The Interaction of Effects

One of the most interesting aspects of these processes is that they interact to reinforce one another. Atmosphere disturbances caused by urban activities increase precipitation, which increases erosion, which carries more sediment into river channels. Disturbances of land can cause disturbances of aquatic environments and increased levels of dust in the atmosphere. These cyclic and cumulative effects mean that urban ecological relations can become particularly complex. One change leads to another and another in a complicated, spiraling series of feedback loops.

created 3/9/2002; last revised 5/1/2002 - Matt Kuhn & Andreas von der Dunk