These materials were developed by Shannon Crum and Kenneth E. Foote, Department of Geography, University of Texas at Austin, 1994. These materials may be used for study, research, and education in not-for-profit applications. If you link to or cite these materials, please credit the authors, Shannon Crum and Kenneth E. Foote, The Geographer's Craft Project, Department of Geography, The University of Colorado at Boulder. These materials may not be copied to or issued from another Web server without the authors' express permission. Copyright 1994. All commercial rights are reserved. If you have comments or suggestions, please contact the authors or Kenneth E. Foote at

This page is available in a framed version. For convenience, a Full Table of Contents is provided.

Instructions for this exercise using ArcView.

1. About this introduction

The Department of Geography at The University of Texas at Austin offers a wide range of courses, preparing students for a variety of career opportunities relating to geography. As part of the curriculum for courses pertaining to computer cartography and GIS, students are required to generate various thematic maps for the purpose of analyzing a data set of archaeological sites in southern Italy. The data set, provided by Joseph C. Carter of the UT Classics Department, consists of sites in a defined area of the Metaponto chora (territory). The Metaponto chora (named for the ancient urban center of Metaponto within its boundaries) is roughly defined as the area extending 10-12 Km northwest from the coastline, and contained by the Bradano and Basento Rivers, in the Basilicata region of southern Italy. Lago del Lupo is a modern regional designation comprising a large portion of the ancient chora, and it provides a convenient base map from which the data set can be organized. Thus, all Lago del Lupo sites are from the Metaponto chora, but not all of the chora sites are in the Lago del Lupo data set. In addition, the Lago del Lupo data set should not be confused with the Lago del Lupo site which was excavated as part of the Metaponto Project. The Lago del Lupo data was digitized by Naomi Cleghorn, now a graduate student in the UT Anthropology Department, as part of her undergraduate honors thesis.

This introduction was created to provide users of the Lago del Lupo data with a minimum of background information. It is not intended to be, nor should it be considered, a definitive authority regarding Greek or Metapontine history and/or archaeology. For additional research in this area, you may wish to consult the References section of this introduction. Highlighted words are linked to other parts of this document or relevant images.

2. Early Greek Colonization.

Chronicling Greek colonization is a complex and confusing task. This is primarily due to the constant state of flux which characterized early Greek civilization. Classic Greek civilization, frequently referred to as a single entity by historians, was in reality, a group of individually governed city-states that shared similar cultural attributes. These self- governed municipalities were actually colonies themselves. From the time of their formation sometime after 1200 BC, until Roman conquest in 146 BC, these independent municipalities competed with each other, as well as with their Persian neighbors for control of the Aegean Sea and its associated territories. Thus, Greek refers to a culture rather than a specific governing body.

What may seem as a trivial point is actually a very important concept. Ancient Greek colonies were, in many respects, independent polities. There most definitely were political and economic ties with their founding territories, but the idea that these were far reaching extensions of an imperialistically motivated, unified Greek regime is erroneous. Greek colonization, therefore, should be thought of as an introduction of Greek culture into a new area by any one of a number of contemporaneous Greek civilizations.

With this in mind, it is not surprising that Greek colonization persisted, almost continuously, throughout ancient Greek history. Nevertheless, certain periods witnessed a greater degree of colonization than others. The period between 750 and 550 BC, for example, marked the first large-scale exodus of Greek culture from the Aegean, and was mainly targeted towards the Crimea and Marseilles. This expansion was motivated by an increased demand for trade goods by the flourishing and rapidly growing Aegean city- states. Another important period of colonization began around 440 BC, and was largely a consequence of peace (the war between Athenian allies and Persia ended in 448 BC, and the war between Athens and Sparta ended in 445 BC). Establishing colonies in Italy, Sicily, and the Black Sea territories were the main objectives this time.

Although these periods of colonization are well documented, they are typically generalized. New colonies are usually only referred to as Greek, even though a particular Greek territory was most likely responsible for the colonizing effort. Linking a colony to a particular Greek territory requires an extensive study of both the colony and any potential region of origin. Only relatively recently, have such detailed studies become commonplace.

3. Greek Settlement of Metaponto.

Sometime between 800 and 700 BC, adventurous Greek merchants began scouring the Mediterranean in search of tradewares for their home territories. As a consequence, several Greek colonies began to form along the southern coastlines of Italy and Sicily. This trend continued through the seventh century BC, as some of these new polities began to establish colonies themselves. The indigenous populations initially resisted, but they soon either fled inland or were acculturated. The Greeks brought with them a highly organized agricultural system which enabled the colonies to flourish. Metaponto was one such colony. Fueled by Athenian prosperity, the late Classical and early Hellenistic periods (350-275 BC) saw in influx of new settlements into southern Italy, and Metaponto continued to grow.

 Though the city of Metaponto was successful in its own right, it was the Metaponto chora that enabled the system to work. This symbiotic complex between the rural chora and urban center characterized the majority of Greek colonies, not just Metaponto. What makes Metaponto unique is that it is one of the few places where this relationship is directly observable in the archaeological record.

4. UT Archaeology at Metaponto.

Archaeologists were first attracted to the Metaponto chora in 1959, when a series of ancient land division lines showed up in aerial photographs. Subsequent surveys of rural sites by an international crew in 1965 directly led to UT's involvement, beginning in 1974.

The Metaponto chora, provides an appealing archaeological opportunity for several reasons. First, the preservation of land division lines is rare. Very few sites still exhibit these ancient clues to rural land organization, and the potential information that they offer is immense. A second consideration is that, like most parts of the world, good land is a prime commodity in southern Italy, and archaeological sites continue to lose out to agricultural expansion. A final factor is that few studies have concentrated solely on rural settlements. Urban sites tend to receive the majority of archaeological attention and resources (the ancient urban center of Metaponto, for example, has been undergoing excavation for decades). An opportunity to shed light on unexplored areas is a goal of every archaeologist.

 The goals of the UT Metaponto project, since its inception, have been to chronicle the changes in livelihood of the rural populations that inhabited the Metaponto chora, throughout Greek and Roman occupation (about 700 BC - 400 AD). Over the years, the project has evolved into a international multi-disciplinary collaboration, where specialists in the various sub-fields of archaeology could pool the resources and work towards a common goal. Accomplishments include the survey of a 42 square kilometer area (revealing over 500 sites), extensive excavation and study of ancient crops and fauna, as well as the excavation of almost a dozen rural sites, including several burials . Thousands of artifacts have been collected to aid in the analysis (including several hand- painted vases and other ceramic vessels ). In addition to Metaponto, the field crew has been working in the chora of Croton since 1983, conducting similar investigations.

 Though analysis and interpretation phases of the study are still ongoing, much has been learned about the chora's inhabitants. Thanks to multi-disciplinary efforts, we now know intimate details about the health and nutrition, working conditions, eating habits, agricultural techniques, burial practices, material goods , and many other aspects of the everyday lives of the rural population of the Metaponto chora. To learn more about Metapontine history and archaeology, please refer to the References section of this introduction.

5. References

Carter, J. C. Excavation in the Territory of Metaponto 1976. Institute of Classical Archaeology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1977.

 Carter, J. C. Excavations at Metaponto, 1978. Institute of Classical Archaeology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1978.

 Carter, J. C. Excavations at Metaponto, 1979. Institute of Classical Archaeology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1979.

 Carter, J. C. Excavations in the Territory, Metaponto, 1980. Institute of Classical Archaeology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1980.

 Carter, J. C. (editor). The Territory of Metaponto 1981-1982. Institute of Classical Archaeology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1977.

 Carter, J. C. (editor). The Pantanello Necropolis 1982-1989: An Interim Report. Institute of Classical Archaeology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1990.

 Henneberg, Maciej, Renata Henneberg, and Joseph Coleman Carter. Health in Colonial Metaponto. National Geographic Research & Exploration, 8(4):446-459, 1992.

 Uden, Grant (editor). Greece (Ancient). Longman Illustrated Encyclopedia of World History: 375-378, Ivy Leaf, London, 1989.


Before you begin, download the necessary Atlas*GIS files from the file server, texas, using anonymous ftp. First, insert a diskette into the A:\ drive of the PC, then select UTCONNECT and WS-FTP. Fill in the Host Name, and select Host Type as Auto Detect. Remote Host field should be empty. Click on the box to mark an Anonymous Login, then click on OK. Once a connection is made, the left side of the window will be the Local System and the right side will be the Remote System. Using the mouse, change the directory on the Local System to the A:\ drive, then change the directory on the Remote System (Dewey) to the METAPONT/Atlas directory. Make sure the binary option is selected, then highlight the file, and click on the appropriate arrow to copy the file to your floppy disk. Exit from WS-FTP, and use WinZip to Open the file on your floppy. Highlight all of the files, then select Extract. This will unzip all the Lago files.

 Alternatively, the files can be obtained from the download directory by clicking on each file while holding down the shift key.


Atlas*GIS has a number of analytic and graphic capabilities:

 1. You can digitize maps, combining a number of sources, and edit these on the computer. The resulting electronic maps can contain up to 250 separate layers. You can think of these layers as overlays. On a metropolitan area map, for example, you might have separate layers for roads, soils, hydrology (rivers, lakes, streams, etc.), land use, census tracts, public buildings, and utilities. These layers can be turned off and on. If you only need to look at roads and utilities, you can turn off the other layers so that they don't get in the way.

 2. Using a built-in database system, you may enter, edit, display, and query data concerning these features. This data, called attribute data, is kept in spreadsheet form in separate files linked to the maps. The user creates the structure of these spreadsheets, and can edit them at any time.

 3. You can select certain spatial or attribute features for display, query, and analysis.

 4. Using built-in analytical tools, you can combine features and aggregate their data

 using several different statistical methods, split features and disaggregate their data, create buffer regions around features, and perform point-in-polygon and similar operations.

 5. You may assign geographic coordinates to address records in your database using an address-matching operation. This allows these records to be displayed, queried, and analyzed like any other feature.

 6. You may produce thematic maps to graphically display information based on attribute data. Thematic map possibilities in Atlas*GIS include dot-density, proportional, ranged, and bi-variate maps. The system calculates the statistics necessary for creating these maps, and includes several ranging methods. The user controls all graphic aspects (e.g., color, shading, and fill pattern).

 7. The program contains tools for setting various presentation parameters (e.g., page size, legends, and layout design) and freehand drawing tools. Paper copies of the maps can be made on printers or plotters.

 8. Attribute data may be imported from or exported to some other programs. In addition, geographic features can be imported from or exported to Atlas*Graphics (a mapping program). Using a separate Atlas*GIS Import/Export program, ETAK MapBase, Census Bureau TIGER, and GBF/DIME files may be imported.

Atlas*GIS File Types

To understand Atlas*GIS, you must be familiar with our basic kinds of files (also called tables).

 1. Geo files contain the map features of your workspace, i.e., the locational information. These map features consist of points, lines, and regions (the latter are also referred to as polygons or areas). These map features are assigned to various layers which the user defines, so that features of one type (e.g., roads) can be kept distinct from other types (e.g., census tract boundaries). This allows map features to be displayed, edited, and manipulated more easily. The Geo file keeps the x-y coordinates of each of these features on a separate spreadsheet, along with some very basic information, including the layer in which each feature is found, and its name. Each feature is also assigned a unique ID by which it is identified.

 2. Attribute tables contain non-graphic information about each layer of your workspace. You define the types of attribute information to include. In a city GIS, for example, you might have census tract and census block pictures as geographic features on the map. The Attribute table might then contain information on population by tract and block, and the number of houses, businesses, schools, churches, etc. within each tract and block. None of this information appears on the map itself, but can be brought onto the computer screen in spreadsheet form. Each row of an Attribute table is linked to its corresponding geographic feature by the column of your choice.

 3. Point tables are a combination of Geo files and Attribute tables, and are most useful for features that change with time. A Point table contains a row for one point (or location) on the map and its attribute information. The table also has the x-y coordinates for that point. You can think of Point tables like pins on a wall map marking the location of significant places or events. For example a city transportation office might want to keep a record of where traffic collisions occur, or monitor commuter flow. In the first case it would want a "pin" at the site of each traffic collision, and corresponding attribute information concerning causes, injuries, damage, etc. In the second case, it might want a "pin" for every place of business employing over 50 people, and information about type of business, parking, hours of operation, etc. The information in Point tables could be subdivided up between Geo files and Attribute tables, just as you could continually redraft paper maps to include new information. As with using pins on a wall map, however, a Point table allows you to create an overlay which requires fewer steps to update as the need arises.

 4. Project files contain complete descriptions of the workspaces, including the names of the Geo files, Attribute tables and Point tables used in the workspace, plus the program settings (e.g., scale, title, page layout, symbols, etc.). Although the Project file won't actually contain any of your geographic, attribute, or datapoint data, it does keep a list of where all these files are stored. The Project file is useful because it saves time. By loading the Project file, you load your complete workspace, rather than having to load the separately. But remember, if you have moved some of your Geo files, Attribute tables and Point tables since you created a Project file, the Project file won't be able to recreate your workspace because its list of previous file locations will be incorrect.

The Atlas*GIS Process

Archaeologists at Metaponto, Italy

1. About this Exercise

From around 600 BC. to 300 BC., colonists from Greece spread out through the Mediterranean and Black Sea. They brought with them their distinctive culture and all it encompassed--their agricultural economy, pottery, architectural styles, land tenure system, political systems, and religion. This Greek influence can be seen in the cultural landscape created by the Greeks in southern Italy. The more than 300- year span of their occupation in Italy is more than a colonial intrusion; consider that the European colonization of North American has not gone on much longer, and North Americans consider themselves to be quite different from European forebears. This exercise is first an introduction to GIS; second, it allows us to examine aspects of how the Greeks colonized the southern Italian landscape.

2. Starting Atlas*GIS

To run Atlas*GIS, double click with the mouse on the appropriate Windows icon.

 The program takes time to load. Once loaded, the Atlas GIS Window appears. Automatically opening within this window is a window named "Untitled.prj". This is your working area or page.

Across the top of the Atlas GIS window is a line containing the currently available commands. Use the mouse to move the cursor to each command, and highlight them by clicking the left button. As you do this, a pull-down menu will appear with the available sub-commands. For example, highlight the View command. Underneath, you see that View has eight subcommands, including Entire Map, Previous Map View, Selected Map Features, Entire Tablet, Map Scale, Entire Page, Previous Map View, Map Frame, Actual Size, and Redraw. The File command has twelve subcommands, including New, Open, SQL Access, Merge, Close, Save, Save As, Compress, Page Setup, Print, Printer Setup, Preferences, Exit. Moving the cursor down to click on a subcommand will, most of the time, bring up a "dialog box". This box appears when more information is necessary to complete the command. Along with File and View, notice that there is also a Help command. Highlight it and take a look. There you will find help by an index of contents, search , or in using help itself!

 Most of the dialog boxes that appear on the screen have cancel buttons to click if you do not want to complete the command. To exit any of the pull-down menus, you can move the cursor anywhere within the workspace and click the left button. You can press ESC, also.

Move the cursor within the workspace and click the left button on the mouse.

 There are several ways to issue commands in Atlas*GIS. As you just saw, you can highlight the command by moving the cursor and clicking on it with the left button of the mouse, but below the line of commands is a Button Bar. These buttons allow you to select some of the most often used commands directly. Help can tell you what they are.

 Also, on the right hand side of the screen there is a window containing two columns of buttons and is known as the Tool Box. This Tool Box can be moved anyplace on the screen or turned off completely. The Tool Box has it's own Help function, the ? button in the upper right hand corner. Click on the ? button within the Tool Box to learn about the tools it provides.

 In these exercises we provide instructions for issuing commands in the following format: Choose File | Open. This means we want you to select the File command, then Open. The easiest method of doing this is to use the File | Open button on the Button Bar, but this exercise will follow the command menus, assuming that you will use the Button Bar as you become more familiar with the software.

3. Loading a Geo File

Put your diskette containing the LAGO files in the A:drive of the computer. This is the diskette you formatted previously and the one to which you copied the LAGO files during class.

 On the Atlas*GIS main menu, highlight the File command so that its pull-down menu appears, then select Open. The Open command displays a dialog box that allows you to load the different files and tables into the current workspace. These include Geo files, Attribute and Point tables, and Project files.

In the rest of this exercise you will become familiar with some of the Atlas*GIS functions by experimenting with the LAGO workspace. We must first load its Geo file.

 Within the Open dialog box, selections can be made by clicking and highlighting your choice. The different areas of the dialog box are called subpanels, and the boxes containing an arrow pointing down are called list boxes. A list of choices appear when these boxes are highlighted. Move the cursor to the Drives list box and click there. Here we will indicate that the A drive contains the files we want. Choose the A:drive from the list.

 Now, move over to the List Files of Type list box and click there. Choose the Geo (*.agf) file type. Once selected, the Geo files contained on the floppy will appear in File Name subpanel above. Select the Lago.agf Geo file and click the OK button.

 Wait while the file loads, then look at the Tool Box. The top button, Map Layers, now displays the name of the file and the name of the first layer being displayed. If an asterisk appears, it is the first of multiple layers being displayed. Also, notice that at the bottom of the screen, the Scale is displayed. In this particular case, the units are in meters. Recall from the Introduction that Geo files contain very basic attribute data.

4. Loading Attribute Tables

You load Attribute tables in the same way you loaded Geo files. Here, you might choose the File | Open button on the Button Bar to take you back into the Open dialog box. Make sure the A:drive is still selected, then move to the List Files of Type dialog box. Click there to bring up the list and choose Table (*.dbf). Choose the LAGO table, then click on OK.

Tables can be linked to a layer in the Geo file. To help you in this task, a Table Link dialog box appears after you have selected the Attribute table to load. For this exercise, you do want link the table to the Geo file, so click on Links to Geo option button. In the Layer list box, choose Allsites as the layer to link to. In the Key Column list box, choose ID. After selecting OK, the values in this key column in the Attribute table will be matched to the values in the ID column in the Geo file.

 Choose Window | New Table Window to look at this data. Choose the Allsites layer in the list and click on OK. This window takes a moment to come up completely, and it may be partially blocked by the Tool Box. Move the cursor into the banner bar at the top of this new window, and press and hold the left button of the mouse. Drag the window to the middle of the screen to reposition the window more central to the screen. Some of the fields in this table are considered to be "anchored" in that they will always be displayed as you move about through the data. In this case, the Select and ID fields are anchored. Move through the table using the mouse (or the arrow keys and PgDn/PgUp) to familiarize yourself with the different data fields.

 Notice as you move through the data fields, a description of the field category appears in the top right box of the table. To Close the Table Window, double click on the - sign (the close box) in the upper left corner.

5. The View Commands

Now that you have files loaded, you can begin experimenting with your workspace. Note that at the bottom left hand corner of the screen, there is a Redraw button. After certain operations, a redraw of the map occurs automatically, and the Redraw button changes to a redCancel button, if you want to interrupt this process. If you want to choose when a redraw occurs, go to File | Preferences. By clicking on the Workspace button to the left, this dialog box contains the option Auto Map Redraw. Eliminating the checkmark in the box will allow you to redraw the map at your convenience. The Redraw button turns yellow to indicate that a change has been made and a redraw is necessary.

To enlarge the map so that it fills the working area, choose View | Map Frame.

 Next, from the Tool Box, choose Zoom In. This is the button with the magnifying glass and the + sign. This allows you to zoom in on a certain area by creating a "zoom box" which defines the area to be enlarged. Position the cursor where you would like the first corner of the zoom box to be set (notice that on the bottom of the screen, the status line for X and Y show the changing longitude and latitude coordinates of the cursor. When the cursor is where you want it, press the left button down and hold it. While holding the button down, move the cursor and you will see a dynamic zoom box grow. To set the opposite corner, position the box where you want it and release the button. The screen is automatically redrawn to the new scale (the new scale is shown in the status area).

 From the Tool Box, choose Zoom Out, which is the button with a magnifying glass and a - sign. This is a trickier process. When you set the zoom box under this command, the currently displayed map area shrinks to fit within the new zoom box, thereby bringing a wider portion of the map into view. You may have to experiment with this operation a few times to get the hang of it, but it can be very useful when you find that you've zoomed in too close on a feature and want to pull back a bit.

 To set the viewing scale you desire you, first, have to set up the Scale Format. Go to File | Preferences. The Preferences dialog box will appear. Choose the Units option button on the left. Click on the Map Scale Format list box to the right. Choose the 1:Noption. Click on Coordinate Format and choose Projected, then click on OK. Now go to View | Map Scale. The Units/In input box that appears shows your current scale. Type in 2000. This translates to a scale of 1 inch of the Geo file equals 2000 meters of the actual land area. Click on OK.

 To pan across the map in any direction by locating a new center for display, choose the Pan button on the Tool Box, which looks like a hand. Try it. When you move the cursor back into the map frame, it will appear as a hand. To move the map, press and hold the left button of the mouse. Note that you are simultaneously moving a box representing the map area. Release the button when the outline box is positioned where you want it.

There are other subcommands under View. Highlight them to see what each one does and experiment with them if you like. Choose View | Entire Map when you are finished. This resets the view so that the entire Geo file is visible and centered within the map frame. This is a very handy command when you need to get back to your original map view. When you want to return to a full view of both the map and the page, choose View | Entire Page. Hint: Both of these commands can be accessed through the Button Bar.

6. Layer Display

 tomb site, Metaponto, Italy

 There are five layers in the LAGO Geo file: Steams, Transect, Division, Allsites, and Farms. (The Farms layer is a subset of the Allsites layer. Allsites contains information about farms, tombs, and a number of other sites.) Right now, all but Farms are visible on the screen. If you are just working with one feature, like streams, you may not want the transect and divisions getting in the way. Or you may wish to alter the way these layers appear on the screen.

 We will delve into the details of this remarkable dataset later in the class, but for now "farms" are a rather generic class of agricultural settlements, some larger, some smaller. "Tombs" are probably situated according to different principles than farms, but for now both farms and tombs are contained in the variable allsites (Atlas*GIS is capable of differentiating these and many other aspects of the dataset, as we shall see).

 Choose Map | Layers and Themes to select options for layer settings. Hint: This command can also be accessed through the Button Bar. The Layers and Themes dialog box will appear. The Layers box lists the layers by number and by name, then you will see two status columns for layers, labels, and theme. Pay attention to the option buttons on the left side of the dialog box. Currently, the Visibility button should be lit. Under the Layer On column, all layers except Farms should be "Yes" Turn off the "Division" layer by moving the mouse to the "Yes" in the "Division" row and click the mouse. It will automatically toggle to "No". Another method to complete this task is to highlight the "Transect" layer, then move to the Layer subpanel below. Within this box is an On switch. A click on the box to eliminate the X will turn the layer off. For now, leave the "Division" layer status set to "No" and click OK to see the results.

Go back into Map | Layers and Themes. Notice that within the Layer subpanel you have the capability to establish a Visibility Range, which controls at what scales a feature is visible. For our Lago map, this is not very useful, but generally, control of visibility range is important for keeping a handle on map clutter. If our map included a separate layer for contemporary land ownership in the study area, we would probably only want these visible at certain scales. Leave this range alone for now.

 Highlight the Streams layer in the Layers box above and click on the Style button to the left. The Layer subpanel changes into a Line subpanel. This box allows you to set the line type, width, and color. Move the mouse and click on Color to bring up a color palette. You can select a color by using the mouse to highlight and click it. This will change the color of the streams to the color you choose. Try this, and feel free to change the style settings for other layers. Then click OK when you are finished to see the results.

 One more time, go back into Map | Layers and Themes. Click on the Labels option button to the left. Within Layers at the top of the dialog box, you see the columns for Labels. Note that all of these settings are set to No, which means they are turned off. Highlight the Allsites layer, then move to the "No" under Labels On columns row and click to "Yes". In the Label Expression subpanel, you can create and display labels for features. Clicking on the small box at Line 1 with ... will open an Expression Builder dialog box. This will be used more later, but this is where you can scroll through all the variables in the file to pick the variable SITE (this is the site number). By picking a label of SITE, each site number will be shown next to its corresponding feature on the map. Click OK to leave the Expression Builder dialog box, and then again to leave the Layers and Themes dialog box. Note: You can also set the scale to control the scale at which SITE will be visible on the screen, say between 1:100 and 1:2000 from the Layers and Themes dialog box by selecting Visibility and making the appropriate selections.

 Redraw to see the results of your changes. Experiment with the layer settings as much as you like. When you have finished, turn "Off" the labels for Allsites so they don't clutter your map.

7. Selecting Features

When you are editing your map or performing geographic analysis, you must be able to select specific features with which to work. To select a feature, just point and click. The selected feature will be highlighted. To deselect the feature, move the cursor away and click. If you want to constrain your selections to the features of a particular layer, double-click on the Map Layers Tool in the Tool Box; i.e, the long button with the layer name. A dialog box appears that will allow you to choose the layers from which you want to select features. When all layers are highlighted, then you may select any feature.

 Point to a stream and click. The feature is highlighted. If this is not the feature you wanted, then move the cursor outside the map and click. After you have selected the feature you want, go to Window | Show Info Window. This will show all the attribute information about this feature. Note: This command can also be accessed through the Button Bar.

To select multiple features, hold down the Ctrl key or the Shift key on the keyboard while selecting the additional features. Try that now. If there is a feature you wish to subtract from the selections, choose it again while holding down the Ctrl key. The feature will be deselected. You may deselect all the features by moving the cursor outside the map area and clicking the mouse. Multiple features may also be selected with the Circle and Polygon buttons in the Tool Box. It allows you to draw a circle, box, or polygon on the screen and select features which touch these. Try these if you like. Click outside the map area to deselect these features.

8. Exploring the Metaponto Data Using Thematic Mapping

In this section you will explore the type and ages of sites in the study area by mapping them several times. You are probably familiar with maps that use color coding, variable shading, dot- density, and proportional symbols to display data.

 Thematic mapping in Atlas*GIS allows you to choose one or two variables from the attribute files for display in ranged maps, proportional maps, or dot-density maps. The program will calculate the necessary statistics for you, but also allows you to adjust these yourself to fine-tune your display.

 Go to Map | Layers and Themes and make sure that the Division and Farms layers are off, as you will be working with Allsites and Streams (you can't see a change of layer status until you redraw the map, but wait until you are done with the Layers and Themes dialog box).

 Now, highlight the Allsites layer in the Layers dialog box, then select the Theme button at the left side of the dialog box. This brings up the Theme subpanel. Click on the box next to Theme On to place an X there. This will be a one variable map, so make sure the box next to Two Variable is not checked. Click on the Expression field to bring up the Expression Builder, where you will define the variable you want mapped. Choose TYPE from the Columns list. Note: you may also use a variable in the expression like TYPE> 2. Click OK to return to the Layers and Themes dialog box. At the Theme subpanel, click on the Map Type field to pop up the list of options. There are two options for symbolizing points. Ranged Symbol assigns symbols to the different data ranges, which are then placed at the location of each feature. Proportional Symbol places a proportionally sized symbol representing data values at each feature's centroid. Use Ranged Symbol for this map.

Now, click on the Ranges button. Take a minute to examine the Ranged Symbol dialog box. On the left side are Ranging options you can change. On the right side, the program has calculated the relevant statistics needed to create the map. Click on Method to see your options (these are explained in the Atlas*GIS manual). Pick List of Values as the ranging method, and type in the number 5 as the Number of Ranges. Notice that the Calculate button has changed to yellow to indicate that you have made a change that requires a recalculation of the spreadsheet below. Click on the Calculate button and watch the modifications made to accommodate the 5 ranges. Now, select the first row in the column Values and type 0, then hit Enter. Now, using the arrow keys, move down this column and insert the values 1,2,3,4, respectively, for ranges 2 through 5. Calculate, again, to have Atlas*GIS divide the data according to your list.

 After Atlas*GIS has re-divided the data, study the distribution of the site types. Copy this information. The codes for this variable are: 0 is for unknown; 1 is for farms; 2 is for tombs; 3 is for "scatter"; and 4 is for other.

In this same spreadsheet, there are columns in which you can set the symbol, size, and color for each range. Choose None for the symbol of site type 0. Choose "filled circle" as the symbol for the other four categories. Set the size to 5, and pick a different color for each category. Click on OK to return to the Layers and Themes dialog box. Before you leave the Layers and Themes dialog box, click on the Legend button. At the bottom right of the Theme Legend-Ranged dialog box make sure that the Missing option box is open (not checked). Click OK to close this box. Then Click OK again to return to your map.

 The result of this operation is a map, but a cartographically unacceptable map because it doesn't contain all the map elements needed to communicate its message effectively and because these elements have not been effectively arranged on the map--all issues of cartographic content and composition. Fortunately, Atlas*GIS provides you with the tools you need to produce an effective map, and these will be discussed in the subsequent steps of this exercise as well as in class.

 The best way to learn about the other thematic mapping methods is to play with them and experiment with different ranges, values, symbols, and colors. Remember that you can use the mouse to explore the options presented by the various menus (look especially for fill style, and color). Feel free to do this, you can't hurt anything: Detailed explanations of thematic types and ranging methods are found in the Atlas*GIS manual.

9. Laying Out a Thematic Map

Developing your theme is only one aspect of preparing an effective map. You must also add and edit the other map elements, such as the title, legend, and scale. Remember that the small plotters in the computer lab cannot plot in more than six colors in one pass, so keep your colors to six or less. If you can't finish all the work in a single session, save your work to a Project file (and, of course, close your files). This will save all your settings.

 First, choose Map | Legends and Frames. This will bring up the Legends and Frames dialog box, which is divided into three subpanels: Maps, Map Legends and Theme Legends. Within each subpanel, the first column of buttons lists a part of the page that we can display or modify. By clicking on one of these buttons, you are taken into the corresponding dialog box which allows you to select how and what information is to be displayed, which you will see later. The second column entitled "On", indicates whether that particular item displayed on the page or not. The third column indicates whether the frame around the item is displayed or not, and the fourth column takes you into the Frame Style dialog box to make changes to the frame settings.

 Now, we will make some changes. In the Maps subpanel, you can elect to display up to four maps. Here, only one map is needed, so make sure Map 1 is On, while Maps 2 through 4are Off. You will not need the layer legend since we have only one layer in our map, so in the Map Legends subpanel, turn the Layer Legend to Off , so that it will not be displayed at all. For this map, no frames are wanted, so set Frame On to Off for Map 1, Title, Scale, and Thematic Legend 1.

 For other maps where a frame is desired, the style of the frame can be changed by clicking on one of the corresponding buttons under Frame Style. This takes you into the Frame dialog box where settings such as line type, color, corner treatment, and shadows can be changed. Try this. Also, before you leave the Legends and Frames dialog box, notice the Thematic Legend buttons 2-4. They are dimmed at this time, indicating that they are not available. Click on the Theme 1 button and look at the dialog box that pops up. For now, just note where you are and how you got here, it will help later Click on OK when you are finished. Click OK again to see the results of the changes you made.

10. Mapping Sites By Age

Now we would like to map the sites by their age. This data has been coded into the variable named AGE. The codes for AGE are: 0 is unknown; 1 is pre-Greek; 2 is 600-575 BC; 3 is 575-550 BC; 4 is 550-525 BC; 5 is 525-500 BC; 6 is 500-475 BC; 7 is 475-450 BC; 8 is 450-425 BC; 9 is 425-400 BC; 10 is 400-375 BC; 11 is 375-350 BC; 12 is 350-325 BC; 13 is 325-300 BC; 14 is 300-275 BC; and 15 is post-Greek.

 Choose Map | Layers and Themes. Make sure Allsites is highlighted in the Layers and Themes dialog box, and that Theme is set to Yes. In the Theme subpanel, Theme On should be checked and this will be a one variable map. This time, in the Expression field, pick AGE as the variable to be mapped. Use Ranged Symbol for this map.

Click on Ranges to bring up the Ranged Symbol dialog box. Pick List of Values as the Method, and type in the number 15 as the Number of Ranges. Click on Calculate. Move to the Value column for Range 1 and click the mouse. Move down through the column and type in the numbers 1 to 15 for the respective 15 ranges. Calculate. These values (1-15) correspond to the 15 age classes into which the various sites are subdivided. Each subdivision corresponds to an approximately 50-year period. This level of chronological accuracy is pretty spectacular for archaeological research, but since many aren't confident that ceramic types can be dated quite so accurately, we are lumping the datings into these larger classes.

 Atlas*GIS is dividing the data according to these ranges. Study the distribution of settlement age. Copy this information.

 Now that you have looked at the overall distribution of sites by age, let's make a map that divides the sites into five age groups: pre- Greek; 600-475 BC sites; 475-375 BC sites; 375-275 BC sites; and post- Greek sites. To do this move up and change the Ranging Method to Discontinuous with five as the number of ranges. In the spreadsheet below, there are now columns for minimum and maximum values. For the five Ranges, fill in the following values: 1 1; 2 6; 7 10; 11 14; 15 15. Calculate.

 For pre-Greek settlements (Range=1) choose a black filled circle of size 5. For post-Greek settlements (Range=5) choose a blue open box of size 5. For the Greek settlements of the three time periods, choose a green open + (plus) of size 6 for the earliest period (Range=2), a red open circle of size 6 for intermediate period (Range=3), and a red filled circle of size 10 for the most recent period (Range=4). Click on OK when you are finished.

The Legend. Now, you back to the Layers and Themes dialog box. In the Layer subpanel, next to the Ranges button there is a Legend button. Click on it. This brings up the Thematic Legend dialog box. It should look familiar to you. This button takes you directly to the Theme Legend dialog box in Legends and Frames. Set up the legend as follows:

Do not make any modifications to the frame style at this time. The button next to the Title marked with Aa allows you to change the text style of the Title. In the Descriptions subpanel: In the bottom right subpanel, move to the Custom column and edit the descriptions for each range: Finally, click on Missing turn Off the display of any missing sites. Then OK to see the results.

 As you can see, there is more layout work to be done. First, we need to return to Map | Legends and Frames.

 The Title. Click on the Title button to bring up the Title dialog box. Make sure that the Frame box does not have a check mark in it, so that the Title Frame will not be displayed. In Line 1, type in Greek Settlements of Lago del Lupo. Click on the Aa button, and choose Times New Roman as the typeface, Black as the color, and 30 as the size. In Line 2, delete the default entry and leave this space blank (we don't wish to use a subtitle for this map). Click OK.

 The Scale. Click on the Scale button to bring up the Scale dialog box. Make sure that the Frame box does not have a check mark in it, so that the Scale Frame will not be displayed. In the Title subpanel, type in Meters for the title, with a typeface Times New Roman, size 12, and color Black. Under the Layout subpanel, set the number of increments to 4 and the increment size to 200, and the font to Times New Roman. In the Bar Style subpanel, set Pattern to filled, bar width to 1, and color to Black. Click on OK when you are finished, then click on OK again to exit the Legends and Frames dialog box. Redraw to show your new legend, title, and scale.

Positioning the Page Elements. You can move and resize the various page elements, by activating the Page Freehand Tool in the Tool Box. This button is the one with the pencil drawing on the page. Notice that this toggles the Map Layers button to indicate that you are in the Page Freehand mode, and it also toggles the available buttons in the Tool Box. The Page Freehand mode allows you to point and click on the page elements, then move or size them. When chosen, each element will be surrounded by a series of eight dots. The element can be moved by placing the cursor in the middle of the element, holding down the left button of the mouse, and dragging the element into place. The element can be resized by moving the cursor over one of the dots, holding down the left button of the mouse, and stretching the element. Play with this a little to get the hang of it.

Once you are used to it, use the mouse to move the Title so that it is centered over the body of the map. Next, move the Scale up and to the left so that it is to the left of the body of the map. Then, move and resize the Legend as you see fit, but so that it is evenly arranged along the right side of the map. You can also try moving and resizing the map itself so that it is slightly larger and there is less blank space on the screen.

Finally, let's add a north-aligned arrow. First, choose Edit | Change Properties | Symbols. Hint: This command can be accessed through the Button Bar. In the Symbols dialog box, click on the Symbol list box and choose a North Arrow. Then set the size to 25, and the Color to Black. Click. Now, select the Symbol Tool in Tool Box. This is the button with the star inside a circle. Then, move the cursor onto to the map and click somewhere to the left of the body of the map below the repositioned scale bar. When all the elements are how you want them, choose Redraw to make sure you are viewing the final product. Go back and adjust as needed.

Save your work with the command File | Save As. Make sure you are in the A:drive, then type in the file name LAGOMAP1. This creates a Project file. The Project file keeps a record of all Atlas*GIS settings in effect when you create the Project file (but it does not contain your actual boundary and data files--only a record of the ones you used and where they are located on the disk). The Project file serves as a sort of folder containing a record of where you left off in your work and allows you to return to this place when you begin your next session. Warning: Once you create a Project file, it can only be used again if the files you were using at the time of its creation (in this case the LAGO files) are in exactly the same disk location (in this case the floppy in the A:drive). Click on OK.

 Study this map carefully keeping in mind the larger archaeological questions about the ways the Greeks colonized this landscape. Where, for instance, did the Greeks colonize first? If you cannot see patterns, experiment with changing symbols, sizes, and colors to make it clearer.

11. Printing a Map

When everything is satisfactory, you can print your map, but you have to be at a computer that has a printer attached to it. At this time, there is no networked printing capability. The printers are Hewlett-Packard Deskjet printers, which use 8 1/2" x 11" paper.

 To backtrack a little, the size of paper on which you plan to print your map affects your work, so pre-planning before you start is a good habit to get into. Go to File | Page Setup. In the dialog box that appears, you can select the size of paper your map will occupy. Changing this will not automatically alter the scale of the map that you specified earlier in this exercise, and your map may be cropped by the new dimensions of the page size, if those dimensions are smaller now. Experiment with this, and be aware of the relationship between paper size and scale.

 When you are ready to print, make sure that the printer is turned on and there is paper in the tray on the bottom. You might also want to check the control panel lights under Install Print Cartridge . A light there indicates if there is a problem with one of the cartridges. Now, go to File|Print. HINT: It is also on the Button Bar. The Print dialog box appears. Your print should not take up more than one sheet of paper so in the Range subpanel, click on All. If you are not sure, click on the From option and type in that you want to print from page 1 to page 1. In the Sizing subpanel, select each option to see how they affect your print, then select Best Fit. Click on Print Paper Cut Lines to turn this option Off. Click on Output to File to turn this option Off. Then click on OK.

 The DeskJet printers have the capability to print a wide range of colors, but you may not be able to tell the difference in shades of colors in lines and such. But, feel free to experiment!

12. Quitting the Program

Now, to finish your session choose File | Close, then choose the Project file and click on OK. If you have made changes to your project since your last save then answer Yes to the question about saving before close. Note: If you close the Geo file or Attribute table before closing the Project file, then the association between them will be lost.

To quit the Atlas GIS, choose File | Exit. Again, be careful when answering questions about saving before quitting. It will save down the current state of your files.

 Finally, when you are finished with Atlas GIS, you should always make a backup copy of your work on a second disk using the Windows File Manager diskcopy routine. Never, NEVER, leave the lab without a backup of your current work.

13. About Files

As you create, update, and edit files, Atlas*GIS writes these changes to disk, thereby modifying the file in use. You should always use a copy of the Geo file, attribute and Point table files when editing (as we did in this exercise), rather than the originals, in case you make any big mistakes. You should also make frequent backups of your files to protect your work. You can do this at anytime by choosing File | Save.

In Atlas*GIS, there are several kinds of files as discussed in the Introduction. In turn, each of these usually consists of several files. For instance, the Geo file actually consists of several files, all with the same name (e.g. LAGO), but with different extensions. When copying or erasing files, you must be sure to get all of these.

14. What to Hand In

For this exercise, you must hand in:
  1. One 3.5" diskette containing the LAGO files, plus:
  2. A Project file containing a map of allsites by TYPE,
  3. A plotted map of allsites by AGE.
Atlas*GIS and Metaponto Exercise 1 - 1 Atlas*GIS and Metaponto Exercise 1- 1

Last revised 1/29/00. LNC.