Alphabetical List of All Locations in Colorado
for which Arapaho Place Names are Known

Arapaho Peak

hooxeihiinenii beiinese’ = Pawnee fort

Note: named for a battle with the Pawnee, apparently.

Arkansas River

hoxeenii-niicie? = ‘flint river’(?)
hoo’ohee-niicie? [Life of Mrs White Bear]

Baker Pass, west of RMNP

heeyeisoo-no’ toh-’ouu-3i’ = ‘where young falcons hang (in the wind)’

Ball Park, Grand County

nookhooseii’iini’ = ‘there is sagebrush’

Ball Park - creek in the area

nookooheii-koh’owu’ = sagebrush creek’

Bartholf Park and Flats, RMNP (near Tuxedo Park)

heetoh-so’owu’ = ‘where the land is flat’
or heetoh-so’esoo’ = ‘where it is flat’

Beaver Creek, near RMNP

bih’ihii-ko’owu’ = ‘mule deer creek’

Bierstadt Lake, RMNP

ni’ec honouute’ = ‘the lake which hangs (above the valley)’

Bierstadt Moraine area, RMNP

wox noho’kuhnee-t = ‘where a bear was chased up (the mountain)’

Note: named after an event in the 19th century.

Big Beaver River, RMNP

boo’-oowu’ = ‘red water’

Big Meadows, RMNP

toonooxuutee’ = ‘big meadow’

Big Thompson River

hiiico’o = ‘the pipe’
hiicoonoot = ‘pipe making’

Blue River, near Kremmling

biisee3 tih’ii-kou’uni’ = ‘where blue ceremonial paint was gathered’

Boulder area

héétoh-bíí3oonóó’ = ‘where it is steep’
híí3einóón níit-bíí3ihí-3i’ hoh’éni’ = ‘buffalos where they graze on the mountain’ [?]
noowóo3-ííteen = ‘Left Hand’s band’ [?]
Note: first name provided by Mark Soldierwolf. Appears to be a reference to the Flat
specifically. Second name provided by Lloyd Dewey. He said that it was a name
for the Boulder area generally. See Thatchtop Mountain - the name may be a memory
of that location and event, which is relatively near Boulder. Third name given by Mark
Soldierwolf, as a name for the general area where Left Hand stayed. May be a modern
designation, as naming places after individuals is not documented in traditional Arapaho
naming style.

Boulder Creek, RMNP

ce’eiinoonoohoet = ‘rawhide dish’

Buckhorn River

konook-oo’oe’ = ‘thick brush’

Buffalo Mountains (Medicine Bow Mts in area of Rawah Wild. Area?)

“Buffalo Mountains” (Toll, p. 22)

Note: the Arapaho word was not written down, but it would be hii3einoon-otoyoo’ or

Buffalo Pass, between North Park and Laramie Trail

heneecei-3esoo’ = ‘buffalo pass’
heneecei-booo = ‘buffalo trail’
beteesbiit = ‘fasting/vision quest’

Buffalo Pass, Big Lake Creek, lake nearby

“Lake Creek” (Toll, p. 23)

Note: the Arapaho word was not given, but it would be ni’ecii-koh’owu’.

Bullfrog Rock and Sheep Rock, along West Creek, RMNP

niiinon = ‘the tepee’

Bullfrog Rock, beneath it, along West Creek, RMNP

heneecee tih-tebiini3ee-t = ‘the buffalo bull with a broken horn’

Note: named after an animal of this description seen at the location.

Cabin Creek, Boulder County, RMNP

hebesii tih’ii-woo3ee-3i’ = ‘where there are many beavers’

Cache la Poudre River, Fort Collins area

ho’oowu’ heetou’ = ‘where a house is located’
hokooxúú-niiciihéhe’ = ‘tipi pole creek’ [?]

Note: named in early 19th century, when a single house was located along the river.
recorded by Hayden in 1859-60. Second name given by Mark Soldierwolf for Fort
Collins area. May be a vaguer reference to Laramie, WY, area, which was called
‘where we get tipi poles’.

Cache la Poudre River, basin in eastern part of the mountains

ce’einox = ‘the (game) bag’

Cascade area, RMNP - mountain southwest of there

niiinon = ‘the tepee’

Cascade area, RMNP - creek near there

beteee-t nono’ei = ‘the Arapahos danced there’

Central City - pass near there (Berthoud Pass?)

houusoo-no’ tih’ii-ceneni-3i’ = ‘where young crows are taken down (from the nest)’

Clark’s (Mtn?), RMNP

hiwoxuu huunisoo’ = ‘the elk’s horn’

Collegiate Range and Mount Massive

hiwoxuu hookuhu’ee = ‘elk’s head’

Colorado River, northernmost fork

koo’ohwuu-niicii-hehe’ = ‘little coyote river’

Colorado River, near Grand Lake

bes tookooxuusee’ = ‘a log lies across (the river)’

Colorado River, south (main?) fork

wox niicii-hehe’ = ‘little bear river’

Crystal Mountain, north of Estes Park

hiinoox hoono’uu = ???

Deer Mtn, RMNP

cenii3-otoyoo’ = ‘entering/inside mountain’


niinenii-niicie = ‘tallow river’

Devil’s Washboard area, north of Estes Park

ho’nookee-nooxeb = ‘rock spring’

Eagle Rock, near Estes Park, and School Section Rocks

nouuteeyoono’ = ‘bone pipes’

Elk River

neeteekoonee-niicii-hehe’ = ‘little drowning river’

Estes Cone and Wind River Clifffs, RMNP

nenees-otoyou’u = ‘there are three mountains’

Estes Park area

heet-ko’einoo’ = ‘where it is circular’
cenouut-oobe’ = ‘steep land’

Note: second name given by Mark Soldierwolf

Estes Park - north area and trail across this area

hisei-booo = ‘woman’s trail’

Note: named because the trail was used by women and children to escape a battle.

Estes Park - small hill near Stanley Hotel

cenee-nohwoot tih-yoo-ni’ = ‘where the Sage Chicken dance was held’

Fall River, RMNP

heces-iiico’o = ‘little pipe’

Fall River - trail along this river and over Millner Pass

he3eb-booo = ‘dog’s trail’

Flat Top Mtn and trail over this area, RMNP

heebe3-booo = ‘big trail’
hee3éb teesí’ = ‘there on top’ ?

Note: second name given by Mark Soldierwolf. He told of driving buffalo
onto a flat top mountain with only one way off, so that they could be killed.
See Thatchtop Mountain.

Fort Collins, road from there towards Estes Park, beyond “Red Rocks”

nii’eihii 3i’oku-t = ‘an eagle sits there’

Fraser River

benii3oonoo’ = ‘it is deep or steep’

Garden of the Gods, Colorado Springs

hó3o’uu níit-ko’ús-i’i = ‘stars where they fall to earth’ [?]

Note: name given by Mark Soldierwolf. He said this is one of several places
where stars come down to the earth, fly around, and then go back up into the sky.
The exact meaning of this type of event is unclear.

Gianttrack Mtn, near RMNP

hinenitee toh-nooxeih-t = ‘where a (giant) person left tracks’

Note: named for s set of huge footprints found there.

Granby, hills to the west, south of Colorado River

beiines heetoh-kokoyoo’ = ‘where there is a square fort’

Grand Lake

heebe3-ni’ec = ‘big lake’
beteen-ni’ec = ‘holy lake’

Grand Lake, south point

kokuy = ‘gun’

Note: named because an individual named ‘Gun’ fasted at this spot.

Grand Lake area

ce’einox = ‘the (game) bag’

Grays Peak and Torrey’s Peak

heenii-yoowuu = ‘anthills’

Hallett Peak, RMNP

bonoh’oon-otoyoo’ = ‘thunder peak’

Harm’s Peak

nii’eetei’i tih’ii-kou’uni’-i = ‘where white turnips are gathered’

Horseshoe Park area, RMNP

ciitoowuu’ = ‘inside (the lodge)’

James Peak and south of there

hooxee hookute’ = ‘wolf’s canine’

Joe Wright Creek

hiwoxuu-koh’owu’ = ‘elk creek’

Kawuneechee Valley, RMNP

koo’ohwuu-niicii-hehe’ = ‘little coyote creek’

Kawuneechee Valley - area within

hiwoxuuhuu-3o’ohcoo = ‘pounded elk meat’

Kawuneechee Valley - area within

niitoh-nonouhti-‘ = ‘where we race’

Kawuneechee Valley - area within

toh-‘okooxeee-ni’ = ‘where we get tepee poles’

Kawuneechee Valley - area within

heebe3i-boo3etiit = ‘big battle’

Note: named for a battle with the Utes.

Laramie Plains

heneecei-booo = ‘buffalo trail’

Larimer County, rock formation along Interstate 25 near Wyoming border

níit-kotóus-í’i = ‘where they took shelter’

Note: name given by Mark Soldierwolf and/or Lloyd Dewey. Refers to a battle
with other Indians, in which the Arapaho used this area for shelter during an attack.

Lily Lake and Lily Mtn, RMNP

hebes-okoy = ‘beaver lodge’

Lily Mtn, RMNP

“beaver lodge mountain”

Note: only the translation of the Arapaho was written down. The word would be

Little Beaver River, RMNP

honooxoehebiisi’-iini’ = ‘there are bullberries there’

Longs Peak and Mt. Meeker

neniis-otoyou’u = ‘there are two mountains’

Note: Lloyd Dewey said he had heard this name, but had never known where
the actual location was.

Lumpy Ridge, RMNP

3ee3i’otoyoo’ = ‘lumpy mountain’

McCreary Hill and Spring, north of Estes Park

bih’ihii-koh’owu’ = ‘mule deer creek’

McHenry’s Peak to Stones Peak - ridge above timberline in RMNP

beniix-otoyou’u = ‘bald/bare mountains’

Medicine Bow Mountains (and River)

3ooxone’ = ‘at the (woman’s stone) hammer’

Medicine Bow Mts, northwest-most hills

hooksee3oo = ‘tepee liner or protection’

Michigan Creek, North Park

bei’i’ei-niicii-hehe’ = ‘little shell river’

Michigan Creek, spur between here and Illinois River (near Walden)
beteesibiit = ‘fasting/vision quest’

Middle Mtn, RMNP

neneehii3ei’-otoyoo’ = ‘middle mountain’

Millner Pass, RMNP

bih’ihii-booo = ‘mule deer trail’

Mills Lake, RMNP

teiiton-ni’ec = ‘calm lake’

Mt. Alice and the peak to the west

bei3e’ee-no = ‘heads’

Mt. Olympus and two other mountains near RMNP

neneb-3i’ei’itei’i = ‘they face to the north’

Mummy Range

nooku-bee3ei-no = ‘white owls’

Mummy Range, mountains to the north of this range

nenonxootei’i = ‘northern bodies’

Neota Mtn, near RMNP

hote’-itee = ‘sheep’s heart’

Note: the English name is derived from hoh’enii hote’ hitee meaning ‘mountain sheep
his heart.’

Never Summer Mountains

nii-cii-biicei’i = ‘it is never summer there’

North and East Inlets - mountain between them, RMNP

hiineniteen-otoyoo’ = ‘person mountain’

North Park

heneecei-booo = ‘buffalo trail’

Note: this name was recognized by Lloyd Dewey and Mark Soldierwolf.

North Park, mountain on east side, near where Elk River starts

“Buffalo Lodge” (Toll, p. 23)

Note: the Arapaho is not recorded, but would be perhaps heneeceen-oowu’ or
hii3einoon-oowu’, or heneeceen-okoy or hii3einoon-okoy.

Notchtop Mtn and point on south of Loch Vale, RMNP

hotei-netihii = ‘sheep’s heart’

Old Man Mtn, RMNP

hinen toh-3i’okut = ‘where a man sits’

Onahu Creek, RMNP

hoonouhut = ‘he warms himself’

Note: this spot was named for a horse of this name who escaped and was found here.

Onahu Creek - between here and Timber Creek, RMNP

beexookein-okoy = ‘mountain lion’s den’

Owl Canyon area, NW of Ft. Collins along US-287

wonoo3ee3i’ hookoh’o’ (newer style)
hookoh’o’ heetohwoo3ee3i’ (older style) = ‘many miller moths’

Note: only the English translation of the Arapaho name was known by Alonzo Moss,
who heard it from Ralph Hopper. The Arapaho given here is the translation of the

Owl Creek, North Park

nihoon-oobe’ = ‘yellow ceremonial paint’

Pikes Peak

heey-otoyoo’ = ‘long mountain’

Porphyry Peak, west of RMNP

hite3oun-okoy = ‘sandhill crane’s lodge’

Prospect Mtn, near RMNP

biixuut = ‘the shirt’

Note: named for a time when a Pawnee with a very unusual shirt was killed here.

Red Rocks - area on road from Ft. Collins to Estes Park

boo’-ho’oooyoo’ = ‘red rocky area’

Rocky Mountain National Park - location in or near

ni’ec-i’ toh-boo3eti-‘ = ‘the lake where we fought’

Note: recalls a battle with the Utes.

Rocky Mountain National Park - trail in the area of

notkonii-booo = ‘scout’s/warrior’s trail’

Rocky Mountains

3ooxone’ noho’oooyoo’ = ‘the hammer mountain range’

Saddle Mtn, RMNP

bih’ih toh-niibei’i-t = ‘where the mule deer sings’

Sand Creek

noobei-niicie = ‘sand river’
nii-cii-nec-iini’ = ‘never wet river’ [Kroeber - Name-Changing Prayer]

Note: the second name is the original, older name, recorded by Kroeber in
Oklahoma c. 1900. The first name is a modern borrowing from English, most

Sawtooth Mtn, west of RMNP

nii’eihii-nohuux = ‘eagle’s nest’

Sawtooth Mtn, west of there

niisootoxu-3i’ heetoh-wo’teeneihi-3i’ = ‘where seven Utes (were defeated)’

Note: recalls a battle with the Utes. Lloyd Dewey gave exactly the same name
for a location in the Owl Creek Mts, west of Thermopolis, with the same
explanation for the name. Since the Utes probably never ranged this far north,
it is likely that the name he gave was a confusion with this battle, as he also
recalled some other northern Colorado names.

Shadow Mtn, Echo Mtn, and Lookout Mtn, RMNP

beniis-otoyoo’ = ‘hairy (pine-covered) mountain’

Sheep Mtn, a lake nearby, in RMNP [or Sheep Mtn?]

tih-noo’oeenootee’ ni’ec-i’ = ‘where there was a camp around a lake’

Signal Mtn, north of Estes Park

toxu’oo’ husei to’uut = ‘sharp woman’s hammer’

Signal Peak, along Cache la Poudre River

honooxoen-otoyoo’ = ‘wolf mountain’

South Platte River

niinenii-niicie = ‘tallow river’

Specimen Mtn, RMNP

heetoh-xouu’oo’ = ‘where it smokes’

Steamboat Springs, nearby

neniikote’eit neh’eih-t = ‘where Bushy Head was killed’

Note: recalls the death of an Arapaho in a battle.

Steep Mountain, RMNP (near Tuxedo Park, later renamed Gianttrack Mountain?)

heneecee tees-noho’kuhnee-t = ‘where a buffalo bull was chosed up on top (of
the mountain)’

Note: recalls an event in the 19th century.

Stones Peak, Mt Julian, and area between them, RMNP

wox-eihtoo = ‘bear’s paw’
or wox-se’eihtoo = ‘bear’s foot’

Strawberry Creek, near RMNP

bih’ihii-koh’owu’ = ‘mule deer creek’

Strawberry Creek area

ce’einox = ‘the (game) bag’

Strawberry Peak and a neighboring one

wox-otonou’u = ‘bear’s ears’

Strawberry Peak, south of there

hiwoxuu tih-kootoo’ni-3i’ = ‘where elk are trapped’

Table Mountain

hiikono = ‘the lungs’

Taylor Peak, RMNP

3owonooxowoo = ‘the (hair) bangs’

Note: said to recall an enemy who was killed near here, and had an unusual haircut.

Thatchtop Mtn, RMNP

hii3einoon toh-‘ouuhu-t = ‘where a buffalo herd climbed up’
hee3éb-teesí’ = ‘towards the top’
Note: first name recalls a time when a herd of buffalo was trapped in deep snow,
chased up a mountain, and killed. Second name given by Mark Soldierwolf. He said it
refers to
a flat-top mountain area with only one way to the summit, where buffalo would be
herded upwards and killed. See also the entry for Flattop Mountain.

Thunder Pass, RMNP

bonoh’ooo-ni3esoo’ = ‘thunder pass’

Trail Ridge trail and area, RMNP

tei’yoon-booo = ‘child’s trail’

Note: so named because children were forced to walk rather than ride due to the
steepness of the trail.

Upper Beaver Meadows area, RMNP - rock formation on edge of meadows

ti’iinenii cebtiit = ‘shooting Apaches’

Note: named for a battle with the Apache.

Upper Beaver Meadows area, RMNP

ti’iihiinen tih-neh’eee-t = ‘where an Apache was killed’

Note: named for a battle with the Apache.

Upper Beaver Meadows area, RMNP

ti’iihiinen tih-‘oowo’oh’oee-t = ‘where an Apache was shot down (off a rock)’

Note: named for a battle with the Apache.

Upper Beaver Meadows area, RMNP - between here and Horseshoe Park

hisei tih-noo3ee-t = ‘where a woman was left behind’

Note: named for a time when an old woman was abandoned here.

Walsenburg - area to the west of

heet-too-tonoti’ = ‘where there are caves’
heeseise’?? = ‘windy’

West Creek, RMNP - an open park along the creek

woe’teeneihi3i’ niih’eikuhnee-3i’ = ‘where Utes were chased away’

Note: named for a battle.

White Elk Flat, RMNP

toh-co’oo’oe’ = ‘where it is brushy’

Willow Creek, Grand County

yonookoxuu’uunni’ = ‘there are willows’

Windy Gap, east of RMNP

hisei tih’ii-noxouso’on-eit bes = ‘where a woman was killed by a log’

Note: named for a time when a tree fell and killed a woman as people were travelling
through this area.

Woodward Rock, Larimer County

nih’ohuu-biisee = ‘flying bug’

unknown river, south of the South Platte

héces-niiciihéhe’ = ‘little river’

Note: name given by Mark Soldierwolf. He first said this was a tributary of the
South Platte, then suggested it was a tributary to the Arkansas. Two likely choices
would be Plum Creek or Cherry Creek (flowing north) or Fountain Creek (flowing