OTPIC Officially Retired

As of December 2, 2005, the Online Training Program on Intractable Conflict (OTPIC) has been officially retired, and is no longer open to new registrations.

The successor to OTPIC is a course called Dealing Constructively with Intractable Conflicts (DCIC). The new curriculum is built around one of our major projects, Beyond Intractability, and offers a much more extensive and informative set of learning materials than that available through OTPIC.


Paul Wehr

Force is a form of conflict behavior that should be used cautiously if at all. As competitive action, it moves a conflict away from cooperative resolution. It also tends to be more costly to both users and their opponents. The more costs that participants sink into a conflict, the more difficult it is for them to "sacrifice" those costs in shifting to cooperative resolution.  Force is a threatening type of social action. One makes or promises to make someone do something against their will. Even if force is not actually used by conflict parties, the possibility that they could or will use it is present and will influence the conflict. Potential force is usually more useful for cooperative resolution than applied force. Since less harm is done, less needs to be undone later. We can think of threat as a moderate type of force.

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Copyright 1998 Conflict Research Consortium  -- Contact: crc@colorado.edu