Lesson Six - Part Three
Transitive Verbs and
Inanimate Objects


Since we've now started to name objects, we can begin to talk about transitive verbs - that is, verbs that involve one thing acting on another thing, or verbs which take an object. For example, in Arapaho you can say:


Play  nonoohóot-owoo tóuyoo I see the cup
Play  woo3onóh-ow he-niisih'íit You are writing your name


The forms for the personal pronouns are suffixed to the verb. Using nonoohoot- (see), the forms are:


Play  nonoohóot-owoo I see it
Play  nonoohóot-ow You see it
Play  nonoohóot-o' S/he sees it
Play  nonoohóot-owúni' We see it [some say nonoohoot-owuni']
Play  nonoohóot-owúno' We(incl) see it
Play  nonoohóot-owúnee You(pl) see it
 nonoohóot-óú'u They see it


The -o- after the verb root can be thought of as "it," and the rest of the endings correspond to the different persons. Other examples are as follows:


Play  nénii3ín-owoo I have it.
 níit-ó' He is afraid of it.
Play  hiitét-ow You are coming to it.
Play  hiitét-owúnee You(pl) are coming to it.


Note that these verbs are used only with inanimate objects. Here is a list of some very common TI verbs:


he'in- know it
nii3in- have it (with you)
noohoot- see it
wo3onoh- write it
hotoonoot- buy it
hitet- get it, take it, get to it
to'oot- hit it
cesin- drop it
wo'ten- pick it up


Again, as we have seen before, these verbs can be used for questions and "no" responses, with the suffixes being replaced by prefixes. The system works almost exactly like it does for AI verbs, except that the special negative suffixes are different when more than one person is being talked about.


Play  too'óot-owoo I have struck it once.
Play  néíhoow-to'óot I have not (just) struck it.

Play  nenii3ín-owunee You two have it.
Play  héíhoowu-nii3in-éébe You(pl) don't have it.
Play  hoowu-nii3ín-owuu They don't have it.

Play  nonoohóot-ow You see it.
Play  koohe-noohóot Do you see it?
koohe-noohóot-éébe Do you(pl) see it?


The full set of forms is:


Play  néíhoow-noohóot I don't see it
Play  héíhoow-noohóot You don't see it
Play  hoow-noohóot S/he doesn't see it
Play  néíhoow-noohóot-éébe We don't see it
Play  héíhoow-noohóot-ow We(incl) don't see it
Play  héíhoow-noohóot-éébe You(pl) don't see it
Play  hoow-noohóot-owuu They don't see it

Play  koono-noohóot Do I see it?
Play  kooho-noohóot Do you see it?
Play  koo-noohóot Does s/he see it?
Play  koono-noohóot-éébe Do we see it?
Play  kooho-noohóot-ow Do we(incl) see it?
Play  kooho-noohóot-éébe Do you(pl)see it?
Play  koo-noohóot-owuu Do they see it?



Exercises for Lesson Six