ABSTRACT. This study of the U.S. wind energy industry extends theory on the process of industry emergence by developing and testing a coevolutionary model of the relationship between social movement organizations (SMOs), institutions, and industries. Building on research that suggests that SMOs can influence institutions and the path of emerging industries, we show that the growth of an industry can also influence the diversity of social movements by motivating the participation of specialist SMOs. These new SMOs in turn deploy distinct knowledge, capabilities, goals, and strategies to produce institutional changes that are necessary for the continued growth of the industry. Our study offers a more complete conceptualization of the influence of social movements on industry emergence and growth, and it extends understanding of how SMO diversity is produced.