The following brief story was written by native Arapaho speakers, for children. It is extracted from a children’s dictionary of animal names. The translation was done by the Arapaho speakers as well. The linguistic analysis and pitch accent marks were done by Dr. Andrew Cowell, University of Colorado , after re-elicitation from a native speaker.

teecxo’  hinono’eino’,  tih’iinoo’ei3i’,
teecxo’     hinono’ei-no’  tih-’iinoo’ei-3i’
long ago   Arapaho-PL    when.PAST-hunt(AI)-3PL
‘a long time ago, when Arapahos used to hunt,

tih’iine’etiiwoohu3i’,  nih’iinoonoyoo3oo3i’
tih-’iine’etiiwoohu-3i’    nih-’ii-noo-noyoo3-oo3i’
when.PAST-make living(AI)-3p   PAST-HABIT-REDUP-trap(TA)-3PL/4PL
when they made a living for themselves, they trapped

wild animal-PL.OBV
wild animals.’

nohci’nih’iinoonoyei3i’  niiciihehe’ noh  ni’eci’.
noh=ci’=nih-’ii-noo-noyei-3i’                          niiciiheh-e’    noh  ni’ec-i’
and-also-PAST-HABIT-REDUP-fish(AI)-3PL  river-LOC      and  lake-LOC
‘and also, they fished in the rivers and lakes.’

nuh’uuno  notoyeicii   neneenini’i  nihi’iiteixo’oni3i’
nuh’-uuno  notoyeic-ii  neneenini-’i  nih-i’-ii-iteixo’oni-3i’
this-PL       hide-PL      it-0PL             PAST-INSTR-HABIT-have clothes(AI)-3PL
‘they used hides for their clothing

noh  nihi’iiyeih’i3i’.
noh   nih-i’-ii-iyeih’i-3i’
and   PAST-INSTR-HABIT-have shelter(AI)-3PL
and their homes.’

that-PAST-how-make living(AI)-3PL
‘that is how they lived.’

Heetoh’oo’eiseet 3owo3nenitee

This story was written in English by a student at Wyoming Indian High School, and translated into Arapaho by her teacher Richard Moss, a native speaker of the language. It was published in the Bear Singer yearbook of WIHS. Small corrections in the spelling of the Arapaho have been made by Dr. Andrew Cowell of University of Colorado. Changes in the original English are in brackets.

  1. teecxo’   hee’ineeyoo’  nih-’iitoh-’oo’eisee-3i’  3owo3nenitee-no’,
    there is a special place where all Native American Tribes gathered many, many years ago,
  2. hoo3oo’o’  hiiteeno’  he’ih’ii-iniito’eibeti-no’.
    where some Tribes used to make peace with each other.
  3. hoo3oo’o’  ce’esnenitee-no’   nih’ii-ni’i3ecoot-o’ohkoni’
    But other Tribes would go to this place for the enjoyment of it,
  4. noh  nenitee-no’  he’ih’ii-ceitooneti-no’  tohuu-cii-no'o3-noohobeti-3i’.
    and to visit the people they had met in past years.
  5. howoo  he’ih’ii-cee-cebiiheti-no’.
    there the people would also take part in tribal games for entertainment.
  6. hii3eti-’  tih’ii-beh-nohco’oot-ou’u  betooot  wo’ei3  cebiihetiit-ono.
    the best part of the trip was to participate or watch the pow-wow [or games]...
  7. hiiwoonhehe’  “heetoh-’oo’eisee-t  3owo3nenitee”  nee’eesih’iinoo-’.
    Today, this place is called, “The Gathering of the Nations.”
  8. hono’ut  hees-ce’eseih-t  3owo3nenitee  nee'eet-iixoohoo3i3ei’i-t  heesoo-’  hit-iine’etiitoon-inoo,
    All Native American Tribes within the US go and share together their traditional values,
  9. howoo  heeneesiixonee-t  noh  hiniito’eibetiit.
    traditional foods, and friendship with each other.
  10. noh   nuhu’  nee’ee-niiseti-’  heebe3ibetooot  noh  hoo’eixoot.
    This pow-wow is one of the largest pow-wow[s] in the United States.

Ceesey Tihneesi’ Nih’iisee3i’ Hii3einoon

This story was written in English by a student at Wyoming Indian High School. It was translated into Arapaho by the teacher, Richard Moss, a native speaker. It was published in the “Bear Singer” Yearbook of WIHS.

  1. ceesey  nih-no'o3iitoxu-3i’  hii3einoon  nih-’iinxoot-ou’u   nih-’eeneit-woo3ee-’
    Once there was a vast number of buffalo that roamed the valleys and plains which was filled
  2. woxu’  howoo koh’owuu,  niiciihoho  noh  ni’ecii.
    with green grass and crystal clear streams, rivers, and lakes.
  3. nih’ii-co’ooyeisee-3i’; 3owo3nenitee-no’  he’ih’ii-to3ih-ei’i.
    The buffalo would travel in large groups followed by the Plains Indians.
  4. nehe’  hii3einoon  nih-i’-iine’etii-t  3owo3nenitee.
    The buffalo were the life support of the Plains Indians.
  5. hi-bii3ib,  hixono  he’ih-beh-tonouneihiinoo-no,
    They were used for food, [the hides for cover and shelter], the bones [for spears]
  6. howoo tei’yoonoh'o’  hit-iinikotiitoon-inoo.
    and toys for the children.
  7. nehe’ hii3einoon hoow-nii3oyeisiheih.
    The buffalo were not wasted.
  8. he’ih-beis-tonouneih  nehe’  hii3einoon.
    Every part was made useful.
  9. hei’-no’usee-t  nehe’  nih’oo3oo  kookoyon  ne’-bi’-noo-noh’-oot.
    when the whiteman came into this territory, they killed and slaughtered our buffalo.
  10. hi’iihi’  wonotoyeic  hoowuu3ooh-oot  hoseino’.
    Their greed took the hides and left the meat to waste.
  11. 3owo3nenitee  nih-’ee3nee-neenow-oot  hii3einoon.
    The buffalo were valuable to the American Indians.
  12. hoowooh-woo3ee-no’  hii3einoon.
    There are no longer vast numbers of buffalo.
  13. noh  hiiwoonhehe’  heetoxu-3i’  hii3einoon  hoowooh-’uuno’oo-no’.
    The existing buffalo no longer roam free.
  14. nenii3oxoeni-3i’  hiiwoonhehe’  toh-’oonoyoohobeihi-3i’.
    The are pastured and accounted for, for their safety.


By Gloria Goggles, Cleo Goggles, Charolette Goggles and Ardeline Spotted Elk, Northern Arapaho Tribe Transcription by Alonzo Moss, Sr., Northern Arapaho Tribe, Copyright 1994, Wyoming Indian Schools. Interlinear translation by Dr. Andrew Cowell, University of Colorado. Arapaho and English as in original publication, with minor changes in spelling and punctuation by Andrew Cowell.


co'ouu3ih'ohu- = fly high in the air
neyeisinoo'oo- = become separated, split up
neetou3ecoo- = feel lonely, homesick
yiisih'ohu- = fly over that ways 
nookunesee- = have a white shoulder/arm 
no'uh'ohu- = arrive/come to a place by flying 
bebeeneihi- = beautiful
tonoxteeni- = be a meadow, opening in the forest 
yii3ecinooh- = to send someone to do something 
hoo3i3inou'oo- = to float on one's back 
to3ih- = to follow someone nehtoneihi- = trickly; clever 
hi3o'obee- = the ground is good, fertile, there is a prairie
yihxoh- = to take someone over there 
he3owo'oo- = going there 
yeiy = otter
biixonoo = plume

Ceesey  tih’iisiini’,   hoow-kou3iihi’,  nehe’  nii’eihii  Coo’ouu3ih’ohu-t  noh
one        yesterday     not long ago      this     eagle       it flies high           and
One day not too long ago, an eagle, Flying High, and his mate White Plume

hi-bii’o’oon  Nookbiixonoo  he’iisiis-neyeisinoo’oo-noo3i.
his mate       white plume     somehow became separated.
somehow became separated.

Hei’-ciino’on-neetou3ecoo-t,  ne’-cesis-notiih-oot             hi-bii’o’oon.
since he was pretty lonely   then he started looking for her   his mate.
Feeling quite lonely, he set out to look for his mate.

Hee3eb-yiisih’ohu-t      teesiihi’   nuhu’  hohe’,         noh  benii’iih-oot     Kokiyote’.
He flew up over there   on top of  this     mountain   and   he found him   bighorn sheep.
He flew to the top of the mountain and found Mountain Sheep.

Nih-notton-oot    wohoe’-ih-cii-noohob-ee   hi-bii’o’oon.
he asked him    if he had perhaps seen her    his mate.
He asked him if he had seen his mate.

“Hee,”   hee3-eihok      nehe’ Kokiyote’.
“Yes,”   he said to him   this   bighorn sheep.
“Yes,” said Mountain Sheep.”

Nih-noohow-o’ toh-’e3eb-yiisih’ohu-t                   Hebesiibeih’in    Nonookunesee-t
I saw her         when she was flying up over there   our grandfather   grizzly bear
“I saw her flying toward our Grandfather Grizzly’s

his meadow.”

Hei’-eh-no’uh’ohu-t     nehe’  nii’eihii   nuhu’ toonoxteeni’,
When he arrived there   this     eagle        this     meadow
When the eagle got to the meadow,

nih-notton-oot  Hebesiibeih’in   Nonookunesee-t  wohoe’-ih-cii-noohob-ee          nuhu’
he asked him   our grandfather   grizzly bear        if he had perhaps seen her   this
he asked Grandfather Grizzly  if he had seen

beebeeneihi-ni3   hi-bii’o’oon.
she is beautiful    his mate.
his beautiful mate.

“Nih-noohow-o’   hee3eb-yiisih’ohu-t              heet-ii3o’bee-’
“I saw her           she was flying up over there   where the prairie is
“I saw her flying toward the range of the

niitoo-t                          nono’oteih-t       hiwoxuu.”
he normally stays there   he is powerful  elk.”
mightly elk.”

Nehe’  beih’eihiwoxuu  ne’-yii3ecnooh-uut             hini’ niiciihinen-no’ hi-biito’owuuw-unoo,
This     old man elk        then he sent him over there that    water people   their land
The Grand Bull Elk sent him ahead to the land of the water people,

hinee Yeiy.
that     otter.
the Otter.

Nehe’ hee’eih-t   Yeiy   woonoote’in-o’      tih-noohow-oot 
This    he is wise   otter    he remembers it   when he saw her
The witty Otter remembers seeing her flying overhead

tih-cebih’ohu-ni3        hihcebe’  heecis-hoo3i3inou'oo-3i
when she was flying by   above      while he was floating on his back
as he was floating along earlier

nono3iihi’ hini’ hiisi’.
earlier        that day.
that day.

Hee3owo’oo-t                         yiisiihi’            heet-iyeih’i-ni3                 hini’
She was going in that direction   towards there   where he has his home   that
She was headed toward the den of Clever Coyote

Neehtoneihi-ni3 Koo’ohwuun   nih-’ee3nee-ne’eihi-ni3.
he is tricky        coyote              he was very wise.
who was very wise.

“Cih-to3ih-i!”  heeh-ehk   nehe’  Neehtoneih-t  Koo’oh,
“Follow me!”   he said     this     he is tricky    coyote
Clever Coyote said, “follow me and I shall take you

“heet-yihxoh-e3en              he-bii’o’oo.”
“I will take you over there   your mate.”
to your mate.”

Wohei Coo’ouu3ih’ohu-t  ne’-to3ih-oot            Neehtoneih-t Koo’oh.
Well    it flies high            then he followed him   he is tricky   coyote
So Flying High followed Clever coyote and at last

noh  heihii   ne’-ce’-nii3neniiw-oot                   Nookbiixonoo,
and  soon     then he was living with her again   white plume
he was reunited with Whiteplume,

nih-’ee3nee-ni’i3ecoo-ni3  toh-ce’-noohob-eit.
she was very happy         because she saw him again.
who was very glad to see him.

Hooxohoeeniihi’,  heni’-bee3ih-oot           honow-kou3iine’etiit.
In return                he blessed him with it   happy long life.
In return, Flying High blessed him with a long, happy life.

Niiniistiit niiboot

The following text was composed in Arapaho by Richard Moss, a native speaker. It was translated into English by him and Merle Haas, a tribal educator.  The analysis was done by Dr. Andrew Cowell of the University of Colorado . Text and translation copyright 1993, WyomingIndian Schools , Title 5

  1. teecxo’  hinono’eino’  nih’iinii3nou’u  hiniibootiininoo.
    teecxo’     hinono’ei-no’  nih-’ii-nii3in-ou’u hi-niibootiin-inoo
    long ago   Arapaho-PL    PAST-IMPERF-possess(TI)-3PL  3POSS-song-PL
    ‘a long time ago the Arapahos had their own songs’
  2. niibootno   nih’entou’u’u  tei’yoonoho’,  notikoniihiiho’
    niiboot-no  nih-’entou’u-’u       tei’yoonoh’o’  notkoniihii-ho’
    song-PL       PAST-exist(II)-PL  child.PL           scout/warrior-PL
    ‘there were songs to honor children, warriors

noh  neeceeno’   nihi’eeteenebeihi3i’.
noh  neecee-no’  nih-i’-eeteenebeihi-3i’
and  chief-PL     PAST-INSTR-be honored(AI.PASS)-3PL
and chiefs.’

  1. honoh’oehiho’  noh  hiseihiho’  toonheecxooyeini’i’oonoo3i
    honoh’oehi-ho’  noh  hiseihi-ho’        toon-heecxooyein-iii’oo-noo3i
    young boy-PL    and   young girl-PL   INDEF-how much length of time-grow(AI)-3PL.ITER
    ‘songs were made for young boys and girls

nih’iiniisitoneihi3i’  niibootno.
nih-’ii-niisitoneihi-3i’ niiboot-no
PAST-HABIT-have something made/done for one(AI.PASS)-3PL  song-PL
as they were growing up’

  1. nih’ookonooniisitoneihi3i’.
    PAST-respectful-have something made for one(AI.PASS)-3PL
    ‘[the songs] were made for them in a respectful manner.’
  2. he’neen  nih’iiniistiit  niibooot  beesnenitee.
    he’-neen nih-’ii-niistii-t niiboot  beesnenitee
    NARR.PAST-3S   PAST-HABIT-make(AI.T)-3S  song    elder
    ‘a song was made by an older member of the tribe.’
  3. nih’ee’inoneihi3i’  nuhu’  hitiiteeninoo  nih’iiniistii3i’
    nih-’ee’inoneihi-3i’                    nuhu’  hit-iiteen-inoo    nih-’ii-niistii-3i’
    PAST-be known(AI.PASS)-3PL  this     3S-tribe-PL PAST-HABIT-make(AI.T)-3PL
    ‘song makers were known to the


  1. heebehneen   beh’eihehi’  wo’ei3  betebihehi’  hitiiteenine’;
    heebeh-neen               beh’eihehi’  wo’ei3  betebihehi’  hit-iiteenin-e’
    3.POTENT-3S   old man        or          old woman  3S-tribe-LOC
    ‘it could be an older man or an older woman in the tribe;
  2. toonheetniistiit  niiboot  he’ih’iinoteii3heih.
    toon-heet-niistii-t                               niiboot  he’ih-’ii-noteii3iheih
    INDEF-FUT-make something(AI.T)-3S  song   NPAST-HABIT-asked to do something(AI.PASS)
    ‘people would approach a song maker to compose a song for an honored person.’
  3. toonneniistiit  niiboot,  nuhu’  heetoh’ootee’
    toon=neniistii-t niiboot   nuhu’  heetoh-’ootee-’
    INDEF-make something(AI.T)-3S  song         this      where-camp(II)-0S
    ‘song makers would go out away

koxuu  he’ih’iiyihoo.
koxuu  he’ih-’ii-yihoo
elsewhere  NPAST-HABIT-go(AI)
from camp.’

  1. nii’eihiiho’,  heeseisenii  noh  howoo  heesnooyooti’i  hiinono’wuu’
    nii’eihii-ho’  heeseisen-ii  noh   howoo  hees-nooyooti-’i    hiinono’owu-u’
    bird-PL         wind-PL      and    also       how-appear(II)-0PL  landscape-LOC
    ‘a song could be learned from birds, the wind, and whatever was out in the environment.’
  2. benee3ihi’  niiboot,  he’ne’niibooheihiinoo’  neeceenohooot.
    benee3ihi-’                 niiboot  he’ne’-niibooheihiinoo-’              neeceenohooot
    be finished(II)-0S  song       then-a song is received (II)-0S  ceremonial giveaway
    ‘song makers made the song and sang it at a giveaway.’
  3. heebeh’oo’eixootiin  wo’ei3  betooot
    heebeh-’oo’eixootiin                 wo’ei3  betooot
    3.POTENT-people gather(II)    or         dance   
    ‘the giveaway could be at a dance or

    then-people give things away ceremonially-0S
    a social gathering.’

  4. hiiwoonhehe’ niibootno heni-notinihiitooni’  heetniisniisihi’i.
    hiiwooonhehe’  niiboot-no  heni'-notinihiitooni-’                      heet-niis-niisihi-’i
    today                 song-PL   INSTR-people look for how to say it(II)-0S  FUT-how-be made(II)-0PL
    ‘today songs are made by request, how the song will be made.’

  5. hooyei  nih’iisoo’ hinono’ei hitiine’etiit  hoowooh’entou.
    hooyei nih-’iisoo-’                       hinono’ei hit-iine’etiit  hoowooh-’entou
    most    PAST-how it is(II)-OS    Arapaho   3S-life   no longer-exist(II)
    ‘many of the Arapaho traditional ways are gone.’

  6. noosouwoo3ei’i hinono’einootno ‘oh
    noosou-woo3ei-’i      hinon’einoot-no  ‘oh
    still-be many(II)-0PL   Arapaho song-PL   but
    ‘the Arapahos still have many songs, but

    hooyei  hoowtonouneihiinoono
    hooyei  hoow-tonouneihiinoo-no
    most     NEG-be used(II)-0PL
    most of them are not used.’



  1. noosouneeteenebeet  tei’yoonehe’
    noosou-neeteeneb-eet              tei’yoonehe’
    still-honor(TA)-1P.EXCL/3S    child
    ‘they still honor the children.’
  2. hiiniiboootiini3i’  beniiinenno’.
    hiiniiboootiini-3i’       beniiinen-no’
    possess songs(AI)-3PL  soldier-PL
    ‘there are also veteran’s songs,

neeceenó  noh  ce’esbeneniihiiho’.
neecee-no’  noh  ce’es-beneniihii-ho’
chief-PL     and   different-organization person-PL
a song for the Business Council,  and songs for the tribal organizations.’

  1. hoowoohniitowoo3eihiinoono  ko3eininootno.
    hoowooh-niitowoo3eihiinoo-no  ko3eininoot-no
    no longer-be heard(II)-0PL        old-song-PL
    ‘many of the old songs are not heard anymore.’
  2. hiiwoonhehe’  hooyei  niibeihiiho’ [hoowoe’inowuu]  hinono’einootno.
    hiiwoonhehe’  hooyei  niibeihii-ho’       hoow-oe’in-owuu    hinono’einoot-no
    today               most     singer-PL  NEG-know(TI)-3PL  Arapaho song-PL
    ‘now, most singers do not know the Arapaho songs.’
  3. hoonouseet  neneenit  nih’iiniiniistiit  niibootno.
    hoonousee-t  neneenit  nih-’ii-nii-niistii-t  niiboot-no
    travel and scout(AI)-3S  he            PAST-HABIT-REDUP make(AI.T)-3S  song-PL
    ‘Francis Sitting Eagle was known as a song maker for the Arapaho tribe.’
  4. hiiwoonhehe’  heentoo3i’ niiniistii3i’ hinono’einootno
    hiiwoonhehe’  heentoo-3i’  nii-niistii-3i’                   hinono’einoot-no
    today               exist(AI)-3PL HABIT-make(AI.T)-3PL  Arapaho song-PL
    ‘today, there are other Arapaho song makers in the tribe.’

“ko3éínoo3ítoó” = ko3ei-noo3itoo =  old-story (69 sentences)

The following historical narrative of the Northern Arapaho Tribe was composed and written down in Arapaho by a group of teachers, all of whom are native speakers. They provided the translation as well, which has been slightly modified by Dr. Andrew Cowell of the Universityof Colorado to more closely reflect the original Arapaho. The analysis on lines 2 and 3 of each sentence is by Dr. Cowell, who also added the pitch accents on the first line. The surface forms (line 1) have simply been divided on line 2 - no underlying forms have been given.

téécxo’   3í’eyóóne’  hinóno’éíno’  hé’ih’éntoono’.
teecxo’     3i’eyoo-ne’          hinono’ei-no’  he’ih-’entoo-no’
long ago   monument-LOC  Arapaho-PL    NPAST-be at(AI)-PL
‘a long time ago, the Arapaho were in Canada.’

hih’oowuuni  woxhóóxebii.
hi-h-’oow-uuni            woxhoox-ebii
3-PAST-NEG-ADV    horse-PL
‘there were no horses.’

PAST-HABIT-go on foot(AI)-3p
‘they traveled by foot.’

nih’iinóó’ei3óó3i’  heníítonookuteení3i.
nih-’iinoo’ei3-oo3i’ heniiton-ookutee-ni3i
PAST-hunt(TA).HABIT-3p/3p   ??-tooth(AI)-3p.OBV
‘they hunted sabertooth cats.’

béexó3ii     hé’ih’iitonóunowuu.
beex-o3-ii        he’ih-’ii-tonoun-owuu
big-arrow-PL   NPAST-HABIT-use(TI)-PL
‘they used spears [to hunt]’

notóyeicii  nihí’iiniistíí3i’  hitéíxoonínoo.
notoyeic-ii  nih-i’-ii-niistii-3i’ hi-teix-oon-inoo
hide-PL      PAST-INSTR-HABIT-make(AI-T)-PL  3POSS-clothing-NOM.PL-PL
‘they used the hides [of the sabertooths] to make their clothing.’

nih’iibiinóó3i’;  3eicíií  cí’nih’ííbii3í’i.
nih-’ii-biin-oo3i’  3eici-ii   ci’=nih-’ii-bii3-i’i
PAST-HABIT-eat(TA)-3p/3p   root-PL  also-PAST-HABIT-eat(AI)-3p
‘they ate [the sabertooths]; they also ate roots.’

hóxtoonóu’u   néhe’  nii3ííne’etíí3i’.
hoxtoonou’-u  nehe’  nii3-iine’etii-3i’
bank/cliff-PL  that     along-live(AI)-3p
‘they lived along the banks [of rivers].’

hé’ne’cihcésisíihí3i’  hínee   yiisííhi’   béesóówu’.
he’ne’-cih-cesisiihi-3i’ hinee  yiis-iihi’  bees-oowu’
then/next-to speaker-move camp away(AI)-3p  that     toward-ADV  big-water [sic]
‘then they moved to the Greak Lakes.’

né’céí’sooní’i      hibíí3hiinínoo:  nówou’u,  bííbinóótno  noh  cééyowciinéyoono.
ne’-cei’soon-i’i    hi-bii3hiin-inoo  nowou’-u  biibinoot-no  noh  ceeyow-ciineyoo-no
then-different(II)-PL  3POSS-food-PL  fish-PL      berry-PL       and   various-planted-PL
‘their food was different now: fish, berries and vegetables.’

cííyoneehíího’  né’césistonóunóó3i’.
ciiyoneehii-ho’  ne’-cesis-tonoun-oo3i’
large dog-PL     than-begin-use(TA)-3p/3p
‘that’s when they started using big dogs.’

nih’óo3óu’u   né’cihcésisóoséíto’onéí3i’,.
nih’oo3ou-’u   ne’-cih-cesis-ooseito’on-ei3ei’
white man-PL  then-to speaker-begin-herd(TA)-3p’/3p  
‘then the white people started forcing them west,

honóót  hé’ihcihnó’xuuohetíno’   niinéniiniicíe
honoot  he’ih-cih-no’xuuh-eti-no’ niinenii-niicie
until      NPAST-to speaker-arrive with effort(TA)-REFL(AI)-PL   tallow-river
until they finally reached Colorado.’

PAST-HABIT-only-make willow shelter(TI)-SELFB(AI)-3p
‘they made shelters of willow’

né’césistonóunóu’u  3óuuyokóyono.
ne’-cesis-tonoun-ou’u   3ouuyokoy-ono
then-begin-use(TI)-3p   pointed tent-PL
‘then they used tipis.’

nííto’   nih’iitonóunóu’u notóyeicii.
niito’   nih-’ii-tonoun-ou’u            notoyeic-ii
first     PAST-HABIT-use(TI)-3p  hide-PL
‘at first they used hides of animals [for shelter and clothing’.’

né’césisóónoxóébiinóó3i’  nih’óo3óu’u   heeyóuhuu.
ne’-cesis-oon-oxeebiin-oo3i’        nih’oo3ou-’u    heeyouhuu
then-begin-REDUP-trade-3p/3p   white man-PL   thing
‘then they started trading goods with the whiteman.’

né’césistonóunóó3i’  nuhu’  woxhóóxebii.
ne’-cesis-tonoun-oo3i’         nuhu’  woxhoox-ebii
then-begin-use(TA)-3p/3p    this     horse-PL
‘then they began using horses.’

no longer-go on foot(AI)-PL
‘they didn’t walk on foot anymore.’

nih’iicíicíísiikohéí3i’  yiisííhi’  heetíhco’óó’,  wóó’teenótoyóó’,
nih-’ii-cii-ciisiikohei-3i’ yiis-iihi’ heet-ihco’oo-’ woo’teenotoyoo-’
PAST-HABIT-REDUP-ride far(AI)-3p  toward-ADV  where-go up(II)-SING black mtn(II)-SING
‘they would ride a long ways, to Yellowstone, the Black Hills,

béí’i’einiicíe  heenéí’isííhi’.
bei’i’ei-niicie   hee-nei’is-iihi’
shell-river REDUP-how-ADV
Casper, and places like that.’

noh  nih’ee3ebcé’eeckóohu3i’  heetko’éinóóni’.
noh  nih-’ee3eb-ce’-eeckoohu-3i’ heet-ko’einooni-’
and  PAST-there-again-go home(AI)-3p    where-be circular(II)-SING
‘and they would go back home to Estes Park.’

that-PAST-where-spend winter (AI)-3p
‘that is where they stayed for the winter.’

noh  beníícení’i  né’nih’iiwóowo’wuuhu3i’,
noh  beniicen-i’-i  ne’-nih-’ii-woo-wo’wuuhu-3i’
and  be summer(II)-SING-ITER  then-PAST-HABIT-REDUP-move camp along(AI)-3p
‘and when summer came, they would move around

tih’ii3óókuhóó3i’ h íí3einóónin.
tih-’ii-3ookuh-oo3i’ hii3einoon-in
when.PAST-HABIT-follow(TA)-3p/3p  buffalo-OBV
following the buffalo.’

heníísnoh’oonóó3i,  né’nih’iicéni3óó3i’.
heniis-noh’-oonoo3i ne’-nih-’ii-ceni3-oo3i’
PERF-kill(TA)-3p.ITER/3p  then-PAST-HABIT-butcher(TA)-3p/3p
‘after killing the buffalo, they would dress it.’

nih’iibístonóunéíhit.   néhe’nih’eenéisííne’etíí3i’.
nih-’ii-bis-tonouneihi-t nehe’-nih-’een-eis-iine’etii-3i’
PAST-HABIT-all-be used(AI.PASS)-3 that-PAST-REDUP-how-live(AI)-3p
‘every part of the buffalo was used. that is how they lived.’

wohéí  né’césisníhi’neenóxoonó’  heesííne’etííno’,
wohei  ne’-cesis-nihi’nee-noxoon-o’ hees-iine’etii-no’
well    then-begin-very-dangerous(II)-SING  how-live(AI)-1p.INCL
‘okay that’s when our life became more dangerous,

hi’ííhi’  tohníhi’neewoo3éé3i’  nih’óo3óu’u.
hi’-iihi’ toh-nihi’nee-woo3ee-3i’ nih’oo3ou-’u
INSTR-ADV   because-very-be many(AI)-3p  white man-PL
because there were more white people now.’

wohéí  né’neyéisiséé3i’:
wohei  ne’-neyeisisee-3i’
well    then-go apart(AI)-3p
‘well that’s when they parted:

hiinóno’wuuhunénnó’   noowuuhu’  hee3ébiséé3i’,
hiinono’wuuh-nen-no’   noow-uuhu’  hee3eb-isee-3i’
wander-man-PL              south-ADV   there-go(AI)-3p
the Southern Arapahoes moved south,

noh  béésoowu’unénnó’  né’cei3íihí3i’
noh  beesoowu’-unen-no’  ne’-cei3iihi-3i’
and  great lakes-man-PL    then-move camp this way(AI)-3p
and the Great Lakes people came to

béí’i’einiicíe  noh  nóuuhóowu’;
bei’i’ei-niicie noh   nouu-hoowu’
shell-river      and    swift fox-lodge
the Casper area and Arminto area.

noh  né’nih’íitnííseekuu’u  hóseihóowu’u;  céése’  hítesííno’,
noh  né-nih-’iit-niiseekuu-’u                      hosei-hoowu’-u  ceese’ hitesii-no’
and  that-PAST-where-two be held(II)-PL  away-lodge-PL   one      cheyenne-PL
‘and that’s where they had two sundances; one was Cheyenne,

céése’  hinóno’éíno’.
ceese’  hinono’ei-no
one      Arapaho-PL
the other Arapaho.’

noh  nuhu’  niisíísiiyeinííxonéé3i’   nih’étbisíítonéíno’.
noh  nuhú nii-siisiiyei-niixonee-3i’    nih-’et-bisiiton-eino’
and  this    HABIT-snake-eat(AI)-3p   PAST-FUT-attack(TA)-3p’/1p.INCL
‘and these Shoshones were going to attack us.’

hé’ne’niitówootóu’u  nuhu’  niibóootno.
he’ne’-niitowoot-ou’u  nuhu’  niibooot-no
then/next-hear(TI)-3p  this      song-PL
‘then they heard these songs.’

wohéí  neeníhéesííni:  heetbí’co’óókootííno’  nuhu’  niibóootno.
wohei  neeni-hees-iini          heet-bi’-co’-ookootii-no’ nuhu’  niibooot-no
well    let it be-how-II.EX    FUT-just-again-take home(AI-T)-1p.INCL this     song-PL
‘they said, ‘let it go, we’ll just take these songs back home’‘

heetíhtonóunowuno’  nuhu’  niibóootno  heehehkóni’.
heetih-tonoun-owuno’       nuhu’  niibooot-no  hee-hehkoni’
so that-use(TI)-1p.INCL   this      song-PL       say(AI)-3p.SUBJ
‘’we can use these songs’ they said to themselves.’

‘oh  hoowée’ínowuu  tih’oonoyóóhobéihí3i’:
‘oh  hoow-ee’in-owuu    tih-’oonoyoohobeihi-3i’
but  NEG-know(TI)-PL  when.PAST-be watched(AI.PASS)-3p
‘but they didn’t know they were being watched:

heneihcée3tóó3i’  hihbisíítonéíno’óhk.
henei-h-cee3too-3i’ hih-bisiiton-eino’-ohk
POTENT-PAST-make mistake(AI)-3p   COUNTERFACT-attack(TA)-3p’/1p.INCL-SUBJ
‘they would have made a mistake if they had attacked us.’

‘we would have killed them all.’

héetnííseekuu’   néé’eesíh’iinóó’  nuhu’.
heet-niis-eekuu-’ nee’eesih’iinoo-’ nuhu’
where-two-be put up(II)-SING    that is what (something) is/was called(II.REL)-SING  this
‘’Where Two Sundance Lodges Stood’ is what [that place] is called.’

wohéí  he’íícxooyéinííhi’,  hé’ne’ce’bisíítonéí3i’  síísiiyeinííxoneehíího’
wohei  he’ii-cxooyei-niihi’  he’ne’-ce’-bisiiton-ei3ei’ siisiiyeiniixoneehii-ho
well     INDEF-time length-ADV    then/next-again-attack(TA)-3p’/3p Shoshone-PL.OBV
‘well sometime later, they were attacked again by Shoshones

noh  bení’inénnó  hínee  konóuwoo’óé’  ní’íi3éíhiinóó’.
noh  beni’inen-no       hinee konouwoo’oe-’            ni’ii3eihiinoo-’
and  soldier-PL.OBV  that   sweat brush(II)-SING  to be called that(II)-SING
and soldiers at the place called ‘Lost Cabin’.’

wohéí  céése’inén   hé’ihwóowóxu’óo3éíh.
wohei  ceese’-inen  he’ih-woo-woxu’oo3eih
well     one-man      NPAST-REDUP-to be blessed(AI.PASS)
‘well, one man was blessed.’

noh  né’cihnootosó’ei’ít  woxhóóxebii,  héé3ebnóho’oesó’noot  teesí’.
noh  ne’-cih-nootoso’ei’i-t          woxhoox-ebii  hee3eb-noho’oeso’on-oot  tees-i’
and  then-to speaker-herd(AI)-3  horse-PL          there-chase up(TA)-3/3p   top-LOC
‘and he rounded up the horses and chased them to the top [to where the Arapahos had retreated].’

ne’eenéitóóxobéí3i’.  né’cih’oowkóóhuuhéí3i’.
ne’-een-eitooxobei-3i’ ne’-cih-’oowkoohuuhei-3i’
then-REDUP-get horse(AI)-3p   then-to speaker-ride down(AI)-3p
‘then they got their horses. then they rode back down [to where their camp was].’

‘then [the Arapahos] chased [the attackers].’

wohéí  né’ooxohoecésisbí’owoo3óó3i’.
wohei  ne’-ooxohoe-cesis-bi’owoo3-oo3i’
well     then-in exchange-begin-defeat(TA)-3p/3p
‘well now it was their turn to start beating them in battle.’

then/next-to speaker-flee(AI)-3p.OBV
‘that’s when they started running from them.’

noh  nééceeno’  tóotóu’eebí3i’  ciibéhnéénoníhe’.
noh  neecee-no’  too-tou’eebi-3i’ ciibeh-nee-nonih-e’
and   chief-PL    REDUP-be warned(AI.PASS)-3p PROHIB-REDUP-kill(TA)-IMPER.PL
‘and they were warned by the chiefs ‘don’t kill them, just

just-count coup(TA)-IMPER.PL
capture them!’’

wohéí  hé’ne’cihkoo’ouute’.
wohei  he’ne’-cih-koo’ouut-e’
well then/next-to speaker-be dusty(II)-SING
‘now there was just a big cloud of dust’

nuhu’  nihwoonó’oteihí3i’  né’cihbixóneséí’i3i’
nuhu’  nih-woo-no’oteihi-3i’ ne’-cih-bixonesei’i-3i’
this     PAST-recently-be tough(AI)-3p then-to speaker-cry while chased(AI.PASS)-3p
‘these that were tough before, they were now crying while being chased,

wootíí  to’óéneehíího’.
wootii  to’oeneehii-ho’
like      puppu-PL
just like little pups.’

hé’ihbixónotóuuhunó’  céi3ííhi’.
he’ih-bixonotouuhu-no’ cei3-iihi’
NPAST-cry while hollering(AI)-PL  to here-ADV
‘they were crying and screaming coming this way.’

wohéí  néhe’nih’íisóó’.
wohei  nehe’-nih-’iisoo-’
well    that-PAST-how something is(II.REL)-SING
‘okay, that’s how it was.’

wohéí  he’íícxooyéinííhi’  néhe’  tééb3ee3éít,
wohei  he’ii-cxooyei-niihi’ nehe’  teeb-3ee3ei-t
well    INDEF-length of time-ADV  this     cut off-finger(AI)-3
‘well sometime later this man Black Coal

né’cihnoxuutéixóhoot  he’íítoxní3i  hinóno’éíno
ne’-cih-noxuuteixoh-oot he’iitox-ni3i hinono’ei-no
then-to speaker-bring to river(TA)-3/3p  indefinite number(AI)-3p Arapaho-PL.OBV
brought so many Arapahoes to

nuhu’  hiiwóonhéhé  héetóóno’.
nuhu’  hiiwoonhehe’  heetoo-no’
this      now/today       where be located(AI.REL)-1p.INCL
this place where we now live.’

tééb3ee3éít  né’sóosononíhoot   tooté’einí3  heetíhneecéentóóno’.
teeb3ee3eit  ne’-soo-sononih-oot         toot-e’ei-ni3          heetih-neeceentoo-no’
Black Coal  then-REDUP-flatter-3/3   hole-head-3.OBV  so that-stay a while(AI)-1p.INCL
‘Black Coal said a lot of good things about Chief Washakie, so we could stay here for a while.’

noh  nii’óówoot.
noh  nii’oow-oot
and  receive consent(TA)-3/3
‘and he received his consent.’

Néhe’  heenííbeet  né’cihwoono’uuhut
nehe’  hee-niibee-t          ne’-cih-woo-no’uuhu-t
this     long-nose(AI)-3   then-to speaker-recently-move camp here(AI)-3
‘Sharp Nose them moved over here

nohkuuhu’  híni’  hoo3óó’o’  hinóno’éíno’.
nohk-uuhu’  hini’ hoo3-oo’o’ hinono’ei-no’
with-ADV   that   next/other-NOM.PL Arapaho-PL
along with the rest of the Arapahos.’

niis  nih’oontóótowuno’  nuhu’  bííto’ówu’.
niis  nih-’oontoot-owuno’          nuhu’  biito’owu’
two  PAST-pay(TI)-1p.INCL     this      land
‘we paid for this land twice.’

néé’eehee3eenéentóóno’  hiit.
nee’ee-hee3ee-neentoo-no’ hiit
that-why-be located somewhere(AI)-1p.INCL   here
‘that’s why we are living here.’

2-NEG-able-chase away(TA)-3p-1.INCL
‘they cannot chase us away.’

wohéí  nenéé’,  néé’eetoxunihííni’.
wohei  nenee’  nee’eetox-unihii-ni’
well     it           enough-say(AI)-1p.EXCL
‘okay, we’ve said enough.’

néíhoowbéetbísoo3ítootowube   heesíí3oobéé’.
nei-hoow-beet-bis-oo3itoot-owube hees-ii3oobee-’
1-NEG-want-all-tell story about something(TI)-PL how-true(II)-SING
‘we  don’t want to tell the whole story [about] how true it is.’


néhe’  hinóno’éí  né’césiswóowo’wuuhut  céi3ííhi’.
nehe’  hinono’ei  ne’-cesis-woo-wo’wuuhu-t cei3-iihi’
this     Arapaho    then-begin-REDUP-move camp(AI)-3  to here-ADV
‘then the Arapaho started to move this way’

hínee  béésniiciihóho  cenihtókooxuuséé3i’.
hinee  bees-niicii-hoho  cenih-tokooxuusee-3i’
that    big-river-PL         to speaker-cross over(AI)-3p
‘they crossed those big rivers coming this way.’

híí3einóón  né’césis3óó3ookuhoot  honóót
hii3einoon  ne’-cesis-3oo-3ookuh-oot honoot
buffalo        then-begin-REDUP-follow(TA)-3/3  until
‘then they started to follow the buffalo until

cenihnó’xuuohetí3i’  niinéniiniicíe.
cenih-no’xuuh-eti-3i’ niinenii-niicie
to speaker-arrive with effort-REFL-3p  tallow-river
they reached the Denver area.’

wohéí  néhe’  nih’óó3oo  héí’níhi’neeno’useet,
wohei  nehe’ nih’oo3oo    hei’-nihi’nee-no’usee-t
well    this     white man    when.PERF-rapid-arrive(AI)-3
‘okay, once the white man really started arriving rapidly,

né’cihwo’wuuhu3i’  yiisííhi’  béí’i’einiicíe.
ne’-cih-wo’wuuhu-3i’ yiis-iihi’ bei’i’ei-niicie
then-to speaker-move camp(AI)-3p  towards there-ADV  shell-river
then they moved to the Casper area.’

néhe’nih’íítbéétohciinenéíno’,  óh  héíhoowni’oobéín.
nehe’-nih-’iit-beetoh-ciinen-eino’ ‘oh  hei-hoow-ni’oob-ei-n
that-PAST-where-want to-place down-3p/1p.INCL  but  2-NEG-agree(TA)-3p-1.INCL
‘that’s where they wanted to place us, but we didn’t agree.’

niinéniiniicíe  héénoo  nih’iibéétohnee’éetóó3i’.
niinenii-niicie  heenoo nih-’ii-beetoh-nee’eetoo-3i’
tallow-creek    rule/obligation    PAST-IMPERF-want to-that is where located(AI.REL)-3p
‘they [Arapahos] wanted to stay in the Denver area.’

he’íícxooyéinííhi’  hiit  né’cihnoxuutéíseenó’
he’ii-cxooyein-iihi’ hiit   ne’-cih-noxuuteisee-no’
INDEF-length of time-ADV    here  then-to speaker-go to river(AI)-1p.INCL
‘sometime later we came up to

nuhú  héetóóno’  hiiwóonhéhe’.
nuhu’  heetoo-no’ hiiwoonhehe’
this      where be located(AI.REL)-1p.INCL     now/today
where we are living now.’

nih’étbí’neecéentóóno’,  ‘oh  néhe’  nih’óó3oo
nih-’et-bi’-neeceentoo-no’ ‘oh  nehe’  nih’oo3oo
PAST-FUT-just-be located a while(AI)-1p.INCL   but   this     white man
‘we were only supposed to stay here for a while, but this whiteman (who makes all the rules)

né’bí’ciinenéíno’  hiit,
ne’-bi’-ciinen-eino’ hiit
then-just-place down-3p/1p.INCL  here
just put us here,

noh  niis  honoontóótowuno’  nuhu’  bííto’ówu’.
noh  niis  hon-oontoow-owunu’ nuhu’   biito’owu’
and  two  REDUP-pay for something(TI)-1p.INCL  this      land
and we have paid for this land twice.’

wohéí  néhe’  nih’óó3oo  benée3heenebííte’  hebííto’owuuwun
wohei  nehe’  nih’oo3oo  benee3-hee-nebiite-’ he-biito’owuuw-un
well     this    white man   finish-REDUP-steal something(AI)-3  2POSS-land-1.INCL
‘well, now the white man has stolen all our land

noh  hénecébin,  noh  nonoo’óóhoot  híí3einóón.
noh  he-neceb-in                  noh   nonoo’ooh-oot        hii3einoon
and  2POSS-water-1.INCL  and   massacre(TA)-3/3   buffalo
and our water and he killed all the buffalo.’

wohéí  né’césisheenésneenó’  noh hiiwóonhéhe’
wohei  ne’-cesis-hee-nesnee-no’ noh  hiiwoonhehe’
well    then-begin-REDUP-hungry(AI)-1p.INCL   and  now/today
‘well, that’s when we started getting hungry and now

no’óó’  niibí’woníbiiwóohuno’.
no’oo’       nii-bi’-won-ibiiwoohu-no’
way out     HABIT-just-go to-cry(AI)-1p.INCL
we just go out into the hills and just cry.’

néé’ee3éí’neenóxootéíht  néhe’  nih’óó3oo.
nee’ee3-ei’nee-noxooteih-t nehe’  nih’oo3oo
thus-to what extent-be mean(AI)-3   this     white man
‘that’s how mean the white man is.’

thus-to what extent-be greedy(AI)-3
‘that’s how greedy he is.’