tonoun- = to use something (anim.)
hesiikoohu- = to drive/run fast  


A. no’oo koo-ne-et-cii-ni’-tonoun-oo hot-otii?
    mother!  INTERR-1S-FUT-NEG-able-use(TA)-3  2S-car
    ‘mom, can I use your car?’

B. hiiko nii-hoowuh-’esiikoohu-n.
    no HABIT-excess-drive fast(AI)-2S
    ‘no, you go too fast’


biin- = to give something to someone
niiitowuun- = to ask someone for something
hibei’ci3eibi- = to have/possess money


A. no’oo  cih-biin-i  bei’ci3e’i
    mother!   to speaker-give(TA)-1S.IMPER money
    ‘mom, give me some money!’

B. won-níiitowuun-in heisonoo bei’ci3ei’i.
    go-ask someone for something(TA)-3.IMPER  2S.father money
    ‘go and ask your dad for money!’

A. neixoo, kei-cii-bei’ci3eib?
    father! INTERR.2-NEG-have money(AI)
    ‘dad, do you have any money?’


hinono’eini- = to be Arapaho
neyei3eihee- = to be taught something
hinono’eiti- = to speak Arapaho
nih’oo3ouyeiti- = to speak English


A. hiinono’eini-noo, ‘oh ne-ihoow-ee’in net-eenetiit.
    be Arapaho(AI)-1S  but 1S-NEG-know(TI) 1S-language
    ‘I am an Arapaho, but I don’t understand Arapaho.’

     neih-’oowu-neyei3eihee  ne-yeihe’.
    1S.PAST-NEG-taught(AI)  1S-home.LOC
    ‘I’m not being taught at home.’

     ne-niihei’i hoowu-unono’eiti-no’.
     1S-parents  NEG-speak Arapaho(AI)-PL
     ‘my parents do not speak Arapaho.’

     hini’ hiinono’eiti-3i’ beneexo’oo3ouyeiti-3i’.
     those speak Arapaho(AI)-3PL only speak English(AI)-3PL
     ‘those people that speak Arapaho speak nothing but English.’


tousiini = what is (it)?
hinono’eiti- = to speak Arapaho > heeneinono'eiti- = to have a conversation in Arapaho
hi3eti = to be good
3ei’in- = to place something (inan) inside a location


A.   tous.

B.   tous heneecee boh’ooo
       hello buffalo bull  thunder
       ‘hello, Bull Thunder.’

A.   too-tousiini?
       REDUP-what is it? 
       ‘what’s going on?’

B.   hoowuuni. nih-cih-won-eeneinono’eiti-noo.
       NEG PAST-to here-go/come-REDUP.speak Arapaho(AI)-1S
       ‘nothing. I came to talk Arapaho.’

A.   wohei hii3eti-’. nuhu’ won-3ei’in-oo!
       well/OK    good(II)-0S   this      go-put it in(TI)-0S.IMPER
       ‘okay good. go put this in there!’ [a gift, which is put in the refrigerator]


hiinoo’ei- = to hunt
nooke- = to be light, dawn
ceestii- = to procure, get, obtain something (inan)
toxu’usetii- = to sharpen something (inan)
bii3i- = to eat a specific (inan) thing
hookuuhu- = to cook for oneself


A. heetn-iinoo’ei-noo nooke’ehk.
     FUT-hunt(AI)-1S tomorrow
     ‘I’m going to go hunting tomorrow’     

     heet-ceestii-noo kokiyono3-ii.
     FUT-obtain something (AI.T)-1S   bullet-PL
     ‘I’m going to buy [rifle] shells.’

     hiikoot no-wooxe heet-toxu’usetii-noo.
     also 1S-knife   FUT-sharpen(AI.T)-1S
     ‘I’m going to sharpen my knife too.’

     teebe heet-ce’-iinoo’ei-noo.
     just now FUT-again-hunt(AI)-1S
     ‘this is the first time [in a while] that I’m going hunting again.’

     his noh tii3i3ii heetn-oowoh-bii3i-noo.
     liver and kidney FUT-enjoy-eat(AI)-1S
     ‘I will like eating liver and kidney.’

     bih’ihiinoseino’ heet-koo’oen-ookuuhu-’.
     deer meat FUT-slow/careful-cook for self-1PL.EXCL
     ‘we’re going to take time to cook deer for ourselves.’ 

B. wohei tous  heh-’eeneinono’eiti-n.
     well/OK  then/so   2S.POTENT-REDUP.speak Arapaho(AI)-1.INCL
     ‘okay, let’s talk Arapaho then.’

A. heniise’enou’u-noo
     ready(AI)-1 S
     ‘I’m ready.’

B. koo-he-niihei’i heeneinono’eiti3-ei’i?
     INTERR-2S-parents REDUP.speak Arapaho to person(TA)-3PL
     ‘do your parents talk Arapaho to you?’

A. beebeet nei’eibehe’
     just 1S.gramdmother
     ‘just my grandma.’

B. ‘oh heisonoo?
     and/but  2S.father
     ‘what about your dad?’

A. nei’ei3hehk. hiitow-nih’oo3ouni-t.
     who him? busy-be white(AI)-3S
     ‘imagine him. he’s too busy being a whiteman.’

B. hii3oobei-n. hiikoot hee3neeniihi’ koo’oh.
    be correct(AI)-2S  also truly-ADV  coyote
    ‘you’re right. he’s a real coyote too.’

A. hii3oowuw-ot.
     be correct about a person(TA)-2S/3S
     ‘you’re right about him.’


koutoneihi- = to be waited for for a long time; to be late
cesiikoh- = to get away from someone
se’tebe’eih- = to hit someone’s face with the flat [part of one’s hand]; to slap someone
ciinih- = to put down, put away, leave behind
bixoo3- = to love someone
woo3ee- = to be many in number, lots
he’in- = to know something
woxeihi- = to be bad, mean, ugly in behavior
hi3owooneihi- = to be good-looking


A.   ‘ine, koo-neih-koutoneih?
       well/OK   INTERR-1.PAST-late(AI)
        ‘okay, was I late?’

B.   tooniihi’

A.   ne-bii’o’oo nih’ii-coon-cesiikoh-o’.
       1S-sweetheart  PAST.IMPERF-unable-escape from(TA)-1S/3S
       ‘I couldn’t get away from my snag’

B.    hoo3iihi’ het-noo’oeicehii-se’tebe’eihoo!
        next  IMPER.FUT-hard-slap(TA)-3
        ‘next time you must slap him hard!’

A.    ‘ii,  neebehciinihe’. biixoo3o’.
        oh my   1.POTENT-leave(TA)-3  love(TA)-1S/3S
        ‘oh my, he might leave me. I love him.’

B.     cee’inon. wonoo3ee3i’ hoo3oo’o’ honoh’oehiho’.
         ridiculous  many(AI)-3PL   others        boy.PL
         ‘that’s ridiculous. there are lots of  other boys.’

A.   hee’in-owoo, ‘oh beebeet biis-woxeihi-3i’.
       know(TI)-1S    but  just         all-ugly(AI)-3PL
       ‘I know it, but they’re all ugly.’

B.   he-bii’o’oo koo-nii3-woxeih?
       2S-sweetheart  INTERR-too/also-ugly(AI)
       ‘is your snag ugly too?’

A.    hiiko,  hii3owooneih-t.
        no      good-looking(AI)-3S
        ‘no, he’s handsome.’


niitobe'e- = hear something
cee'iyooni- = be payday, be distributions
no'koohuuhu- = delivered
hibii3(i)hiini- = have food to eat
ceeston- = get, procure, obtain something for someone
niiyeih- = do someone a favor by providing food, a meal


A.   keih-cii-niitobe’e, koo-cii-cee’iyoon?
       INTERR.2.PAST-NEG-hear(AI)       INTERR-NEG-be payday(II)
       ‘did you hear, is it distribution day?’ [for monthly per-capita checks]

B.     hoow-no’koohuuhu-no.
        NEG-be delivered(II)-0PL
        ‘they didn’t come in.’

A.     yeh. hiiwo’ neetneihoowu-ubii3hiin.    
        gee  contrary to expectation  1S.FUT.NEG-have something to eat(AI)
         ‘hee, so I won’t have anything to eat this evening.’

B.    ‘ii  tebinouu.  heet-ceeston-e3en hoseino’.  
        oh my   poor thing  FUT-obtain for someone(AI)-1S/2S  meat
        ‘oh my, poor thing. I’ll buy you some meat.’

A.   wohei sii-nenee’.  heet-niiyeih-in.
       well/OK   INTENSE-it(inan) FUT-do a favor with food(TA)-2S/1S
       ‘okay just right. you’re doing me a favor.’

B.    toh-u’-eeneti-no’ hoseino’ ni’-esnee-noo.
       because-INSTR-speak(AI)-1PL.INCL   meat        CAUS-hungry(AI)-1S
       ‘I’m hungry because we’re talking about meat.’

A.    howoo. he’ii’oxou’u.  
        also      what time is it?
        ‘me too. I wonder what time it is.’

B.    woow kooh’uusiini-’.  
        now   be noon(II)-0S
        ‘it’s noon now.’

A.    tous  heh-won-bii3ihi-n!
        then/so  2.POTENT-go-eat(AI)-INCL
        ‘let’s go eat then!’

B.    ‘ine sooxe.
        well/OK   let’s go
        ‘okay let’s go.’

A.     toot-eih-’ihoo tih’iisiini’?
         where?-2.PAST-go(AI)  yesterday
         ‘where did you go yesterday?’

B.     nih-woteesee-noo, nih-won-oon-otoonee-noo.
         PAST-go to town(AI)-1S  PAST-go-REDUP-buy things(AI)-1S
         ‘I went to town, I went to buy things.’

A.     nooxeihi’ nih-’eeneibiixuutooni-n.
         probably/maybe  PAST-REDUP.possess clothes(AI)-2S
         ‘you probably brought yourself clothes.’

B.      ‘oo, wotoo-ho  nih-ceestoo-noo.
          yes  pants-PL   PAST-obtain for self(AI)-1S
          ‘yes, I bought a pair of pants.’

          howoo  heet-ceestoo-noo wo’oh-no.
          also       FUT-obtain of self(AI)-1S  shoe-PL
          ‘I’m going to buy myself shoes too.’   

          heet-ce’-woteesee-noo nooke’ehk.
          FUT-again-go to town(AI)-1S  tomorrow
          ‘I’m going to town again tomorrow.’

A.      heet-nii3oon-e3en.
          ‘I’m going with you.’

B.      ‘ine

The next day: The shopping trip continued.

A.    koo-woow hiise’enou’u?  hi3oowo’o nih’et-nii3oon-in.
        INTERR-now  ready(AI)      remember!   supposed to-accompany(TA)-2S/1S
        ‘Are you ready now? Remember you’re supposed to go with me.’

B.   ‘oo.  nee’ee, neh-’iten not-ookoubiixuut.
       yes   wait!  IMPER.SUGG.1-get(TI)  1S-coat
       ‘yes. wait, let me get my coat.’

A.    niito’ heetn-eh-’eetebiseeno’  bei’ci3eiyo’oowu-u’.
       first    FUT-to there-stop by(AI)-1PL   bank-LOC
        ‘first we’ll stop at the bank.’

B.    niixoo  heetn-iiten-owoo  bei’ci3ei’i.
        also    FUT-take/get(TI)-1S    money
        ‘me too, I’m going to get some money.’

A.    nih-noohoot-owoo hookoubiixuut tih’iisiini’.  heetn-ootoonouhu-noo.
       PAST-see(TI)-1S  coat  yesterday  FUT-buy for self(AI)-1S
       ‘I saw a jacket yesterday. I’m going to buy it for myself.’

B.     heenoo  hootoonouhu-noo wo’oh-no.
        definite   buy for self(AI)-1S   shoe-PL
        ‘for sure, I’m buying myself shoes.'

A.   koo-cii-nentoo?
      INTERR-NEG-be present(II)
       ‘are there people here?’

B.   hee, heentoo-ni’. cihciitei, ceenoku!
       yes  be present(II)-1PL.EXCL come in(AI) sit down(AI)
       ‘yes, we are here. come in, sit down!’

       bebiyooh-un woo’teenoowu’.
       pour coffee for(AI)-3S.IMPER  coffee
       ‘pour him some coffee.’

A.    hohou.
        thank you
        ‘thank you.’

B.     kei-tonoun niisiscoo’? kei-nookoowtoo?
         INTERR.2.HABIT-use(TI)   sugar   INTERR.2.HABIT-use cream(AI)
         ‘do you use sugar? do you use cream?’

A.      beebeet niisiscoo’.
          just       sugar
          ‘just sugar.’

B.      wohei ho-too-tou3ees?
          well/OK   2S-REDUP-why come(AI)
          ‘well, why have you come?’

A.      nii-no’-otoonee-noo teexokuut.
          IMPERF-come-borrow(AI)-1S  riding horse
          ‘I am here to borrow a saddle horse.’

B.       nohtou?

A.      heetn-iinoo’ei-noo.
          ‘I am going to go hunting.’

B.      henee’ee-no’ hei-notiihooo-no’?
          who?-PL      2S-one looked for-PL
          ‘what is it that you are looking for?’

A.    hiwoxuu-huu  nii-notiih-ou’u.
        elk-PL          IMPERF-look for(TA)-1S/3PL
        ‘I am looking for elk.’

B.    hee, koo-he-et-ni’-wo’oxeen-oo?
       yes   INTERR-2S-FUT-able-shoe a horse(TA)-3
        ‘well, can you shoe it?’

A.     hee, heet-ni’-wo'oxeen-o’.
          yes  FUT-able-shoe a horse(TA)-1S/3S
         ‘yes, I could shoe it.’

B.     he-et-tohuucis-tonoun-oo?
        2-FUT-how long-use(TA)-3
        ‘how long will you use it?’

A.     bebene niis wo’ei3 neesiiis.
         approximately   two  or three days
        ‘about two or three days.’

B.     hee, het-koxo’uuten. hehnee-ceneeseih-t nehe’ woxhoox.
        yes  FUT.IMPER-take slow(TI)  EMPH-spirited/wild(AI)-3S   this    horse
        ‘well, take it easy. this horse is spirited and jumpy.’

A.    hee, heetn-oonoyoohootowoo-ni’.
        yes  FUT-watch out for oneself-1PL.EXCL.
        ‘yes, we will watch out for ourselves.’

B.    hee. 3enei’isi-’i ko’einoxoeyoon-e’. hini’ woo’teeneih-t neneeni-t.
        yes  inside(AI)-3PL corral-LOC  that    black(AI)-3S   the one(AI)-3S
        ‘well, they are in the corral. that black [horse] is the one.’

       2S-FUT-when?-take away(TA)-3
       ‘when will you take it?’

A.   nohkuseic.
       ‘in the morning.’

B.   heet-ce’-noohob-e3en.
       ‘I will see you again’ [’goodby’]  

A.   heetce’noohobe3en.