# Examination and Study Questions for Cartographic Communication

## Essay Questions Short Answer Multiple-choice

### 1. Essay Questions

#### Limit each essay to two double-spaced typewritten pages plus references.

1. Discuss the ten elements of a map.

1. To position map elements within a "hierarchy of importance" means that:

2. How does the principle of "less is more" apply to the drafting of effective maps?

3. Why is the assignment of category boundaries (cut-points) critical to preparing and effective chloropleth map of ordinal or interval data?

4. How do cartographers match the importance of map elements to the visual hierarchy of maps?

5. List three different ways in which scale can be indicated on a map and give an example of each?

6. What is the function of a neatline on a map?

7. To what extent will the audience for a map determine its content?

8. Provide specific examples of how color can be used to improve the effectiveness of maps.

9. You are preparing a map of population density in twenty nations of Central and South America. In population per square kilometer, the figures are: 6.8, 11.1, 12.0, 17.2, 17.8, 17.9, 22.4, 31.6, 32.1, 32.5, 39.0, 45.2, 47.4, 61.0, 87.3, 97.5, 151.3, 225.6, 240.2, 256.8.

1. Divide this list into quintiles, what are the cutpoints?
2. Divide this list into equal steps, what are the cutpoints?
3. Which is the more effective method in this situation, and why?

10. You are making a map of precipitation in the Texas Panhandle. Your map considers the amount of precipitation distinguishing between rainfall and snowfall. In this situation:

1. Precipitation is an: interval-ratio, ordinal, nominal variable (choose one).
2. Rainfall-snowfall is an: interval-ratio, ordinal, or nominal variable (choose one).

11. What are six visual resources available for thematic mapping?

12. Explain why choropleth maps are inherently misleading?

13. What are four types of information that can be distorted by map projections?

### 3. Multiple-choice questions

#### Choose the best or most appropriate answer(s) to the question.

1. What are the four ways to manipulate a map projection?

1. coordinate manipulation, spheroid simplification, aspect, geometric form
2. aspect, case, light source, geometric form
3. gravity, light source, spheroid simplification
4. none of the above

2. When preparing maps that record land records and parcels, map projections are preferred that have the following properties?

1. equidistant
2. conformal
3. equivalent
4. azimuthal
5. equal area
6. orthomorphic
7. constant scale
8. zenithal

3. The following features are found on virtually all maps:

1. distance or scale
2. direction
3. locator map
4. legend
5. neatlines

4. Maps are valuable for which of the following reasons:

1. they provide a method for recording and storing information
2. they are a means of analyzing spatial data
3. they help us recognize non-spatial data
4. they are a method for presenting information and communicating findings

5. Cartographers may use a number of visual recources such as:

1. size and shape
2. texture or pattern
3. orientation
4. 1 and 2 only
5. 1, 2, and 3
6. none of the above

6. The term "nominal data" refers to:

1. a level of measurement
2. the quantitative grouping of data
3. the qualitative grouping of data
4. none of the above
5. 1 and 3 only

7. Ordinal data is grouped by:

1. rank
2. uses quantitative measurements
3. cannot be effectively grouped
4. 1 and 2 only
5. none of the above

8. Automated systems are capable of displaying and printing many different fonts on a map. An advantage of sans serif fonts are:

1. more rapid display
2. ease of character recognition by optical scanners
3. reading retention is generally better
4. none of the above
5. 2 is the best answer

9. Cartographer use the term "cutpoint" to:

1. to refer to the neatline on a map
2. to refer to category boundaries
3. the are that will be trimmed in a bound volume
4. a method for displaying equal distribution of data

10. In cartography the term "less is more" refers to:

1. using fewer maps to explain a physical phenomena
2. simple and legible map design that effectively communicates the desired information
3. limiting your map design to one page
4. eliminating non-essential information on a map