Adulthood." Justice Quarterly, 17, pp. 543-574. The research presented here is essentially descriptive, but includes new empirical findings on repeat victimization. Based on data from nine waves of the National Youth Survey (NYS), encompassing the years 1976-1992 and a range of ages from 11 to 33, issues examined include the seriousness of victimization incidents reported in the NYS; the distribution of annual, cumulative, and repeat victimization by age, gender, and ethnicity; the extent to which victimization tends to be concentrated, with a relatively small proportion of victims accounting for a relatively large proportion of the victimization incidents; the extent to which victimization tends to be repeat victimization as opposed to isolated incidents of victimization; and the extent to which repeat victimization tends to be continuous rather than intermittent. Differences in patterns for violent victimization as opposed to property victimization are highlighted.

Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence

On September 6-8, Delbert S. Elliott continued his tour of Colorado with Attorney General Ken Salazar, to discuss youth violence and the Safe Communities-Safe Schools Initiative. Counties visited during this segment of the tour included Lake, Chaffee, Hinsdale, Mineral, Archuleta, Rio Grande, Saguache, Costilla, Conejos, and Alamosa. Elliott was also a speaker in Tampa, Florida, on September 14-15, at the Florida Bar Association's Commission on the Legal Needs of Children. He spoke on "What Works/What Doesn't."

On September 13, The Colorado Trust in Denver hosted a "Learning Lunch" at which Delbert Elliott presented the Safe Communities-Safe Schools (SCSS) Initiative, and two representatives from Vivian Elementary School (an SCSS site) spoke about the progress of SCSS in their school. SCSS staff who attended the meeting included: Michelle Cooke, Dorian Wilson, Tonya Aultman-Bettridge, Jane Grady, Mary Beth Abella, Holly Bell, and Landa Heys.

Jane Grady and Landa Heys attended a meeting of the Colorado Youth Network to present the Safe Communities-Safe Schools Initiative held September 9. The Network, composed of youth mostly from the Front Range area, meets monthly to discuss issues relevant to high school students.

On September 9, members of the Safe Communities-Safe Schools staff (Delbert S. Elliott, Jane Grady, Rhonda Ntepp, Michelle Cooke, Mary Beth Abella, Holly Bell, Tonya Aultman-Bettridge, Jennifer Carroll, and Landa Heys) attended an Interagency Task Force Meeting at the Attorney General's Office in Denver. Others who attended included representatives from the Attorney General's office, Colorado District Attorney's Office, Department of Social Services, Colorado Association of School Boards, along with other key players around the issue of information sharing.

Sharon Mihalic presented, "National Model Programs: Blueprints for Violence Prevention" at the West Virginia Juvenile Justice Conference on September 14.

Dorian Wilson was co-presenter with Jim Adams-Burger from OMNI at the Colorado Council of Social Scientists brown-bag meeting on September 26 held at The Colorado Trust, in Denver. The presentation was entitled "The research methods utilized within the Safe Communities-Safe Schools Initiative."


Social Science Data Analysis Center

One of the major research programs used for statistical analyses by IBS researchers, SAS, has been upgraded to version 8. This is now the default on Dino, a UNIX workstation supporting research applications, and it is the version available for Windows under CU's site license.

Major features in SAS 8 include an Output Delivery System that makes it possible to produce output for a variety of devices including generating HTML files for Web use. There are also many enhancements and additions to statistical procedures that will be of interest to IBS users. In particular, SAS now implements procedures for the analysis of complex survey data. See http://www.sas.com/rnd/app/da/danew.html for details about new analytical capabilities.

The SUDAAN software, also used for correctly weighting and analyzing data from complex surveys, has also been updated to be compatible with SAS 8 on Dino. SUDAAN routines are called from SAS and can be integrated with SAS procedures.

For more information about the new release of SAS or other research software contact the Social Science Data Analysis Center.


Intellectual Property Rights in the World Economy

Keith E. Maskus, Professor of Economics, is a member of the Professional Staff of IBS as a Faculty Research Associate in the Program on Political and Economic Change. He completed his undergraduate degree at Knox College in 1976 and earned his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1981. He has been on the faculty at the University of Colorado since 1981, with visiting appointments at the Department of State, the University of Adelaide, and the World Bank. He is also a research fellow at the Institute for International Economics.

For the last ten years one of my primary research interests has been the international economics of intellectual property rights (IPRs). IPRs are the means by which market economies provide rewards to investments in invention, innovation, and cultural creation. Patents protect inventions that are new and have commercial utility. Copyrights cover literature, music, software, and electronic transmissions. Trademarks protect distinguishing names and symbols that guarantee the origin of goods. There are further special protective regimes for computer chips, plant and animal varieties, wines and spirits, and other goods. The essence of IPRs is to provide temporary market power to permit inventors to recoup their investment costs. In turn, society benefits from having more goods placed on the market.

The level of protection varies widely across countries. Technologically advanced countries such as the United States have interests in strong protection, while poorer nations see some advantages to providing weak IPRs in order to be able to imitate products and technologies. Under strong U.S. pressure, the member nations of the World Trade Organization recently agreed to adopt much stronger minimum standards of protection. Note also that the strength of IPRs is often a contentious issue within countries as well. For example, in the United States there is considerable concern over the ultimate implications of awarding a series of patents to the developers of the human genome map.

My research program focuses on the implications for international trade and investment of stronger global IPRs. The research has resulted in some important findings. First, the existence of widely varying IPRs standards around the world has a strongly negative impact on global trade flows. However, while stronger rights would expand trade with middle-income developing countries, it could generate higher prices and more market concentration in trade with poor countries. Second, U.S. foreign direct investment and international licensing respond positively to improvements in patent rights in developing countries. Third, even poor countries can benefit from a transparent system of IPRs if it promotes small-scale product development and the widespread diffusion of information. Fourth, the potential gains from IPRs depend strongly on other characteristics of economies. As nations adopt stronger standards of protection, they would be well advised also to make their markets more competitive and to invest in education and human capital.

My current research is aimed at shedding light on some of the key controversies surrounding the new and stronger global system of IPRs. For example, through surveys and empirical modeling I am trying to understand the implications for developing countries of awarding patents to pharmaceutical companies. This new policy regime could raise drug prices considerably in nations where there are not currently patents, raising delicate issues in international relations. I am also performing statistical research on the potential impacts of a global regime of freely permitted, gray-market trade in pharmaceuticals, a policy that is currently under consideration in the United States and the European Union.

These and other issues are extensively analyzed in my recently authored book, Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy, published in August 2000 by the Institute for International Economics in Washington, DC.

As nations adopt stronger standards of protection they would be well advised also to make their markets more competitive and to invest in education and human capital.

Funding Opportunities

The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Science To Achieve Results (STAR) program is seeking applications for graduate fellowships for master's and doctoral level students in environmentally related fields of study. EPA plans to award 100 fellowships. Each fellowship provides up to $34,000 per year, including a $7,000 annual stipend, $5,000 for authorized expenses and up to $12,000 for tuition and fees. Applicants must be US citizens or permanent residents; be enrolled or formally accepted in a fulltime graduate program at a four-year US college or university at the time of award; and must be pursing a master's or doctoral degree in an environmentally related field of specialization. The program aims to encourage promising students to pursue studies related to environmental research, education, assessment, restoration, and preservation efforts. The deadline for application is November 20. For information, consult the EPA Web page: http://es.epa.gov/ncerqa/. Click "Fellowships."

The Ford Foundation will be awarding pre-doctoral, post-doctoral, and dissertation fellowships for minorities in a national competition administered by the National Research Council of the National Academies on behalf of the Ford Foundation. Deadline for initial submissions for the pre-doctoral fellowships is November 10, January 8 for the post-doctoral fellowships, and December 1 for the dissertation fellowships. For information: Fellowship Office FF, TJ 2041, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418, phone: 202-2334-2872, email: infofell@nas.edu, Web page: http://national-academies.org/osep/fo/.

Full descriptions of the above and other funding opportunities as received are posted on the bulletin board of IBS #1.

Research Proposals Funded

Problem Behavior Program

R. Jessor

F.C. Costa

Adolescent risk behavior and development in China and the US: PRA support
Denver Public Schools 09/01/00 - 08/31/01 new



D.S. Elliott Strengthening families program evaluation
Asian Pacific Development Center 04/01/00 - 09/30/01 new



Population Processes Program


J.A. Menken Population Aging Center
NIH 09/25/00 - 06/30/01 new


Research Proposals Submitted

Environment and Behavior Program

L.M. Hunter The demographic implications of hazardous facility development in rural America
USDA 09/01/00 – 08/31/02 new


Upcoming Colloquia

There is an online listing of upcoming and recent colloquia.

Institute of Behavioral Science

Richard Jessor, Institute Director

IBS Newsletter

Julie Klauss and Sugandha Brooks, Co-editors
Richard L. Cook, Web Site Coordinator

Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado at Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309-0483

(303) 492-8147