Lesson Five - Part Three
Details on Negatives


When you have a negative, an h- at the beginning of the verb disappears, with all persons. However, because the underlying form of the negative is hoowu-, the final -u- is still present, but merges into the following vowel of the verb. It looks like the verb has initial change (minus the h-), but this is not the case. Rather, what happens is a merging of two vowels, with the h between the vowels disappearing.


Play  heesnee-noo ‘I’m hungry’
Play  neihooweesnee (neihoowu-esnee) ‘I’m not hungry’
Play  heihooweesnee ‘you’re not hungry’
Play  hooweesnee ‘s/he’s not hungry’


Once again, when the verb begins with hi-, vowel harmony is involved. The h- disappears, and the final -u of hoowu- causes the initial i- of the verb to turn into a u-:


Play  hiinono'eini-noo ‘I’m Arapaho’
Play  neihoowu-unono'ein ‘I’m not Arapaho’’
Play  heihoowu-unono'ein ‘you’re not Arapaho’
Play  hoowu-unono'ein ‘s/he’s not Arapaho’


In summary, remember that when a verb starts with h-, you have to pay special attention to it, and when it starts with hi-, you have to pay extra special attention.



Exercises for Lesson Five