Complexity and Economy in Pilgrimage Centers
of the Vijayangara Period

Alexandra Mack
Department of Anthropology
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ 85287-2401



Economy is often overlooked as an element that is essential to the complex system of pilgrimage. The exchange of goods and information plays a fundamental role in integrating the overall structure. Pilgrims must be fed and housed at the pilgrimage c enter, and may return home with ritual objects or souvenirs. The economic establishment is then perpetuated by the return of pilgrims each year. Spatial arrangement of medieval temple centers indicate that the economic aspects of pilgrimage are inextricab le from the ritual and cosmological aspects. Archaeological studies of the temple district of Vitthalapuram at Vijayangara show that the physical layout and distribution of activities, while undeniably centered around ritualized geometries, were also focu sed on the services provided to pilgrims. Temple districts were thus primary loci for both the ideological and economic transactions that are engendered by pilgrimage, creating a complex dynamic which underlay the organization of the larger system.




Economy is often overlooked as an element that is essential to the complex system of pilgrimage. Although economy is part of the mundane world, and appears to lie far from the spiritual, emotional, and symbolic world of the pilgrimage journey, spa tial arrangements of precolonial south Indian temple centers indicate that the economic considerations of pilgrimage are inextricable from the ritual and cosmological aspects of the journey. This paper will explore the confluence of spatial arrangements and economic transactions at pilgrimage centers using archaeological evidence from the area surrounding the Vitthala temple at the precolonial south Indian imperial capital city of Vijayanagara.


The Economy of Pilgrimage

The spiritual journey of pilgrimage is in fact often structured around debt relations. The debts that are most frequently associated with pilgrimage center on the relationship between the pilgrim and the deity. Appadurai and Breckenridge desc ribe the reigning deity in a south Indian temple as a sovereign who "stands at the centre of a set of moral and economic transactions which constitute...a redistributive process" (1976: 190). This concept is not limited to Hinduism. Catholics v isiting the Bom Jesus shrine in Brazil make the journey primarily to pay promessas offered in exchange for healing (Gross 1976). Other similar exchanges occur throughout the world at shrines visited by followers of numerous religions. During the journey, these relationships of spiritual exchange are mirrored in the physical world by transactions that are dominated by human economics in the form of money and goods.

Although many aspects of an overall economic system are controlled through hierarchical systems, there is an economy of pilgrimage that lies outside the control of the dominant forces, and is driven largely by the pilgrims themselves. This is an interlinked part of the overall experience of pilgrimage, economic transactions are conducted within both the spatial and temporal realms of pilgrimage. If pilgrimage is a liminal experience, then perhaps these transactions, too, are liminal. However, the end products of these transactions may be more worldly, and may come in a form that can be carried home with the pilgrim, providing tangible reminders of a spiritual journey. These ritual souvenirs can be shared with villagers at home who did not or could not make the journey, thus extending the impact of the pilgrimage to others. The economy of pilgrimage is undeniably complex and self-organizing, and must be understood within the overall context of the pilgrimage experience.

In developing guidelines for an interdisciplinary study of pilgrimage, Preston (1992) mentions the economic dimension as one of the key methodological issues, noting, "Virtually every pilgrimage is associated with a field of economic exchange, as in fairs, carnivals, and permanent or temporary marketplaces. Materials are redistributed as pilgrims enter sacred centers, then disperse. A relationship of debt between deity and pilgrim, institution and begging, and the temporary incorporation of peripheral tribal peoples in the process of exchange are examples of secondary (in some instances primary) motives for pilgrimage behavior" (1992: 43).

In his study of Bom Jesus de Lapa in Brazil, Gross noted the dominance of pilgrimage on the town’s economy. Pilgrimage is such a dominant force that many residents move away during the rainy season when muddy roads prevent visitation. Those who s tay are underemployed or unemployed. Pilgrimage prevents the development of other economies in the town, for instance, the coincidence of the pilgrimage season with the planting season discourages investment in agricultural pursuits. However, he counted "at least 50 permanent stores and hundreds of tiny stalls set up during the festival" (1971: 132).

Pilgrimage can encourage overall economic prosperity. Michell notes that in southern India "the simultaneous growth of pilgrimage and trade is an outstanding feature of urban life in the region. Kanchipuram provides an excellent example of a significant religious-commercial center dealing in locally woven textiles and other goods. Festivals in temple towns are generally sensational events that also benefit business" (1993:10). That this pattern was established in precolonial times is c lear from inscriptions. Stein notes that "fairs augmented urban trade...Regular and periodic fairs were established on the main roads to great temples during the times of major festivals" (1982: 121).


The Indian Temple as Economic Center

Indian temples serve as important economic centers. Temples were, and are, landholders, employers, and consumers. In some cases, an entire town’s socio-economic structure may be entirely dependent on the temple (Jindel 1976: 6). Jindel reco rded that the temple at Nathdwara, Rajastan provided work to as many as 1000 families, with the rest of the population subsisting on industries which were at least indirectly associated with either temple functions or the needs of pilgrims (Jindel 1976: 1 77-78). The types of people needed to keep the household of the temple running included suppliers of food, flowers, and baskets, potters, carpenters, blacksmiths, leather-workers, sweepers, tailors, bamboo workers, painters, and washers. Arts surroundin g the temple and its festivals included music, dance, drama, painting, calligraphy, and cottage industries such as enamelling, dyeing, pottery, tailoring, embroidery, and the manufacture of bangles, glass-frames, snuff boxes, and toys.

The economic role of the temples was far more complex than that of employer. In his work on the Tirupati temple, Stein concluded that temples became centers through which state resources were redistributed during the precolonial periods (1958: 127 ). This redistribution has a moral component as well, with shares received from the deity in exchange for donations to temples. As Appadurai and Breckenridge note, "the deity...commands resources (i.e., services and goods) such as those which are n ecessary and appropriate for the support and materialization of the ritual process... [These resources] are redistributed in the form of shares to the royal courtiers, the donor, and the worshippers at large" (1976, 195).

However, the select group of those wealthy enough to make large donations to the temple does not include the majority of those who visit a shrine. Most pilgrims may be able to afford some small gift for the deity, if anything. Nonetheless, this d oes not exclude them from the larger redistributive process. Food which was presented to the deity and was thus consecrated became an important commodity for pilgrims. It conferred additional merit for the traveler, either through consumption on-site, o r by bringing it home for others to share (Stein 1958: 100). Although in theory this food should have been provided as a service to pilgrims, it was regularly sold by temple functionaries. Pilgrims regularly paid for such food, setting up an important ex change system that was maintained by their demand for the sacred product. (Stein 1958: 115). Consecrated food was not the only commodity of exchange for pilgrims. Trade in tangible goods took place in the bazaars surrounding the temples. People bought of ferings, purchased food, and even obtained souvenirs which would remind them of the trip and which could be shown to others at home when the pilgrim returns.


Pilgrimage and Space

These economic transactions take place within the spatial and temporal realms of pilgrimage. The sacred journey to the home of a god or other holy site takes the traveler out of the context of daily life, and into a new realm in which ordinary physical and social boundaries no longer apply. While quotidian boundaries may be broken, new patterns become part of the experience which will shape the individual during the journey. Some of these patterns are spiritual, and others are part of the phy sical world, and at times these two realms cross.

In India, this experience is fueled on the more mundane levels by the ways in which temple towns are planned to direct movement and direct lines of sight. Starting in the medieval period, particularly the Vijayanagara era, the spatial arrangement of a temple town was aimed at enhancing perceptual importance of the place (Pieper 1980). Ideally, the temple complex was placed at the center of the town. While this may not always have been possible due to topography or other factors, the temple compl ex did become the conceptual center of the town, if not the physical center. Today temple centers are recognizable as a set of monumental structures covered with ornate sculpture and highlighted by tall gateways. This set of structures create a landmark visible from many miles away, which dominates its immediate vicinity. The pattern of movement through temple towns creates spiritual links and enhances the emotional experience for visitors. Paths of movement are directed and lines of sight are concentr ated on particular features to emphasize the monumentality of temples and their ornately decorated facades (Michell 1993; Pieper 1980). Directed routes control access in the city, separating public from private space, or one part of the city from another . Circulation and circumambulation are fundamental elements of Hindu pilgrimage (Bhardwaj 1997). Particular routes are followed both to journey to holy sites, and also to move around those sites. Thus the pilgrim may experience a sense of awe that is e ngendered in part by the journey itself, and in part by the physical aspects of the place and the perception of the pilgrimage center as transcendent beyond ordinary places. The spiritual impressions of the journey and the perceptions of the pilgrimage c enter are inextricable from the transactions that take place there.



The remainder of this paper will focus on the archaeological evidence from the Vitthala temple and its surrounding neighborhood at the precolonial imperial capital city of Vijayanagara in order to explore the ways in which the spatial arrangem ent of pilgrimage influences the economy of pilgrimage. The Vijayanagara empire flourished in South India from the 14th to the 16th centuries A.D. (Figure 1). The emergence of the empire was likely made possible by political fracturing and upheaval withi n the Delhi Sultanate, which allowed Hindu rulers to establish a new polity. The capital was established in the mid-14th century on the southern bank of the Tungabhadra River in the northern Deccan, in what is now central Karnataka. Although there had be en settlement in the area for hundreds of years, Vijayanagara was the first city at the location (Figure 2). However, the area had spiritual connotations long before it became the center of an empire. The village of Hampi at the heart of Vijayanagara was also home of the local river goddess Pampa. In local tradition, she became a consort to Virupaksha, an incarnation of Shiva. The large Shaivite shrine in Hampi continues to be actively visited by pilgrims each year. In addition, Vijayanagara lies at th e center of what is locally believed to be the mythical kingdom of Kishkinda, the home of Hanuman and the setting for much of the Ramayana. These Vaishnavite associations became especially important as the empire matured, and later emperors primar ily endowed Vishnu shrines.

The physical structure of the city may reflect complex spiritual meanings. Fritz (1985, 1986, 1987) argues that Vijayanagara is an example of a cosmic city and argues that the deeper structural levels of the city reflect the relationships between the celestial and the terrestrial. Much of the internal structure is focused on the areas of performance of the mahanavami rites, which took place in the Royal Center, on a high platform facing audience halls. This performance area was separated from the royal residence area by a large north-south wall which lay on the same axis as the Ramachandra Temple. Routes of movement in the city were directed toward the royal center, and once in the center, attention was focused on this temple. Fritz pro poses that these geometric similarities created a pattern of analogies which related the temple to the city and the empire as a whole. He has observed related structures in the layout of the architectural elements involved at these higher levels, and arg ues "that particular qualities of religious experience in sacred buildings were projected to larger scales" (Fritz 1987: 332). More recently, Malville (1997) has used a Geographical Positioning System (GPS) to accurately measure the locations o f the major temples in the city. Their findings show that there is north-south alignment connecting the Royal center, Matanga Hill and north pole, and they conclude that the sacred space in the city as a whole was shaped by both cosmological alignments a nd the movement of pilgrims.

Temples played an important role in the economic and political structure of the Vijayanagara empire. Although temple towns and temples existed for hundreds of years before the empire, Vijayanagara rulers embarked on a systematic program of temple construction and renovation throughout south India (Michell 1993; Appadurai and Breckenridge 1976). Nag and Reddy note that at Tirupati "the colony around the Govindaraja temple expanded over a period of centuries, particularly during 1336-1680 coin ciding with the rule of the Vijayanagara dynasty" (1994: 118-9). This support of these rulers is evident in the extensive number of inscriptions on both the Govindaraja and Venkateswara temples which date to the 16th century.

Vijayanagara rulers endowed temples within the city walls of the capital as well. The Krishna temple was constructed by Krishnadevaraya to commemorate a military victory in 1515. The Tiruvengalanatha temple, constructed with funds donated by Hiri ya Tirumala, the brother-in-law and chief minister of Achyutadevaraya , who ruled from 1530-1542, was consecrated in 1534 (Fritz and Michell 1991: 92). Today the complex is commonly referred to as Achyutaraya’s temple. The Vitthala, Malyavanta Ragunatha, and Ramachandra complexes were also constructed during the Vijayanagara period.

The areas surrounding the temples at Vijayanagara are often called by the temple name, plus the suffix puram, which translates as town. Thus, the area surrounding the Vitthala temple is known at Vitthalapuram. The areas surrounding temples within the city of Vijayanagara are also referred to as districts.

It is also important to note that pilgrimage to the city of Vijayanagara was likely not on the same scale as pilgrimage to towns such as Tirumala or Srirangam whose primary focus was (and still is) the temple. Vijayanagara was the center of governm ent, the locus of imperial power, and therefore a visit to a temple in the capital was a visit to the capital itself. Likewise, those visiting the capital for business or political purposes may have also visited the city’s temples, even if they did not c ome on a pilgrimage, as such. As with other temples of the period, or the Virupaksha temple in Hampi today, the major temples in the city likely had a steady stream of visitors throughout the year, with peaks at times of festivals.

The city of Vijayanagara was abandoned in 1565 after the empire was defeated in war by a confederacy of northern states. Although a Vijayanagara ruler tried to reoccupy the city in 1567, his attempt was unsuccessful, leaving the area largely depop ulated. Only small villages occupy the area today. This shift of power is visible at temples throughout the Vijayanangara imperial region: there was a sharp drop in donations to temples after 1565.


Spatial Studies at Vitthalapuram

Because the pilgrims’ movement through the space of the pilgrimage center forms such a fundamental part of the pilgrimage experience, the primary component in this study consists of understanding the patterns of movement through the areas imme diately surrounding a large temple complex. The plans of temple towns throughout south India provide evidence of directed access and flow of people through space, directed lines of sight, and physical changes in these pathways as one moves through them i n ritualized patterns. One of the most notable features of Vijayanagara is the topography. The city is set in a landscape of rocky granite outcrops emerging from the Deccan Plateau. This landscape is spectacular visually, and strongly dictates settleme nt patterning in the area. Although there are monuments strewn across the north ridge in the center of the city, few archaeological remains are otherwise found on the ridges. Almost all the settlement of the city is found in the valleys, as are all the m ajor temple complexes. This topography in itself undeniably controls spatial patterning and the flow of movement inside the city, and more specifically, within the temple districts.

Therefore, first part of the study was aimed at reconstruction and visualization of these routes in order recreate the experience of the pilgrim’s circulation at Vitthalapuram. Although the initial construction of the Vitthala temple may date to l atter half of the 14th century (Filliozat 1988: 28), numerous inscriptions dating from 1513-1554 indicate that it was extensively renovated in the 16th century (Fritz and Michell 1991: 93). Vitthalapuram contains a substantial bazaar and remains of resid ential structures (Figure 3).

During 1996 field season, the Vijayanagara Research Project recorded the archaeological remains at Vitthalapuram. Base maps showing major remains and topography were drawn at 1:400 scale by professional surveyors from Bangalore. Archaeologists co nducted archaeological survey in the areas covered by the maps, noting additional remains and numbering and describing all features. These descriptions were later entered into a database. In order to perform the following analyses, these maps were placed in ArcView, a Geographical Information System (GIS), and the relevant databases were converted to Microsoft Access in order to link them to the GIS.

Once in the GIS, these data can three dimensional contour maps of the area, and extrapolated to find least cost paths through the area. Thematic maps can be made of features and artifacts, in order to show the distributions of different types of a rchaeological remains, and to calculate artifact densities in different areas of the town. The database can be used for more complex statistical analyses in packages.

In order to assess the probable routes of movement through the city, a least cost path through the area was calculated. The least cost path is the one which utilizes the least amount of energy to in order to traverse a given area, in other words, t he easiest way to get from one point to another, based on topography and other travel barriers. Standing walls and walls of bazaars or other structures which had clearly fallen down were considered impediments to travel. This map fits expectations based on what is known about circulation through pilgrimage centers. The easiest route follows the car path through the bazaar and toward the temple and likely went around the temple complex before entrance into the complex could be made. The map also highli ghts several important features of the spatial features of pilgrimage (Figure 4).

First, the prime area of spatial focus was the Vitthala temple complex itself. It was the major feature on the landscape, and the routes easily lead toward it. Pilgrims would have been drawn through the bazaar and toward the temple, with its tall gateways drawing visitors closer while also looming overhead. This must have had quite a strong psychological effect, before a pilgrim even entered the temple complex itself. Second, there was a clear spatial emphasis away from residential areas. Pathw ays appear designed to keep outsiders out. The pathways to and from the residential areas were limited and more restricted than those around the bazaar and temples. While outsiders thronged in the public areas, the roads and paths were planned to keep r esidential areas private, and outside the realm of a pilgrims visit and experience of the city. A corollary to this is the third point, which is the fact that travelers were herded through the bazaar, which was the main locus of commercial transactions. Although there was access to the district from along the river, this route may have been a secondary route used primarily by city residents. As mentioned above, there are clear patterns that separate public from private space within the district itself, and it is reasonable to assume that this separation of public and private carried over to the city as a whole. In fact, in a network analysis of the known Vijayanagara era roads, Dunham concluded that the sacred center, while relatively well connected in it’ s own sub-network of roads, was not very accessible to the rest of the city network system (Dunham 1995: 136). This could that indicate although access between temples was kept open, visitors were discouraged from venturing into other parts of the city, such as private residential areas.


The Economy of Pilgrimage at Vitthalapuram

The archaeological remains at Vijayanagara do not reveal all the economic activity that must have occurred around the major temple complexes. Based on what is known ethnographically, it is reasonable to assume that most of the residents of Vit thalapuram were employed in the service of the temple or were merchants or otherwise providing services to the temple or its visitors. As at other temples, the goods sold likely consisted of flowers, incense, textiles, jewelry, food, and other goods. Se rvice guilds such as tailors and artists likely also had space in the main bazaar. It would have been difficult for pilgrims to avoid these goods and services, even if they did not partake of them, as the primary route through the district took the trave ler past all of these points.

Another important economic aspect of pilgrimage is the provisioning of the travelers, who must sleep, drink, and eat. Often these processes are economized; for instance, pilgrims may sleep outside. Water is also usually free, procured from rivers an d streams or strategically placed troughs and wells which are found along roadsides. Several inscriptions from Vijayanagara and the immediate vicinity record the construction of wells and troughs. One such inscription was found on a rock by a road near Anegondi, which lies across the River from Vijayanagara. It dates to 1551 and mentions a land grant that was specifically for the purpose of granting water to travelers (Patil and Patil: Inscription 2). Ethnographic studies (Gold 1988; Lynch 1988) indic ate that pilgrims often carry food with them and prepare it as needed, and in some cases food may be provided for pilgrims at various points on the journey. Many of the major south Indian pilgrimage temples today provides food and lodging for pilgrims. This practice may have occurred at Vitthalapuram, as indicated by an inscription on the temple that records, among other things, a donation to a rananujakuta, or pilgrim's feeding house (Filliozat and Filliozat: Inscription XVI). In addition, there are three possible large kitchens remaining in the district, identified by high double roofs (Figure 5). One is in the southwest corner of the arcade surrounding the inside of the enclosure wall, inside the temple complex. Another li es inside the enclosure walls of a smaller temple just west of the main complex. The last is part of a mandapa that surrounds a small temple near the old Shiva temple, south of the main Vitthala complex. These kitchen may have primarily fed temple funct ionaries, but if there was a main supply kitchen for pilgrims, only the largest would have been sufficient for the task.

Nonetheless, observations of the archaeological remains at Vitthalapuram, show that food items were also bought and sold in the district. Artifact distributions suggest that a variety of provisioning activities were occurring a round the temple. As mentioned above, the distribution of artifacts between the public and private areas of the district is distinctive. The most visible, and numerous, archaeological artifacts were grinding stones, which can be further classified as sl icks or mortars. Mortars are individual blocks of granite, square or rounded, generally no longer than 50 cm on a side. They have spherical basins cut into the middle to make room for the material to be ground and a handstone, such as a pestle. Slicks are worn, smooth areas on sheetrock or floors of buildings. Analyses of the distributions of the grinding stones show high densities of grinding stones around the main temple complex, and at important mandapas (Figure 6). In addition, visual analy sis indicates a distinction in the distribution of types of groundstone artifacts in the district, with more mortars in the residential areas and more slicks in public areas such as the bazaar and temple (Figure 7).

These observations are supported by statistical analyses, which have also shown that there were difference in the type of activities occurring throughout the districts. Significant statistical differences can be seen in the artifact distributions in di fferent regions of the district. Overall, preliminary analysis indicates that the differences in groundstone types may also indicate differences in public versus private provisioning. Artifact distributions in three areas classified as Residence, Bazaa r, and Temple were mapped, and a chi square analyses was run on the distribution of slicks and mortars in these areas (Figure 8). The chi square statistic was 25.4 with 2 degrees of freedom. The probability of this distribution occurring by chance is les s than <.001. The bazaar has a relatively equal mix of groundstone of both types, with slightly more mortars than expected. Around the temples, almost no mortars are found. The groundstone in the residential area consists entirely of mortars, and a sin gle grinding slab on legs was also found in this area but not included in the analysis. Although the archaeological materials in Vitthalapuram have been subject to centuries of disrepair and more recent tourism does not bode well for preservation, the di stinctions in these distributions are clear enough to be considered reflective of the different types of activities that took place in these separate areas of the districts. Further analysis is necessary to determine the distinct uses of mortars vs. slic ks. However, based on the size and distribution of these stones, it is likely that mortars were more commonly used for small scale grinding, while slicks were used for faster, larger scale food processing. In the residential area, where food preparation would be for single families, mortars or similar stones are found exclusively. Slicks are more common in the public areas of the district. John Fritz estimates that some of these slicks, especially around the temple, may have been used in plaster produ ction (pers. comm). Further analyses are planned in order to make more accurate comparisons.

There are other artifactual indicators of differences in public and private space. Basins and troughs are both water-holding features, relatively shallow, and smaller than a meter long. On visual inspection it appears that most of the basins and t roughs are in the residential area, as are most of the wells and larger reservoirs (Figure 9). Basins and troughs would have been used primarily for short term water storage. The water in these small tanks was likely used soon after it was placed there for uses such as cleansing and food preparation. It is interesting to note that based on their relative inaccessibility, certain water supplies may have been kept private at Vitthalapuram. Some wells, and the Tungabhadra River (considered holy by many) were accessible to the public and travelers such as pilgrims, but once again it is clear that there are places and things to which pilgrims do not have free access.

Other artifacts than those previously mentioned were found in the area. These included celts, lamps, mauls, quernstones, and ceramics. They occurred in such low densities that they were unreliable for chi square analysis. However, visual inspecti on of the distributions of all these artifact types indicates that the temple has a low artifact diversity, while the residence and bazaar both seem to have an assortment of artifacts, indicating a greater variety of activities, including economic activit ies, taking place in these areas (Figure 10).

More research needs to be conducted in this area in order to fully understand the economy of precolonial temple towns, and its complex relationship to pilgrimage. Plans for further study include measurements of the grinding stones found in the Vij ayanagara temple districts in order to better assess the uses of the different types of stones, and a collection of ceramics from the districts to assess the distributions of various types of vessels and the types of provisioning that would go along with them, and further elucidate the distinctions in the public and private spaces of the districts.


Conclusions: Space, Economy, Complex Systems

The economy of pilgrimage is intricately connected to the spatial aspects of pilgrimage. As this small study of the uses of space at Vitthalapuram has shown, the layout of the temple district reflects the economic uses of the area, through dis tinctions in public and private space, and in provisioning activities. Pilgrims are directed through the district along particular routes, which emphasize the intended role of the pilgrim in the town. They are outsiders, separate from residents, and pot ential customers and trading partners.

The spatial arrangement of the temple town is much more than an economic filter. These arrangements have a great emotional and psychological effect on pilgrims. The directed routes emphasize the greatness of the temple and the holiness of the pla ce, imbuing the pilgrim with a sense of. The spatial arrangement of the town is an integral part of the overall pilgrimage experience, and the spatial connection between spirituality and economy implies that economy also cannot be separated from that exp erience.






Appadurai, A. and C. A. Breckenridge.1976. The South Indian Temple: Authority, Honor, and Redistribution. Contributions to Indian Sociology (ns) 10:187-211


Bhardwaj, S. M.1997. Circulation and Circumambulation. Paper presented at the 26th Annual Conference on South Asia, Madison, WI, 16-19 October, 1997


Dunham, P. S. 1995. Spatial Hierarchies and Activity Foci within Nuclear Vijayanagara: A Network Analysis of the Internal Roads and the Royal Centre. In Sri Nagabhinandanam: Dr. M. S. Nagaraja Rao Festschrift, ed. L. K. Srinivasan and S. Nagaruju. Bang alore: Dr. M. S. Nagaraja Rao Felicitation Committee


Filliozat, P. and V. Filliozat. 1988. Hampi-Vijayanagar: The Temple of Vitthala. New Delhi: Sitaram Bahartia Insititute of Scientific Research


Fritz, J. M. 1985. Was Vijayanagara a "Cosmic City?". In Vijayanagara—City and Empire: New Currents of Research, ed. A. L. Dallapiccola. Stuttgart: Steiner-Verlag


Fritz, J. M. 1986. Vijayanagara: Authority and Meaning in a South Indian Capital. American Anthropologist 88: 44-55


Fritz, J. M. 1987. Interpreting the Plan of a Medieval Hindu Capital. World Archaeology 19:105-129


Fritz, J. M., G. Michell and J. Gollings. 1991. Vijayanagara: City of Victory. New York: Aperture


Gold, A. G. 1988. Fruitful Journeys: The Ways of Rajastani Pilgrims. Berkeley: University of California Press


Gross, D. 1971. Ritual and Conformity: A Religious Pilgrimage to Northern Brazil. Ethnology 10: 129-48


Jindel, R. 1976. Culture of a Sacred Town: A Sociological Study of Nathdwara. Bombay: Popular Prakashan


Lynch, O. 1988. Pilgrimage with Krishna, Sovereign of Emotions. Contributions to Indian Sociology 22:171-194


Malville, J. M. 1997. Pilgrimage Cosmologies at Chitrakut and Vijayanagara: Emergent Geometries and Self-Organization. Paper presented at the 26 Annual Conference on South Asia, Madison, WI, 16-19 October, 1997


Michell, G. 1993. Introduction. Marg XLIV: 2-17


Nag, S. C. and M. V. Reddy. 1994. The Urban Origin of Tirupati Temple Town. National Geographer 29: 115-120


Patil, C. S. and V. C. Patil. 1995. Inscriptions at Vijayangara (Hampi). Inscriptions of Karnataka Volume 1, Vijayanagara Research Centre Series Number 8. Mysore: Directorate of Archaeology and Museums


Pieper, J. 1980. The Spatial Structure of Suchindram. In Traditional Concepts of Ritual Space in India: Studies in Architectural Anthropology, ed. J. Pieper. London: Art and Archaeology Research Papers


Preston, J. J. 1992. Spiritual Magnetism: An Organizing Principle for the Study of Pilgrimage. In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage, ed. A. Morinis. Westport: Greenwood Press


Stein, B. 1958. The Tirupati Temple: An Economic Study of a Medieval South Indian Temple. Unpublished Phd. Dissertation, University of Chicago


Stein, B. 1982. Vijayanagara c. 1350-1564. In The Cambridge Economic History of India, Volume I: c. 1200-1750, ed. T. Raychaudhuri and I. Habib. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press



Figure 1: The Vijayanagara empire 


Figure 2: City of Vijayanagara, showing major temples


Figure 3: Vitthalapuram


Figure 4: Vitthalapuram travel network


Figure 5: Vitthalapuram kitchens


Figure 6: Extrapolated groundstone density map, darker areas show higher densities


Figure 7: Distribution of grinding stones


Figure 8: Observed and expected artifact distributions


Figure 9: Distribution of water features


Figure 10: Vitthalapuram artifact diversity