Pilgrimage and Ritual Movements in Cuzco and the Inca Empire

R. T. Zuidema
University of Illinois
Urbana-Champaigne, Illinois

( ) Pachacamac, on the coast of Peru, and the island of Titicaca, in the lake of the same name, were major poles of attraction for pilgrimages in pre-Inca, Inca and modern times. Especially the direction from Titicaca to Cuzco, the capital of the Inca empire, was important in Inca cosmology and in a system of straight ritual movements developed in Cuzco. These movements were essential to Inca astronomy and they helped to lay out the Inca calendar over the landscape of Cuzco's valley. Each movement was carried out by another component of Cuzco's socio-political organization and served a precise end of the state calendar. The importance of two places among those visited is also well attested for pre-Inca timeswhen Cuzco was not the center from and to where movements went. How were their ritual and calendarical importance then defined? One of the movements developed into what today is the most important pilgrimage center of Southern Peru. Additional problems, therefore, are how through history the restricted movements as organized by Cuzco's imperial policy were related to pilgrimage, whose antiquity are also well attested, and how access to both was regulated over time.

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