Lesson Two - Part Two
Stress and Pronunciation



In many cases, the final -i of tenei'eihi- is dropped before the endings -noo, -n, and -t. This is almost always true before -t. So Arapaho speakers normally say tenéi'éíht. Play

In the plural forms, the stress typically shifts "forward" towards the end of the word, as in the following examples. The final -eihí3i' may be pronounced -ehí3i' or -ehéí3i' on some occasions: tenéi’ehéí3i’.


Compare the stress in the following examples:


I feel well vs. nii'óuubeihí3i'
They feel well
I am dancing vs. Play  beeteéé3i' They are dancing


Two Ways to Say “We”


When you say "we" in English, you don't specify whether the person you're speaking with is included in "we," or whether you're talking about you and someone else. Arapaho makes this distinction.


When the 1plural form is used, the person you are speaking to is not included when you say "we." Thus two elders might say to a younger person "we are strong" (tenéi'éíhi' or tenéi'eihíni'), meaning the elders only. If they want to include the younger person they're speaking to, they would say tenéi'eihíno'.


These are the endings you would need to use for the two forms of "we" in Arapaho:


-'/-ni' 1plural exclusive
-no' 12 inclusive


Linguists call the 1plural form exclusive since it excludes the person you are talking to, and the 12 form inclusive since it includes both speaker and listener (as the "12" designation suggests).



Exercises for Lesson Two