Arapaho Words Appearing in Early Studies


The following words occur in either Alfred Kroeber’s The Arapaho (page number is given below); in Dorsey and Kroeber’s Traditions of the Arapaho (T + page number) or in Hilger’s Arapaho Child Life (H + page number). The words have been retranscribed into standard modern Arapaho. Following the transcription, the meaning as it appears in the source is given, followed by the page number(s) where the word appears. Finally, notes are added in the last column, where original meanings need clarification, where plants can be identified, and so forth. Transcriptions in italics represent best guesses of the correct Arapaho: the forms cannot be completely recovered as of now.


beecet                          hand                             T338                                      

beenoku3i’                   Pleiades (sit together)    T161                           

beesceneyoono             armlets                         171, T155       

beesoh’oho                 elder brothers               159                             

beesoowu                   belled tepee                  T161                = ‘wood lodge’

beeteenoo                   menses                         15                    = ‘it is holy’                             

beeteet                         she menstruates            15                    = ‘she is holy’                         

beeteet                         holy one                       H144              

bee3eino’                     screech owls                 317                             

beexotii                        big wheel (design)         116                             

bee’eikoutohou’u?      sunrise; passage over mtn 38                 bee’ei- = red? 

bee’exoo                     kind of tree                   T394,T396       = Betula fontinalis

beh’eihoho                  old men                        315, T19                                                         

beh’iinenno                  men of all the lodges     314                 

beihoo                          awl case                       T155                           

beii                               shell gorget                   360, T155, T14

beneeseiti                     Personal Name             437                             

beniicou’u                     summer                        H86    

beniinenno                   all the men                    154                             

benii’owuuni                spring                           H86    

benouhtiseino              women of the lodge      210                             

benouhtoowu              women’s lodge             210                             

beteetosoo’ouht            a kind of blanket           T291,30           beteetosoo’ = 100 (quill lines)

betee3oo                      shadow/spirit                361                 

be3enec                       milk                              438                             

be3eneco’ono              plant for breast milk      438, H55         = Lygodesma juncea

be3enei?                      Thick (pubic) Hair        T124                bei3e’ee- = hair?         

bexookeehonoh’oe       Panther Young Man      T96                             

beyoowu                     all the lodges                 226,319,158,


be’eek                          blood pudding              31

be’eekuu                      red stand (dancer)        211,220                      

be’eekuunenno            bloud soup men            7                                 

be’enoo                        fog/turtle                       317,T97,T4,347          

bih’ih                            deer                             20                               

bih’ihiihe                      Female Deer?               30                    = ‘little deer’?

bih’ihiihoox                   mule, horned toad         56                               

biihceyinoo’[oo]?          yellow composite          32                    = ‘it is turning pink’?; Erigeron

biihce’einoo                                                                           = ‘it has a pink head’?

biihisei                          Buffalo Woman            T395                = ‘buffalo cow woman’

biiit                               kind of wood                T394, T396      = Populus tremuloides

biikousiis                      moon                            H92                

biinebit?                      a design                        120                             

biinohooo                     digging stick                  211                             

biiseenoxu                   insect medecine            422                             

biiseenoxu                   a plant                          423

biiseeno                       snake, worm                 44,87,310        = ‘insects’

biiteiseenookuu vine                                          T303                           

biitoheinenno               dancers of biit. lodge     159                             

biitoheisoono               dancers                        178, 159                                 

biitohoowu                  a lodge                         289,182,181,


biitoheisoo-no’u           lances of the above dancers 159

biito’owu                     earth                             313

bii3ee’oux-otooho?      a kind of leggings          T291                -otooho = ‘pants, leggings’

bii3ensinouxoo?          kind of shirt                  T291

(hee)bii3soo                 beloved son                  T315                = ‘illegitimate child’

biixuut                          shirt                              T154,28          

bii’o’oosoo                   night child/illeg              H49                

bii’oxuyoo                    Found in the Grass        22, T341,313              

boteihtibee?                game name                   H112

boteihtowoo?              sticks for the game        H112

bo’ooceinenno            red willow men             7,8                   = Cornus sericea

ceecesiinetiit                 the untying                    T50,151

ceeciiniini                     winter                           H86                

ceeneetene’einou’u       blue flower                   136                  = Mertensia spp

ceceecei     medicinal root               451,195,191, 190, 435 = Cicuta spp

cei-toksoo?                  crawling towards me     317-8

cenooni                       we are coming              160 

ceyotowunenitee           supernatural being         283                  = ‘false person’

ce’eetiit                        welcome/scalp dance    T50,151           = ‘victory dance’        

ce’eexuu                       tomahawk                    188                             

ce’eku3oo                    a sacred bundle            368,23                        

ceitoohetiit                    ear piercing                   18                    see ‘earring’    

ciiciiteene                   game name                   H113

ciiyoo3iinen                  Merciless Man              T158                           

ciinecei                         the sprinkling                315, T19                     

ciineniinit                       unmanly                        319                             

ciitei                             enter!                           160                             

ciiyoneihii                      shaggy/furry dog           197,201                      

                                    dog dancer

coo3uwuno’                 scented tobacco leaves  422                 = ‘Commanche berries’; prob.

                                                                                                Rhus trilobata

co’ouu3ou3eihitt?       entertainment at night  318                    = co’ouu3-ou3-eihiit (high-?-PART)

hecexinenno                type of dancers (short) 163                   = ‘small men’   

heecesiiteihihi               dwarf                           T125, T121

  heecesiiteihiho           dwarves                       50                   

heeneetixohetiit            packing each other over” H112             = ‘carrying each other all around’

heeneisoo  biito’owu ends of the earth           219,109,114,117        

heenei’oooku’oo          horizon, as far as can see 132               heetec                          ocean                           350,115                      

heeteih-’oonin              from whence one has come  40             heeteih- ‘where one is from’

heetih’itetow                 may you pass over        315                             

heetit-e’eini3i’              beheaded ones             T133                -e’eini-3i’ (they have X heads)

hee3e’eixootiini’           path to destination         39                               

hee3iii                           eagle wing feather         T155                = ‘forward/direction of travel-plume’

hee3neehinen                leader of singers            165                  = ‘true man’

hee3neesei                    leader of women singers 165                 = ‘true woman’

hehyeini3i’                    four                              315                             

heisonoonin                  our father                      T49, H144      

heneecee                      buffalo bull                    420                             

heneecee-hono’oti       Personal Name             436

heneeceeno                 buffalo bulls (Pleiades) 161                              

heseihteesiisoo              Foot-Stuck Child          T160, T154                 

hesiteeneecee               fire chief                       401                             

heso’oonotii                  Fast Wheel                   T19                             

he3ebiiseino’                ceremonial women        T18                  = ‘dog women’

he3owoowu’                dog lodge                     196                             

he3owoonoxu’             medecinal root              205,207,219,420,



                                                196,216,220    = Echinacea spp?


he3owuunenno’            ceremonial men             T18                  = ‘dog men’  

hice’ei3o’oo                 bundle of hair worn over forehead 130

hice’iisi-hiho               kind of berry                 T155                -hiho=  DIM PL; prob.

                                                                                                Rhus trilobata

hihcebe                       above                           313                             

hihcebe’ nih’oo3oo       above-nih’oo3oo          313,T6-7                    

hiibiixoo’u3i’                 lance dancers                178,159

hiice’eexuu3i’               rank and file tomahawk dancer  184

hiice’eexoowu             tomahawk lodge           182

hiico’oxuu-woxu          a root                           422

hiii                                a cry                             T239                = ‘snow’

hiii                                wakefulness                  318                  = ‘snow’ (used during story-telling

                                                                                                to show still awake

hii-kokooxuus              wand dancer                 184

hiincebiit                       water monster               313,317,423,438, T382,

                                                                        T143-4,T31, T140

hiinohceiyooni3i’           four dancers                 197                  = ‘they rattle’?

hiinonohoowu              a lodge                         T23,T30

hiinonokoyooo              pole at back of tepee    75,59

hiinouuse’eici3oni3i’      lance dancers                175,159           = ‘lead outside by the head’

hiisiiniisiis                      sun                               H92                

hiisiisoo                        Moon-child (name)       T339                           

hiisiistei’yoo                  Sun-Child (name)         T341                           

hiiteni                          life symbol                    219, 313,40,43, 347, 361, 383


hiitesiteebit                    Fire Owner                   T154                = House Finch 

hiitokooxuunit               owner of tent poles (dancer)     211,T19

hii-towoohoehit           highest degree dancers 169,166,159

hiiwo3-oox                  stallion                          T238                -hoox = quadruped

hiiwo’ten-ooxeyoni-3i’  black-lance dancers     222,180           hii-wo’teen- = ‘black...’


hiiyou                           here is                          164                             

hii’iboootou’u               fir needles                     426                  = Abies lasiocarpa

hii’ohouhuun?             short ribs                      T155

hinenitee                       person                          317,58                        

hinii’i3                          aorta                            T155                = ‘his aorta’                             

hinono’eino                 Arapaho                       8                                 

hinoutee3ee                  his intestines                  T155

hiseinotee                     tadpole/woman’s belly 56                                

hite3ou                         geese                            T19                             

hite3ounec                    goose water                  300                             
hite3ou3ei’iwoonohuut  small bird carried on back of goose T19           = coot or grebe

hitiito                            tendons of neck(his)      T155, T124                 

hitoo’ee’ee3onoo        ceremonial tent owners  167

hitoxuusoo                    Last Child                     313, T143, T139

hi3ooxuu                      his intestine                   T155                           

hiwoxuuhoox hiwoxu  horse root plant             424                  = ‘horse his medicine’; probably

                                                                                                Thalictrum spp 


hixonookee                   Bone Bull                     T154 

hi(i)yoot                       part of buffalo stomach H46

hi’oot                           his leg                           T258                           

hi’otonoo                     pieces that hang from something T291

hoeii                             call at sundance            283,285, 318


hoeii                             exclamation                  T120, T204, T112, T30

hohookoowu               crazy lodge                   T30                             

hohoot                          kind of wood                T396                = Populus deltoides

hohou                           thank you                     318,366,367               

hohoukos                     thank you - f - formerly 318                             

honoh’oho                   young man                    315                  (plural as given)                       

honookoobiihi-nenno’ stout dancers                163                  = ???-men

honoo’uhu                   embroidered pillow       T291

honoun-oohuu              highest wand                 184                  honouun- = superlative

hoohosoo                     painted robe                 T155

hookeihtoo                   buffalo hooves              43                    (singular as given)                    

hookee3oo                   wall hanging                  T289  

(ho)hookohoo              med. root                     438                  = ‘makes people crazy’           

hookohoono                fat on kidneys               T155

hoowonookee              old buffalo                    T13                             

hoowoo’uu(biisi)           kind of tree/shrub          T295, T303, T394 prob. Cornus sericea

hoowoo’uunonoh’oe     Red Stick Man             T95                             

hooxebine                   spring boy                    22                    = ‘at the spring’                       

hooxei bo’ooneih          Personal Name (Red Wolf) 17             

hooxeihiineniiwohoet     dogwood                      T295                           

hooxowoo                  lance                            164

hoseihoowu                 sun dance lodge            152                             

hoseiyoo                       sacrificed                      283                             

hoteikuu3oo                 bull roarer                     396, H93         = ‘it makes noise’        

hotohine                       black plant fiber            T290

hotoo                           rock                             T258                           

                                    flat stone used for pounding T341

ho3i’oono’                   servants                        163                             

ho3o’ouhuuho’             star men                       181                             

ho3o’uusoo                  Little Star (name)          T335                           

houu cenii                     Personal Name             T48                  = ‘old crow’

houu niiseih                   Personal Name (One Crow) 18                       

houuno3on-iico’oo      pipe of settlement          21                    = ???-pipe

housoo                         porcupine’s son (name) T341              

hoxo’o3iinenno’            ridiculous men               8                      = ‘men who make people laugh’

hoxuxon(o)                   berdache (rotten bone) 19                               

ho’oeetinohookee         Lime (clay) Crazy         T30                             

ho’onookee                  rock                             T15                             

ho’yoox                        mescal                          399                  = Peyote cactus

kokoh’u3ecoono          thoughts/wishes             353,360,52,88            

kokoux                        wand                            184,352

  kokoox                      stick used in lodge        T30

koko’e                         game button                  H115

kokuyono                     reeds                            T155                also means ‘whistles’ ‘guns’

kooxoyeinoo              lance                            T338

ko’eibeihii                     kind of ornament           60                    = ‘round attached item’

ko’ohoyoo                   a stick                          T292

nebesiiwoo                   grandfather                   160                  vocative form

neeceehiicooono         chief pipes                    T155                           

neeceenohooot             chief gives away            168                 

neeniihii3einoo  I           mention                        164                  = ‘I say things’

neinoo                          my mother                    313                             

neisie                            my grandson                 164                             

neisiihoho                    my grandsons               160                             

neisonoo                       my father                      313                             

nenebinenno                northern men                7                                 

neneesootoxei’i             eight-line embroidered blanket T291     = ‘there are eight of them’

nenee3i’                       it is they                        164                             

neniicisoxu                   a root                           426                  = ‘hollow root’ (Lewisia rediviva?)

neniisookuteet               two-teeth (young buffalo) T289            

nenii3eihinoo                 menses                         15                    = ‘I am menstruating’

nenii3eiht                      she menstruates            15                               

netesei                          (younger) sister             10                    = ‘my...’

ne3ebi                          sister-in-law                  10                    = ‘my sister-in-law’                 

neyoo                           brother-in-law              10                    = ‘my...’

neyoooxet                    whirlwind, caterp          T97                             

neyoooxetisei                Whirl Wind Woman      61, T97                       

ne’ibiis                          a bundle of sticks          T295                = ‘currant bush’           

ne’iteteihit                     fulfillment of desire        52                    = ‘then it is gotten’                   

nihoonouute                 yellow hill on WRRes 110                                

nihoonoxu                   yellow weed                 97                               

nih’ii3oo3i’                   said                              315                  = ‘they said to him/them’          

niicoontete’inooni        that which we do not know 125            = ‘it cannot be known’

niihooxoooyoo            yellow oblong design     63                    = ‘it is yellow and oblong’        

niiiii                             dance cry                     365                

niinoono’o3iheenoo      I am punished               T29                                         

niino’otohwoot             rejoicing/war dance       T50,151                      

niisenoo                       part of beaver               32                    [probably testes]          

niisibinoonoo               pointed quiver               T154

niisoo’ouht                    twenty lines of quills on buffalo robe 29  niisoo’ = twenty (quill lines)

niitouuhuut                    shouting                        357                             

nii3ee3i’oonee              sacred turtle                  T4                    = ‘lumpy/ridged one’   

niiyoo’oe                      kind of wood                T394,T396       = Betula fontinalis

nii’eetee                      piece of root                 201,205,438,451,32,

                                           74,203, H92, 419        = Lomatium dissectum

nii’eihii                          bird/eagle                     361,379,433               

nii’eihii-hoo                  bird-embroidered shoes T291               nii’eihii- = ‘bird’

nii’eihiineyoo’uut           bird ornament               T289                           

nii’eihiinookuu               eagle tail                       342                  = ‘eagle tail feather’               

nii’iboootou’u               hemlock leaves             32                    = Abies lasiocarpa       

nii’ibou’oo                   perfume                        T29                             

ni’oxu                          sweet grass                   32, 165, H92   = Hierochloe odorata

nohoo                           wild horse                     T121                           

nooko3esiit                   cutting hair on one side of head 18       

noneisi                         bag (covering)              T377

nonii                             fat on the back of buff T155                             

nonookeekuu                white stand (dancer)     211,221                      

nonookouht                  white (pillow)                T291                           

nonooneeheii(n)i3i’       holders of hinonohoowu  T30

nookco’ooboo             white meat of hind leg   T155                = ‘white thigh’

nookhooseinenno       sagebrush men              7                                 

nookoox                       morning star                  54,88,388                   

nookubee3ei                 white owl                      T31                             

nookuhisei                    white woman (dancer)  211,T19                      

nookohookee               white fool                     193,189,T30               

nooneeco’oo                get ready!                     210                             

noosoo                         tinder                            T155

noowube’ei                  southern berries            423                  = Rhus trilobata

noowuunenno              southern men                7                                 

nouuhnenno                 kit fox men                   181                             

nouuse’eici3oo             lance of dance              175                 = ‘used to lead outside by the head’

(hi)notinisei                   clot woman                   T310                           

notou                            sister-in-law                  10                               

nottonee[t]                    calling the buffalo          437                             

no3oni                         rank and file                  211,223,186,180,

                                                                        163,159, 155

no3oninec                     irrigation water  155                             

noxiniiho                     Personal Name T203ff

no’ootit-o’oeneihiitono  head dress for dancing  171                 -o’oeneihiitono = going around (the head)

seeniiwo                      lizard                            56                               

seenookuu                    rope                             197,201           (plural as given)

                                    red scarf          

seiineniinohwoot           victory dance                T50,151                      

sesiicebi’oo                  kind of small bird          T154, T54 [dwarf]       = Black-capped Chickadee

se’iico’o                       flat pipe                        21,308                        

siiceneewoxu               prairie plant (yucca)      24                    = Yucca glauca

siisiiyeinoxu                 snake root plant            424                  = Oxytropis spp?

sosoyi                          Personal Name T204ff

tebii3oobiis                   cut nose bush tree         437                             

tei’oxu-wunee              scented root                 399                  tei’oxu’ = strong medicine

ti’oxonetiit                    touching of the feet        T50,151                      

tooyouni                      fall (season)                  Hilger 86                     

toukcihiitono                 waist piece                   171                  (plural as given)                     

tou3iikohoeno               pendants                       127                             

tou’cihiit                       waist piece                   171                             

towohoe                       round club                    169,159           = ‘implement for breaking’

towono’oxowoot          cutting bangs                 18                   

toyooceiyoo                 red scarf                       201                             

toyoon                         dressed (skin)               Y154

3iikcebiin                      ghost shot you              437

3iikono3ii                     ghost arrow                  437                  (plural as given)           

3i’eyoono’                    pile of stones                426,89                        

3i’okuuto’ono               seats                             43                               

3onoo                          bird’s sight                    362

3oo3ookoocei              meaningless??               T51

3ooxoho                       mittens                          T155   

3ooxu’eiyoot               ceremonial act              183

3o3ouutei’i                   ridges/hills                     315                             

3owo3nenitee               indian                           T17,T6            

wohei                           well                              160, T112                   

woh’sohk                     image of supreme being T350, T48

woniseineehiis               burr - goes after women  183                = Glycrrhiza lepidota

wonou                          wart                             T237,T9

wookuu                        head dress for dancing  171                  = ‘plumes worn on head’         

wootou-kuhuno            wrist guards                  T155                -kuhuno = ‘tied things’

woow hootniinciiniseeno  now (we) are ready to go around  210

wooxon                        Bracelet                        T124                           

wooxubou’oo              stomach medecine        420                  = ‘it smells bad’; Osmorrhiza spp

wooxu’ei3i’                  ugly people                   7                      = ‘they have ugly faces’           

woo’teeneihi3i’             Utes                             164                  = ‘they are black’

woo’tees                      black wolf                    T87                 

wouukohei                    greeting                        T113

wou’u                           calves (dancers)            211,222                      

woxse’eihtoo                bear claw                     96,109,110,115          

woxo3ouu’                   young buffalo bull          T296,T22,T16

woxo’uu-hunen            Personal Name T17                  -           hunen = ‘man’

woxuuhisei                    Elk Woman                  T395                           

woxuuk                       leglets                           171                             

woxwohoono              scented root                 399                  = ‘bear mint’; Agastache spp   

wo’ous                         short-tailed horse          T16

wo’teen-isceesi           small birds flying in flocks 420               wo’teen- = black

wuuuu                         call at sundance            282

xonouube’eekuu          straight standing red (design) 61                       

xooxooneihihi              pendants                       60                    = ‘little hanger/thing that hangs’

xowo’oo                      feathered stick              357

yeiniis                           rose bush                      361                  = Rosa woodsii           

yeyeinoxuus                  composite species         T289, T295      = ‘otter weed’; Carex spp

yoonouhut                    pledger                         159,163           =  one who pledges to erect Sun Dance lodge

ohoo                           expression                    T30

oo                               yes                               318                  (woman’s word)          

uhuuhu                       exclamation                  T78