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Risk vs. safety in playgrounds
Detail: The value of safety-first playgrounds is a highly debatable matter. Even if children do suffer fewer physical injuries in such playgrounds, although the evidence of that is arguable, the critics say that these playgrounds may stunt emotional development, leaving children with anxieties and fears that are ultimately worse than a broken bone.

�Children need to encounter risks and overcome fears on the playground,� said Ellen Sandseter, a professor of psychology at Queen Maud University in Norway. �I think monkey bars and tall slides are great. As playgrounds become more and more boring, these are some of the few features that still can give children thrilling experiences with heights and high speed.�

After observing children on playgrounds in Norway, England and Australia, Dr. Sandseter identified six categories of risky play: exploring heights, experiencing high speed, handling dangerous tools, being near dangerous elements (like water or fire), rough-and-tumble play (like wrestling), and wandering alone away from adult supervision. The most common is climbing heights.

�Climbing equipment needs to be high enough, or else it will be too boring in the long run,� Dr. Sandseter said. �Children approach thrills and risks in a progressive manner, and very few children would try to climb to the highest point for the first time they climb. The best thing is to let children encounter these challenges from an early age, and they will then progressively learn to master them through their play over the years.�

Sometimes, of course, their mastery fails, and falls are the common form of playground injury. But these rarely cause permanent damage, either physically or emotionally. While some psychologists � and many parents � have worried that a child who suffered a bad fall would develop a fear of heights, studies have shown the opposite pattern: A child who�s hurt in a fall before the age of 9 is less likely as a teenager to have a fear of heights.

By gradually exposing themselves to more and more dangers on the playground, children are using the same habituation techniques developed by therapists to help adults conquer phobias, according to Dr. Sandseter and a fellow psychologist, Leif Kennair, of the Norwegian University for Science and Technology.

�There is no clear evidence that playground safety measures have lowered the average risk on playgrounds,� said David Ball, a professor of risk management at Middlesex University in London. He noted that the risk of some injuries, like long fractures of the arm, actually increased after the introduction of softer surfaces on playgrounds in Britain and Australia.

�This sounds counterintuitive, but it shouldn�t, because it is a common phenomenon,� Dr. Ball said. �If children and parents believe they are in an environment which is safer than it actually is, they will take more risks. An argument against softer surfacing is that children think it is safe, but because they don�t understand its properties, they overrate its performance.�

Reducing the height of playground equipment may help toddlers, but it can produce unintended consequences among bigger children. �Older children are discouraged from taking healthy exercise on playgrounds because they have been designed with the safety of the very young in mind,� Dr. Ball said. �Therefore, they may play in more dangerous places, or not at all.�

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Source: Excerpted from �Can a Playground Be Too Safe?� by John Tierney, July 18, 2011, The New York Times
Date: August 19 2011