1961 - National Indian Youth Council (NIYC). This organization seeks to resurrect a sense of national pride among young Indian people and to instill an activist message: Indians were no longer to bow their heads in humble obedience to the BIA and other institutions of white society. Instead, they were to look back to their own great cultural traditions and make decisions about their lives based upon such traditions.

1968 - Indian Civil Rights Act (ICRA). This Act of Congress revised Public Law 280 by requiring states to obtain tribal consent prior to extending any legal jurisdiction over an Indian reservation. It also gave most protections of the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment to tribal members in dealings with their tribal governments. ICRA also amended the Major Crimes Act to include assault resulting in serious bodily harm as a federal crime on Indian lands.

1968 - American Indian Movement (AIM). Shortly after the Minneapolis Anishinaabeg formed an “Indian Patrol” to monitor police activities in Indian neighborhoods, three patrol leaders organized AIM. AIM’s membership was primarily urban Indians who believed that direct and militant confrontation with the US government was the only way to redress historical grievances and to gain contemporary civil rights; and that the tribal governments organized under the IRA (1934) were not truly legitimate or grounded in traditional Indian ways.

1969 - “Indians of All Tribes” occupation of Alcatraz. A diverse group of Indians seized the abandoned Alcatraz Island in the San Francisco harbor. They issued a “Proclamation to the Great White Father” in which they stated that Alcatraz was suitable as an Indian Reservation and thus, should be converted into an Indian educational and cultural center. The Indians of All Tribes occupied Alcatraz for 19 months until June, 1971 when US marshals and FBI agents removed the remaining occupying force of 15 Indians.

1969 - Navajo Community College at Many Farms, Arizona. The first tribally-established and Indian-controlled community college in the US opened its doors to students. Two years later, Public Law 92-189 authorized Congress to appropriate $5.5 million to “ensure that the Navajo Indians and other qualified applicants have educational opportunities which are suited to their unique needs and interests.” In 1997, it became Dine Collegeand a four-year institution.





info from - http:/www.humboldt.edu/~go1/kellogg/