of Books by Victor J.
See my special
page on Amazon.com which has links to all my books and reviews on
Finally! An Understandable, Scholarly Book On Science, From Its Birth
25 Centuries Ago to the Confirmation of the Higgs Boson, by the Large
Hadron Collider at CERN.
Stenger artfully continues his history lesson forward through the
centuries, presenting scientific and historical facts with his subdued
atheistic theme holding things together. It doesn’t seem at all preachy
or overbearing. Even when I was a Christian, the science and history
probably would have kept me engaged without the book’s low-key atheism
turning me off too much. The way Stenger patiently shows (not just
says) how little God figures into our scientific understanding is a
refreshing change of pace, and may be more powerful an approach for the
godless than the explicit reverse evangelism of books like Hitchens’s God is Not Great or Dawkins’s The God Delusion.
Book Fanatic. "The
totality of Stenger’s books, which include this one, are a fine
contribution to a layman’s understanding of why there is no support for
anything else except the reductionist materialism of physics."
Publishers' Weekly. A swift jog
through modern physics, followed by brief considerations of dark
matter, dark energy, and the origin of the universe, concludes with the
assertion that there is no empirical evidence for the existence of a
higher power. Stenger’s argument is convincing . . .
New York Journal of Books.“Dr.
Stenger’s history of the atom is good. His philosophical arguments and
conclusions are inadequate.” Note this review is by a Christian
apologist, Donald F. Calbreath.
Calbreath is an associate professor emeritus of chemistry at Whitworth
University, as well as the author/presenter of numerous papers and
articles involving both science and Christianity. . . His writing has
been published in such venues as Perspectives in Science and Christian
Black Sun Journal. "Dr. Stenger’s book compares favorably in scope with Daniel Dennett’s 2006 Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon.
. . . This is not a polemic, but a reasoned critique by a seasoned
scientist and philosopher, updated for 2012. He takes on the arguments
of at least a dozen well-known proponents or apologists for religion,
including William Lane Craig, Dinesh D’Souza, and Deepak Chopra. And he
highlights the dramatically negative effects religion has had on the
American political landscape on every subject from contraception and
stem-cell research to climate change and same-sex marriage. There’s a
great deal more substance to this book than I can summarize in a few
New Books in Secularism.
"Stenger argues that, fundamentally, science and religion not only
clash, but that religion has historically impeded the progress of
science." Links ro audio of unterview.
Planet of the Apes. Blog by Faye Flam, accomplished writer for the Philiadelphia Inquirer.
This is just the last of a series of Stenger’s books on science and its
relationship with religion and pseudoscience. For those interested in a
scientific viewpoint on these subjects these books are a valuable
resource. They deal with issues such as quantum theory and it misuse
and cosmological issues like fine-tuning arguments, the “big bang” and
the origin of the universe, the eternal universe and the multiverse. To
some extent he briefly repeats some of the content of his previous
books here – useful for those not wishing to read further. And
arguably this current book is his best yet. But, for more detail I also
recommend his other books.
Roberto Perez-Franco in the MIT newspaper The Tech.
Victor Stenger has written a wickedly powerful book, so sharp and
heretical that had it been published four centuries ago, the author
would have been extra-crispy by the time the nearest bishop was done
reading the preface. God and the Folly of Faith, with its
straightforward argumentation and encyclopedic scope, is a veritable
handbook on the fundamental incompatibility of modern science and
religion. In the context of the new atheism movement, Stenger’s book
serves as the prosecutor’s closing argument in their collective case
against religion. The book’s ambitious agenda, with the simultaneous
grinding of many axes (from near death experiences and quantum
consciousness to intelligent design and cosmic fine-tuning), takes a
toll on the reader. The dissection of the multiple arguments and
counterarguments that are currently used to support and refute faith
makes this no light reading for a lazy spring afternoon. Albeit
peppered with zingers, the work as a whole comes across as what it is:
a thick and serious discourse on one of the most important intellectual
conflicts in history, very much alive to this day.
This book is almost encyclopedic in the range of topics it covers and
this may be its greatest strength, even if it has to pay the price of
skimming over some sections. It is the kind of book where, when
confronted with a topic, one can look it up in the index, read the
relevant sections for a good quick overview of the main issues
involved, and look up the citations for more detailed information.
Here [is the book] in a filbert: science is bad news for religion, the
two aren’t compatible at all – no, not even the vague spirituality-type
religions – and if you’re looking to physics to support your ideas
about the supernatural, you’re barking up the wrong damned tree. Not
even quantum supports your religion. It’s natural all the way down.
Stenger’s book is not only a great source on what is happening
throughout the sciences, but also an outstanding reference for how
systematically wrong religion is when it comes to making claims to the
Marcus Chown in New Scientist.
In The Fallacy of Fine-tuning, Victor Stenger dismantles arguments that
the laws of physics in our universe were ""fine-tuned" to foster life.
Open Parachute. Victor
Stenger’s new book . . . will be very useful for anyone attempting to
check out these arguments by actually considering the science. He
describes the physical and cosmological background to the constants, or
parameters as he prefers to call them, usually used in fine-tuning
arguments. And then he considers, one by one, just how valid – or
invalid – the fine-tuning arguments are.
Cosmic Horizons. This is something we should probably give some serious thought to, and this book is not a bad place to start.
This book is a good read for those wanting to understand the
fine-tuning issues in cosmology, and it’s clear Stenger really
understands the science.
Stenger has written a knock-out response to fine-tuning proponents. He
explains in much detail why so many of the so-called examples of
fine-tuning are not actually cases of fine-tuning at all. The book is
very well-written and, even though it uses quite a bit of math which
boggled my mind, this addition would be useful for more knowledgeable
individuals who want more proof of Stenger's claims. However, this does
not subtract from the book at all since he also does an excellent job
of explaining what the math means for those (like me) who do not have a
background in physics.
Friends of Philip Larkin. I’d describe The New Atheism
as an extremely detailed bibliography with quick facts and analysis.
It’s a terrific place to start if you’re wondering about New Atheism,
questioning religion, and/or looking behind the curtain.
York Journal of Books by David Rosman. "Regardless of which side of
the discussion you find yourself, this is a well-written and documented
argument. Stenger’s intent, as he states in his final chapter, is not
to convert the believer, but to provide a sensible and less aggressive
argument for science, reason and the New Atheism.
reviews "Stenger successfully provides a rational response to
the irrational critiques of the so-called 'new atheists'. cfeagans.
"Stenger's work is concise and well-written, with enough newly
presented notions to be worthy of a read."
Secular Outpost "Stenger makes a case that will have considerable
appeal for those of us with a more optimistic temperament.
Atheist. "This is a wonderful book for any person who hasn’t read
an atheist blog over the past five years. That is to say, older and
brand new atheists will enjoy Stenger’s book — it’s an excellent primer
for godless newbies."
Philosophy Now, Issue 78,
April/ May 2010. “An invigorating defense of the New Atheism by one of
its foremost spokespersons, this is a good book for novices, as it has
an excellent overview of the positions of the Four Horsemen, as well as
Stenger’s own argument that modern physics gives new proofs for a
naturalistic rather than a supernaturalistic hypothesis for the origins
of the universe. A professor of physics and astronomy, Stenger is able
to write in a way easily accessible to non-science buffs, yet has a
polemical style equal to any of the Horsemen at their most outrageous.”
Choice, Vol. 47, No. 08, April
2010. “Well-written…This A-grade wine for atheists could serve as
another evangelizing tool for their stance…Lower-division
undergraduates and above; general readers.”
Kile Jones, Boston
University Essays in Philosophy 11(2): 252-257, July
2010. "In ending his book, Stenger revisits the works of New Atheism
and argues for their place in the modern intellectual landscape. He
challenges those who only see this movement as “negative” because “for
every negative we have an even greater positive. Faith is absurd and
dangerous and we look forward to the day, no matter how distant, when
the human race finally abandons it” (244)
Amazon.com reviews "Quantum Gods
is the ONLY book-length critique of the abuse of quantum physics."
gods don't deserve your
faith. New Scientist
22, 2009 review by Amanda Gefter. "In this much-needed book, physicist
Victor Stenger isolates and then debunks the claims of two kinds of
Globe and Mail Stenger walks us through the basics of physics to
refute [quantum spirituslity and theology].
"The entire book is a joyride." Tudor Vieru, Science Editor. "It's not
often that I come across books that explain such intricate
matters as particle physics in a way that is both accessible to the
average reader as well as explained with a logic that permeates each
Free Inquiry 29(5):60-62
(2009) Stuart Jordan. "This is an excellent book for scientists and
Parachute. "Stenger provides an important service exposing [quantum
spirituality and quantum theology] in his new book.
"Quantum Gods is a fun and instructive read – it is Stenger at
his best – but it begs for a sequel that sets aside the desire to
ridicule for the sake of addressing the more important and difficult
challenge of discerning the metaphysical implications of the quantum
revolution for theists, atheists, and nontheists alike." Boston
University theologian Kirk Wegter-McNelly. To appear in the Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature,
and Culture. Pdf.
My response to Professor
Wegter-McNelly, which will appear in the same journal.
"Stenger, though, explains the science underlying quantum phenomena,
showing that while quantum theory is strange, it isn't other-worldly or
mystical." Church of the Churchless May 18, 2009.
Jefferson County Post. "A Must Read."
Sapientia Semita. "A delightful work with utmost conviction and clarity from a renowned author."
"Victor J. Stenger’s God: The Failed Hypothesis deserves to be read by
believers and non-believers alike. Fifty years ago, upon completion of
my formal study in the sciences, I concluded that God could not exist.
With each passing decade, as the scientific method enabled man to
advance his knowledge and understanding of the world and universe, this
conviction grew stronger. Unfortunately I was never able to adequately
explain to others why I felt as I did.
And then I picked up God: The Failed Hypothesis. I could not put it
down; indeed I read it cover to cover within hours of purchase. Here
was everything I wanted to say to individuals who were ignorant of
rigorous science methodology, or scorned it, and relied solely upon
faith and revelation." Jerry P. Lightner
reviews. "In my view Stenger succeeds in disproving God beyond a
level of reasonable doubt." Andrew.
by David Ludden for eSkeptic. "Physicist Victor Stenger has just served
up a second course of delectable arguments for the non-existence of
de Force by Tom Flynn, editor of Free Inquiry. "Stenger’s new
book is a tour de force of scope, brevity, and rhetorical power."
by Jonathan Levinson on the Secular
"Dr. Stenger's learning is vast and he expresses his thoughts with
enormous clarity, making them accessible to a large audience. He is a
master communicator. One will not find a better book on the scientific
evidence for atheism.
on Physics and Society, American Physical Society, review by
Lawrence S. Lerner. "Stenger’s expertise as a physicist is
clearly evident in this work."
Damien Broderick Science Fiction
author. "Unlike some critics of faith, Stenger takes the tough
line that deity is not just an unnecessary hypothesis or one where an
honest thinker can choose to accept or reject it. No, it is 'the
Jerry Peterson Simply Einstein.
"Chapter by chapter, the author shows that the existence of God
would suggest certain realities in the world that would be verifiable
by scientific inquiry. But the data don’t support these would-be
realities, thereby providing evidence that no God exists."
Sects and Violence in the Ancient World.
"Like many who argue for atheism, Stenger is a highly regarded
scientist. Unlike many, he offers a systematic, even-keeled account of
his reasons for rejecting the divine.
You can watch, listen to or read interviews of Vic Stenger at these
Naturalism YouTube interview by Tom Flynn, editor of Free Inquiry.
This has a You-Tube video of talk to CFI Toronto on April 5, 2007.
Start at part 3. This site also has links to other relevent videos and
News Column in West Virginia web newspaper.
reviews."This is the third book from Professor Stenger that I've
read. In my mind, he's certainly the "Richard Dawkins' of
general-audience physics books." Mike.
has written a fascinating and throught-provoking book. . . it is a
feast for both the specialist and dedicated general reader."
Broderick Science Fiction
author. "Why is there Something, rather than Nothing? Who put the bang
in the big bang? Veteran particle physicist Victor Stenger offers
an answer to that deep question in his two new books [God: The Failed Hypothesis also
reviewed], arguing a materialist, God-free account of the cosmos,
equally antagonistic to superstition, the paranormal and religions
archetypal and newfangled alike."
Higher Education-John Gribbon "It is a rare delight for a reviewer
to be asked to comment on a book
that spells out an idea that he has been promoting himself. I therefore
have to confess to feeling a warm appreciation for Victor Stenger's
work, even before I plunged in to the text. The fact that the text does
not entirely do justice to the idea is mildly disappointing, but what
Stenger has to say is so important that it should at least be discussed
everywhere that physics is taught."
History and Philosophy of Science Programme, The University of
Melbourne "V.J. Stenger
. . . provides a scientific answer to the
'where do the laws of physics come from?' Remarkably, his elegant and
mathematically detailed derivation of the laws is driven by the
requirment that the models physicists develop to describe objective
reality cannot depend on the standpoint of the observer."
with the Enemy"
Giberson in Research
News & Opportunities in Science and Theology. Note
is a publication of the Templeton
Science Found God?" by
Silber in Tech Central
in Science and the
Faith by Gary DeBoer
Insulting review by William Lane Craig.
And my response.
Read review by Jennifer Birriel here.
for Academic Libraries. May 2001
This wide-ranging, sophisticated book
physics and important philosophical issues closely related to physics.
The dust cover blurb does a poor job of describing the book; the best
is found on page 339: "The Basic thesis of this book is that physics
painted for us a simple picture of material reality that is well within
our general understanding." In roughly 400 pages, Stenger (Univ. of
a professional physicist with an interest in philosophy, discusses
topics of physics such as relativity, quantum mechanics, and the
one-way nature of time, as well as philosophical stances from Platonism
to postmodernism. The book goes considerably beyond popularization,
burdening the reader with technical detail. Nevertheless, it would take
a very gifted lay reader to absorb everything in this book in one
The author makes his own views known on some famously difficult issues,
but the reader does not need to agree with him to follow the text.
for undergraduate and graduate students, professional scientists and
and lay readers with an active interest in philosophy or physics. - M.C
Ogilvie, Washington University.
New Books -
Quantum physics has many extraordinary
One of the most extraordinary is the events at the atomic and subatomic
level seem to depend on the future as well as the past. Is time really
reversible? Physicist Victor Stenger say yes, arguing that at its
level reality is literally timeless. And, with this reality, it is
that many universes exist with different structures and laws from our
With the holiday rush upon us, it's
to think that time matters a great deal. But that may be a mistake,
physicist Victor Stenger as he dives into the quantum realm - the tiny
spaces where part of atoms appear in more than one place
blink in and out of existence, and generally defy understanding.
Rather than meaning nothing or indicating
that the universe continuously branches off into new realities, as some
physicists argue, the author suggests that quantum events show time
itself freely at the subatomic level.
Although aimed at the general reader,
Reality is not the easiest read on the bookshelf. The payoff comes
for the reader with a glimpse into the debate over the nature of
In clear, simple prose, physicist Stenger
bravely explores quantum theory's most complex and challenging
- that reality is fundamentally timeless and that time itself may be
! ! ! ! ! Must Read. Originality, content,
Because at the level of quantum phenomena
time may be reversible, there could be multiple universes arrayed
than our Universe and operating upon different scientific principles.
If you complained to Stenger (physics and
astronomy, U. of Hawaii) that you had not time, he would shrug and say
nothing does. He explains to educated lay readers that time is
and that the underlying reality of all phenomena may have no beginning
and no end. He argues that based on established principles of
and symmetry, at its deepest level reality is literally timeless, and
many universes may exist with different structure and laws from this
takes some getting used
, March 4, 2003
Reviewer: Lester M. Stacey (see more about me) from Las Vegas,
I first read this book two years ago and I found the ideas presented
to be very unsettling. I needed to set the book aside and think about
ordinary aspects of the world for a while. The fact is, however, that
Stenger describes reality and there's no getting away from reality. Now
my investigations lead me back to the implications of time symmetry.
happily, I have Dr. Stenger's book on hand to turn to again. This time,
unafraid, I am finding the experience extremely satisfying.
I agree with the detailed reviews written below. I would also like
add an important bit of information about trust. Anyone who has
this field becomes familiar with the corruption that has taken place.
is used as propaganda to support dogmatic conclusions. Speculation is
easily mutated into whatever covert form of mysticism the author
harbors and seeks to spread. Therefore, it is necessary to exert
effort to find a guide into the stranger regions of reality who can be
trusted to NOT MISLEAD. Victor Stenger is someone who can be trusted.
This makes all the difference in the world.
I've had the pleasure of receiving several kind personal responses
questions I posed to Dr. Stenger by way of his friendly and helpful
I was delighted to find that he is genuinely interested in furthering
understanding and improving the human condition. He is without any
agenda. What you see is what you get. He is interested in exposing
instead of practicing it. He sincerely cares about individuals who
with the almost insurmountable challenge of trying to understand what's
really going on here in the world. He provides a sense of much-needed
in an effort that often seems to threaten one's sanity.
And given the fact that what's really going on here takes some time
for a person to adapt to, please take your time and let the ideas
in gradually. Whether we like it or not, the strangeness of the world
going to go away. In fact, things become increasingly more interesting
the more closely they are examined. And this is why having a trusty
who's familiar with the topography is so important.
I am please to see that Dr. Stenger has an important new book coming
out that will further help those of us who need technological expertise
in exposing the mischief of the dogmatists. "Has Science Found God?"
to provide further comfort and support for those of us who just want to
approach the truth unadulterated. If truth is defined as "good" (no
how uncomfortable it makes us), then Dr. Stenger is firmly on the side
of the good. He's a great and welcome ally.
Serious science for dedicated enthusiasts, March 24, 2002.
Reviewer: chrisindenver from Aurora, CO United States
First of all, I'd like to start with a caveat. I gave this book 5
but that assumes the reader has a college education or a very technical
background. For someone not used to college-level writing, I would
avoiding this book. Having said that, I thought this book was amazing.
My head is still spinning from all the detailed, technical information
about quantum physics and relativity. Without getting bogged down in
actual mathematics, this book tells you just about everything you might
want to know about modern physics.
Some of the best and most original writing is actually at the end,
Stenger presents his ideas on symmetry and how it relates to cosmology
and the history of the universe. However, everything else in the book
up to this, and there are plenty of references to previous chapters.
Stenger's concluding paradigm is simple, logical, and aesthetic, and
definitely meets his own criterion of parsimony, or Occam's razor.
is a common theme in this and Stenger's other books, and he does a
job of using it to critique and analyze the various theories and
interpretations of modern physics.
Again, I would recommend this book to anyone comfortable with
reading, but I would also love to see Stenger's concluding ideas
summarized in another, less technical and more accessible format, for a
Would have five
he stuck to one thesis objective..., November 8, 2001 Reviewer:
more about me) from an evolving state of enlightenment I approve of
the non-mathematical descriptions this book offers the intended
It elucidates some important quantitative principles in a
language (e.g. the Principle of Least Action; the Lagrangian and
the 'Wave-Particle Duality' and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle;
vectors, phase, superposition, Gauge Invariance, Relativity symmetry,
and Lorentz transformations). I have enjoyed using this book as part of
a bridge to step across the yawning gulf between popular
and rigorously quantitative textbooks on Quantum theory (Quantum
& Quantum Field Theory). I especially liked Chapter 7 'Taming
where the Feynman Wheeler Interaction Theory and Feynman's QED are
presented for intellectual consumption. He seems especially aligned
Feynman's views of the particle nature of matter.
The author has carefully placed key words in bold type throughout
book that indicate their inclusion in a generous glossary of terms near
the end of the book. I have grown to appreciate this as is a valuable
in several books at this reading level. The chapters are broken into
digestible size with a fair amount of diagrams to illustrate certain
visually. Apparently a part of his agenda in this book, as well as in
of his other publications, is to try to correct (control) superstitious
creationist (wrong) thinking concerning the origin of our Universe and
equally incorrect mystical interpretations of reality. Vic flat out
that the Universe '...had no beginning and was not created.' For
Dr. Stenger seems compelled to narrowly target the logic of theistic
such as Polkinghorne and Ross. In addition, he seems to be inclined to
marginalize the fact that particles are a manifestation of force field
excitations/waves in a quantum field description of the phenomena in
Universe. After carefully reading his book (with sincere & open
interest) I have come to strongly suspect that he fears an association
of 'spooky action at a distance' (i.e. fields & waves) with a an
omnipresent, omniscient, and eternal (timeless) Supreme Being who, God
forbid, might have created everything (including the laws of physics).
He also goes after the philosophical interpretation of QM that
that reality is mystically created or changed by observation &
One has to wonder if maybe the author might have had some kind of
religious disenchantment in his earlier travels through life that
motivates him to prove that God doesn't exist. I would like to point
that I once had a bout of serious religious disillusionment from which
I recovered to a simple & humble attitude and outlook towards a
ontology of reality that is in harmony with, indeed even embraces,
reality as we understand it from a scientific perspective. It's
to do this and not risk your intelligence, reasonability, sanity, and
towards reality. I may be projecting something that isn't really there
with this guy so I apologize if that's the case. Honestly I have to
that I don't know (for sure) what motivates this man as I cannot read
mind. I can, however, surmise from what he has written that he finds
possibility of a spiritual realm untenable. Well, live & let live
It must be noted that one of his major points in this book is we
in a (bi-directional) time symmetric Universe that may be one of many
the 'Multiverse'. This is most interesting and would make a book in
without all the other anti-superstitious stuff. I believe that he could
have left his arguments against the creative design of the Universe in
(a revised version of?) his other book 'The Unconscious Quantum' to
this particular book more focused towards the subjects of the
'Symmetry, Simplicity, and Multiple Universes'. Ironically, his
for a timeless reality reinforce my view of an eternal Spirit whom I
is responsible for, and continues to sustain, more than we can ever
in defining the reality he has created. I choose to call this Spirit
Well now you know my perspective. I like to try to keep an open mind.
I'm wrong, and I very well might be, then I haven't lost anything, just
a little mental time in a timeless universe.
All this said I hope you don't get the wrong impression of my
towards what Mr. Stenger has done with this great book. He has
us to be freethinking skeptics and to recognize the hocus-pocus
fluff that is frequently published in the mystical/speculative
concerning the nature of reality at the quantum level. I loved the book
because the majority of it lent itself as a great reference to
Quantum Mechanics. His writing is succinct (no fluff), objective and
I recommend "Timeless Reality" to anyone (theistic or otherwise)
in exploring the deeply mysterious and equally edifying adventure of
Reality. I hope this comes out in paperback so that more can benefit
it as I have. My sincere appreciation goes out to this author. Thanks
Herbert Gintis, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, here
Times Literary Supplement, London 27
From Publishers Weekly
A particle physicist at the University of Hawaii, Stenger sets forth a
purely materialist, reductionist view of the universe. The
transcendent--gods, spirits, religious or mystical experiences--is
delusory, in his reckoning. He further maintains that paranormal
phenomena such as precognition or mind-over-matter are due to fraud,
hallucination, error or a will to believe. Whether he is discussing
ESP, poltergeists, UFOs, or out-of-body or near-death experiences, he
ignores, misrepresents or skims over evidence that would contradict his
thesis, while maintaining an aura of detached objectivity. Claiming
that religious or supernatural beliefs may be programmed into our DNA
because they once had survival value, Stenger rejects the holism of New
Age Thinkers and physicists, disputing their claim that instantaneous
connections link events across space and time.
Copyright 1990 Reed Business Information, Inc.
From Library Journal
Stenger is an elementary particle physicist, an atheist, a skeptic, and
an ardent defender of the scientific method. He uses the principle of
Occam's razor (the simplest explanation is the best) and the test of
the predictive value of a model to show how little evidence there is
for paranormal claims, including religious beliefs, as well as ESP,
astrology, and spirit channeling. Some of Stenger's ideas are
controversial even among scientists, and he tends to explain all human
qualities by just saying they are an evolutionary advantage. However,
this book provides an interesting overview of both skeptical and
credulous physics and much material for discussion. A good purchase for
undergraduate science collections.
- Amy Brunvand, Fort Lewis Coll., Durango, Col.
Copyright 1990 Reed Business Information, Inc.
From Book News, Inc.
Stenger (physics, U. of Hawaii) critically examines theories of a
transcendent reality in terms of what is currently known about matter
at its most fundamental level. He offers a convincing rebuttal to those
who attempt to link physics to mystical truths. Annotation copyright
Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.
31 of 39 people found the following review helpful:
Fantastic! , October 19, 1998
Reviewer: A reader
This book makes a compelling case for the idea that the universe
didn't come about through the handywork of some magical space
pixie. The naysayers will throw about their arguments from
incredulity while kicking & screaming but, in the end, even
they (if anything like a rational mind still inhabits their
bodies) will be forced to admit that this concept deserves
serious consideration. Once, it was considered common sense that
the sun moved around the Earth. "Look up at the sky and see it
for yourself!", they would exclaim. But the thinking mind will
take the known facts and discard the hypothesises that don't have
compelling evidence to support them in favor of the ones that do.
Thus far, only a superstitious mind would put the intelligent
design idea into the latter category.